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CHAPTER III: Slaves in the Sunnite Religion


CHAPTER III: Slaves in the Sunnite Religion:

Slaves at the Early Beginnings of the Sunnite Legislation:

Anas Ibn Malik:



1- It is a laughter-inducing fact that the vast majority of orally narrated so-called hadiths are attributed to those who were very young children when Prophet Muhammad died, as they lived long after his decease to fabricate and spread whatever they liked, claiming that they heard such hadiths from Muhammad. What is more funny and silly is that the great number of hadiths attributed to such children makes one imagines that as if Muhammad in his last years kept talking separately to each child for several months, among such children who narrated their fabrications as they grew up were Ibn Abbas and, the most dangerous and worst of them all, Anas Ibn Malik (whom no one dared to contradict and refute until now except us, Dr. A. S. Mansour). 

2- Let us give below a brief overview on Anas Ibn Malik, taken from his biography written in the book titled "Al-Tabakat Al-Kobra" authored by Ibn Saad, an Arab historian.


Firstly: Anas Ibn Malik:


1- Historians are sure that he died in 93 A.H., shortly before he could have reached the age of 100 years. This means that if it is true that Prophet Muhammad died in 11 A.H., Anas Ibn Malik as a child was 11 or 12 years old at the time when Muhammad died. Is it possible that a 12-year-old child had been a servant to Muhammad for years?! Was that necessary? Muhammad was surely served by his wives and his tribesmen of the Hashemites. Hence, Anas Ibn Malik lied when he said he served Muhammad. In fact, Anas Ibn Malik made use of his long life to gain fame and huge amounts of money for 80 years after Muhammad's death and 30 years after the death of Abou Hurayrah in 59 A.H. (who was one of the most renowned narrators/fabricators of hadiths, loyal to the Umayyad Dynasty). Abou Hurayrah was one of the chief allies of the Umayyads who would spread his fabrications, falsehoods, and lies about Muhammad in return for money generously bestowed on him by the Umayyads to serve their political propaganda, and he remained faithful to that dynasty until his death in Basra, Iraq, which was ruled at the time by his close friend, Al-Hajaj, the grand vizier loyal to Umayyads who fought their battles and won their struggles for them, who died in his turn in 95 A.H. Once Abou Hurayrah died, Anas Ibn Malik took his place for the Umayyads, and he enjoyed protection of Al-Hajaj for 18 years from 75 A.H. to 93 A.H. when Anas Ibn Malik died.

2- During his long stay in Iraq, Anas Ibn Malik was visited by throngs of people to hear what he says about Muhammad. He was sort of an icon or a popular star for those thirsty to hear anything related to Muhammad. Anas Ibn Malik sought fame and wealth; he did not hesitate to fabricate narratives, making use of the fact that the so-called companions of the prophet died and thus no one would dare to contradict, correct, or refute him at all. Those how were eager to hear and spread his fabrications did not stop for a moment to think that more than 70 years separate Anas Ibn Malik in Iraq and Muhammad's Yathreb and that memories of old people sometimes tend to forget and imagine things that did not possibly occur. "…and some of you will be returned to the vilest age, so that he may not know, after having known…" (22:5). Hence, such throngs were too eager and apt to believe whatever Anas Ibn Malik would recount, and he used his fame and stature to invest his narratives and make tons of money. Of course, such endeavors for wealth entailed that Anas Ibn Malik must flatter, obey, and please Umayyad rulers and despots while overlooking and justifying their countless grave injustices.

3- The name of Anas Ibn Malik was never mentioned in any historical accounts about successive wars and conquests committed once Muhammad died until Anas Ibn Malik died in Iraq. Hence, Anas Ibn Malik never participated in any battle for or against anything or anyone. Understandably, Ibn Saad the historian never mentions about Anas Ibn Malik except what he used to tell about himself: being servant to Muhammad and later on certain episodes of his life in Iraq, where Anas Ibn Malik lived in luxury while Iraqis suffered bloodbaths and strife. He even heard about the violent military attacks on Yathreb (his birthplace city) and Mecca to quell rebels and never rebuked the Umayyads for it; instead, he became very close with Al-Hajaj who committed massacres in Iraq and Yathreb many times. Strangely, disciples of Anas Ibn Malik who narrated, wrote, and spread his fabrications and falsehoods were sometimes incarcerated and killed by Al-Hajaj and his cronies, and Anas Ibn Malik never cared for them at all!      

4- Ibn Saad asserts that Anas Ibn Malik used to love money very much, more than the rest of the so-called companions of Muhammad. Growing wealthy and filthily rich, Anas Ibn Malik defended himself against possible criticism that might arise due to the fact that such money he received from the unjust Umayyads and their ill-gotten money, he fabricated a hadith that Muhammad prayed for him to be granted by God pardon of sins, long life, and huge wealth! Anas Ibn Malik had to fabricate other hadiths to defend himself against other accusation: he fabricated a hadith about men are not to wear silk-fabric clothes, but when he wore rich embroidered silk garments in Iraq, granted to him by Umayyad caliphs, he had to confess he did that to show God's bounty to him via the Umayyads! The palace where Anas Ibn Malik lived and died in Basra, Iraq, was so spacious and grand indeed, and it was very well known to people at the time, and the same goes for his orchards, farms, and lands; he had to fabricate hadiths about Muhammad praying to God to grant Anas Ibn Malik the answer to all his prayers! He claimed that  when rain was scarce at one time, he prayed for rain, and clouds rained only in his lands, farms, and orchards, leaving lands of others suffer scarcity of water! Such utter nonsense fabricated by him show him to be selfish being, even when telling falsehoods and lies about himself! Let alone lies and fabrications he weaved and yarned about Muhammad! He was an inveterate liar and fabricator!  


Secondly: hadiths about enslavement authored and fabricated by Anas Ibn Malik:


1- Naturally, Anas Ibn Malik would fabricate hadiths to support, justify, and condone crimes, injustices, and despotism of the Umayyad dynasty, and their crimes of course included enslavement. The Umayyads were known for their enslaving pretty women from Asia, North Africa, and Europe by all possible means. Anas Ibn Malik legalized such crime by fabricating a narrative about Muhammad, telling that he used to enslave women, and he even got married to one of these women, called Safiyya. Of course, the blind, mindless Sunnite cattle believe such falsehoods until this very day!

2- There are many conflicting and contradictory narratives authored by Anas Ibn Malik about enslavement; we will quote some of them below. (… Hadith No. 12553: a series of narrators recounted that some men described and talked about the reputed beauty of Safiyya, one of the women enslaved after a battle against the infidels, and they praised her beauty to the Prophet who sent money to her enslaver to buy her at once, and she was made ready to be his bride that very night; the mother of Anas Ibn Malik bathed and prepared the pretty body of the bride. Both bride and bridegroom stayed for a long time in their tent, making love, and later on, everybody praised the beauty of the new bride, as the Prophet ordered some food to be brought to him, and some men brought dates, corn, ghee, and bread and water. The bride and bridegroom ate together before others and withdrew to their tent once more for a longer period. Other women and female slaves praised the beauty of the pride, as she sat behind the bridegroom on horseback. Men were so spellbound by her beauty that the Prophet had to cover her…). This false narrative shows Muhammad as taking an enslaved woman from her enslaver who for sure made love to her and he married her without waiting for the three-month waiting period ordained by God in the Quran! This is utter nonsense! (… Hadith No. 12472: a series of narrators recounted that  the Jewish tribe of Khaybar was defeated in the battle against the Prophet, and a Jewess named Safiyya was enslaved by a man who took her as his female slave/concubine, but her reputed beauty made the Prophet buy her from her enslaver and freed her, and married her in one day, making her being set free as her dowry …). (… Hadith No. 11973: a series of narrators recounted that women of the Khaybar tribe were enslaved, and Safiyya, the prettiest of them all was enjoyed in bed by her captor, but the Prophet bought her from him, and when her beauty stunned men and women as she took her seat behind the Prophet on his camel, he covered her entirely, and he enjoyed this new wife in bed in his tent in the very same day he bought her. Some women said that this Jewess had jinxed the camel of the Prophet as it was about to fall …). (… Hadith No. 12479: a series of narrators recounted that when the camel carrying the Prophet and his new bride, the freed female slave Safiyya, was about to fall, people said that this Jewess had jinxed the camel of the Prophet. Abou Talha advised the Prophet to cover his new bride with a long swathe of cloth, and this was done at once. And the camel reached Yathreb in safety …). By the way, Abou Talha mentioned in this false hadith narrative/account was the step-father of Anas Ibn Malik. Long live in good health the mother of Anas Ibn Malik!



1- Othman Ali: I thank Dr. Mansour for allowing us this great opportunity to learn from tragic incidents of history that expose the early Muhammadans and their heinous crimes during the Arab conquests that prove them as enemies of the Quran. My question to Dr. Mansour, as our great historian of course, is as follows: did oral narrators and fabricators of hadiths used to tell others that their discourse was part of Islam or not?! Did they used their lies to gain money and higher social positions and rank?! If so, when their lies were forced upon Islam as part of it?! thank you in advance! 

2- Dr. A. S. Mansour: We thank Othman Ali for his important question. We assert here that falsehoods, fabrications, and lies began as oral traditions never written during the Umayyad period, and such oral narratives have been the foundation of the earthly, man-made creeds that have replaced Islam (i.e., the Quran alone), and such lies were asserted by the crime of Arab conquests that made the so-called companions as enemies of God and the Quran by their crimes of looting, aggression, rape, and invasions. Such criminals were deified after their death in the Sunnite creed, as we read in books of history and cite Quranic verses as evidence. The problem is that most Muhammadans do not read: they are like a herd of cattle. This is not verbal abuse; this description fits them so as to shock them and to alert them to facts and tenets of true Islam in the Quran.   

3- Ben Levante: I think there are some spelling errors, especially about the age of Malik, but this does not affect the fact that his narratives/fabrications are utter nonsense that he ascribed to Prophet Muhammad decades after his death! Such naïve Arab societies in Arabia at the time believed any oral narratives of any type! How foolish! I still want an answer to my question about 70:29-30, as for polygamy, number of women used to exceed that of men who would die in battles, but polygamy deserves to be tackled in a separate book, I think.

4- Fathy Ahmed Madi: I thank and greet our dear Dr. Mansour for accepting me as a novice in the Quranism great website, hoping we join all our fellow Quranists in the caravan of enlightenment to serve God and His true religion, the Quran, and to refute falsehoods of the so-called hadiths.

5- Dr. A. S. Mansour: We thank Fathy Ahmed Madi and Ben Levante, and spelling errors and mistakes have been corrected.


Enslavement within Falsehoods of the Biography Written by Ibn Ishaq



1- If Ibn Ishaq were to live in our modern times, certainly he would have been one of the greatest fiction writers. He lived during the caliphate of Abou Jaffer Al-Mansour, the Abbasid caliph. Ibn Ishaq was favored by this Abbasid caliph; he made use of the talent of Ibn Ishaq to fabricate the fiction that came later on to be called ''biography of Muhammad''. Upon this caliph's orders, Ibn Ishaq in his book has drawn a portrait of Muhammad that reflects and sketches the character of Abou Jaffer Al-Mansour, thus contradicting the real depiction of Muhammad's character found in the Quran alone. The real Muhammad was sent as a mercy to the humankind, as we read in the Quran, and NOT to raid, rob, rape, kill, murder, conquer, confiscate, occupy, and enslave. In a coming book, we will analyze and criticize the biography authored by Ibn Ishaq and rewritten by Ibn Hisham, and we will focus on exposing and refuting such falsehoods ascribed forcibly to Muhammad, within both levels of the texts and narrators.      

2- Ibn Ishaq authored his fictional biography of Muhammad in a mind-captivating style of narration that appealed to people at his time, and incorporated poems and verses scattered all over his text, in order to appeal to the Abbasid era readers and to appeal to the Abbasid caliph and his cronies and retinue.

3- Abou Jaffer Al-Mansour was not only the real founder of the Abbasid caliphate, but also was a pioneer in propaganda for it in its earlier stage of secret calling; hence, he authored hundreds of fabricated hadiths and stories that urge the assumed right of the sons of Abbas, one of the paternal uncles of Prophet Muhammad, to rule instead of the Umayyad dynasty. Abbasids stole secrets and mottoes of clandestine organizations at the time calling for Shiite rule under one of the descendants of Ali Ibn Abou Talib, the son of one of the paternal uncles of Prophet Muhammad, and shortly before the collapse of the Umayyad caliphate, the Hashemites gathered in a secret meeting to swear fealty to one of the descendants of Ali Ibn Abou Talib to urge his ascendency to be a caliph. Simultaneously and secretly, the Abbasids who attended such meeting so as to cover their ulterior motives led another secret movement in Khorasan (in Persia) to call for the coming Abbasid caliphate, and such calls were led by a powerful military leader called Abou Muslim Al-Khorasany, who managed to put an end to the Umayyad caliphate along with the Abbasid leaders. Hence, the Shiite members of the Hashemites who favored the descendant of Ali to become caliph felt betrayed by the Abbasids and the Hashemites declared propaganda war on the Abbasids, with Yathreb as center of that struggle. Most of dwellers of Yathreb favored the descendant of Ali, where Malik Ibn Anas and Ibn Ishaq were rivals in determining who was the favored and popular scholar and historian and in tarnishing and vilifying each other. Ibn Ishaq favored and backed the Abbasids from day one, whereas Malik Ibn Anas supported and backed the Shiites of Yathreb. When the descendant of Ali was defeated in battle and killed, Ibn Ishaq moved to Baghdad, the new caliphate capital, to get closer to the caliph Abou Jaffer Al-Mansour.    

4- The caliph Abou Jaffer Al-Mansour, with his expertise in propaganda and fabricating hadiths, feared that one of the foes of the Abbasids (like Malik Ibn Anas who lived in Yathreb) might write an anti-Abbasids biography of Prophet Muhammad, especially that Yathreb was the homeland of oral traditions accumulated and increased by fabrications about life-story of Muhammad. If a foe to the Abbasids would write such biography, he would expose Abbas, paternal uncle of Muhammad, who fought against early Muslims in the battle of Badr and was once captured as POWs and mostly remained in Mecca allying himself to Abou Sufyan who fought early Muslims most of his life, until Abbas and Abou Sufyan apparently converted to Islam shortly before Muhammad's death. The Abbasid caliph Abou Jaffer Al-Mansour realized that Ibn Ishaq was the right person at the right time and location, within favored political circumstance to write a pro-Abbasid biography of Muhammad. Of course, this biography authored by Ibn Ishaq is totally false; he has claimed in it that he heard oral narratives and accounts from a series of narrators, and most of his stories are ascribed to a historical figure named as Ibn Shehab Al-Zohary. We have proved in earlier research that Ibn Shehab Al-Zohary died long before narrators who ascribe to him their falsehoods and fabrications were born.    

5- We give below an overview of some of the fabricated stories authored by Ibn Ishaq related to the topic of enslavement, and such stories were deemed at the time as ''irrefutable faith tenets necessarily known''!



  Ibn Ishaq fabricated a narrative about a battle called Bani Al-Mustaliq, and ascribed his false accounts related to it to Aisha, one of the wives of Muhammad. Such fabrications were repeated later by Al-Bokhary. We have refuted such narratives earlier through historical research in our book titled "The Quran Is Enough". Let us below quote some of his false narratives fabricated about the topic of enslavement.

1- Ibn Ishaq has fabricated the following story from the figment of his imagination: (… The Prophet after a two-month stay in Yathreb decided to attack the Jewish tribe near Yathreb, named Khozaa, and the battle of Bani Al-Mustaliq began … Fighting was so fierce and the tribesmen were defeated and many of them were killed during battle, and the Prophet enslaved all of their women and children among spoils and riches looted at the time …). This is utter nonsense; spoils in the Quran NEVER include enslaving persons; see 59:6. In our opinion, spoils in that verse refers to money obtained by the rulers peacefully, by trade and the like activities, without war.

2- Ibn Ishaq claims falsely that one of Muhammad's wives, Juayriya, was a former slave among the enslaved women of the same above-mentioned fictional battle, and when enslaved women were distributed among fighters, Juayriya the prettiest of all, was bought by Muhammad from its owner after she asked his help to be freed, and she was freed and got married to Muhammad. This nonsensical story was authored by Ibn Ishaq to endorse the crime of enslavement in the Sunnite religion propagated by the Abbasids under the name of Islam. 

3- Following the footsteps of Ibn Ishaq, Ibn Hisham, another narrator and fabricator, authored another similar story, where the father of Juayriya came to ransom his enslaved daughter, and on his way to Yathreb, he stole two camels owned by Muslims and hid the in a certain desert valley. When he met the Prophet and proposed to ransom his daughter to set her free, the Prophet told him about the two camels and that he must return them. The man was astounded and converted to Islam and returned the two camels, and the prophet paid the dowry for his new bride, 400 dirhams. This fictional account contradicts the Quran that asserts that Muhammad never knew the unknown and he could not predict anything.  


Secondly: within the battle of Khaybar:


1- Ibn Ishaq writes the following fictional story about the battle of Khaybar: (… One of the trusty narrators who talked to me heard from Anas Ibn Malik that the Prophet used to stop fighting in times of prayers and never attacked people at night …). It is strange here that Ibn Ishaq would copy words of an anonymous narrator and calling him as 'trusty'; this shows that the story is made up, while Anas Ibn Malik did just the same while giving big roles in his narratives to his mother and his step-father Abou Talha: (… The Prophet rode his horse and was followed by horsemen like Abou Talha, who was so close to the Prophet …). How Anas Ibn Malik was an inveterate liar! The false story goes on as follows: (…  After achieving victory in the battle of Khaybar, Safiyya was among the enslaved women who was a married pretty woman, but the Prophet took her from her enslaver and give him instead to concubines among the other enslaved women … The Prophet got married to her without waiting for the required three-month waiting period …). May God curse the liars Anas Ibn Malik and Ibn Ishaq!

2- Falsehoods of Ibn Ishaq are copies in many later books like that of Al-Bokhary, and among his lies is the one about prohibiting the eating of donkeys' flesh, as thus the anonymous narrator urged his followers to throw away cauldrons that were cooking pieces of donkeys' flesh. We have written before about prohibited foods are mentioned only and exclusively in the Quran; see 2:173, 5:3, 5:87-88, 6:145, 16:114-117, and 10:59-60, and no one is to add to them at all, as such addition is a violation against God's legislation.

3- Another lie fashioned by Ibn Ishaq is about Safiyya who saw a dream that the moon descended and sat on her lap, and when she told her first Jewish husband about it, he slapped her on the face, accusing her of lusting over Muhammad who ruled over Yathreb! Another false story is about the Prophet torturing her ex-husband to extort confessions from him about a hidden treasure whose location was known only to him, and once confessed, the Prophet ordered his death by the sword! Such lies contradict the Quran that asserts that Muhammad was sent as a mercy to the humankind, NOT to terrorize, torture, and murder people!

4- Another funny and silly story revolves around a Jewess giving a poisoned cooked sheep, but the Prophet knew at once about the plot to assassinate him once he took one bite to throw it at once and put the plotters to death. Strangely, Ibn Ishaq asserts in his fabricated accounts that the Prophet died years later as a result of that poisoned food! This is against science: can a poisoned live for years before his death?! 

5- Ibn Ishaq fashioned another lie to elevate the stature of Abbas, the great grandfather of the Abbasid dynasty/caliphate, asserting that he was a Muslim in Mecca long before it was defeated by Yathreb. He claimed that Abbas felt happy in mecca when the Prophet fought in Khaybar the Jews located there, though this location was near Mecca and this should be posing a threat to the Meccans, and Abbas announced his conversion to Islam that was held secret for a long time! He urged the Meccans to convert to Islam to protect their money and possessions as the Prophet was sure to enter Mecca with his army! Of course, this is utter nonsense to any proper historian.  


Thirdly: more lies and falsehoods about enslavement:


1- The cursed Ibn Ishaq asserts in his fabricated stories that the Prophet used to count and gather all battle confiscated spoils, animals, and enslaved women, who were so many, to distribute among his men and to keep a lot for himself!

2- Ibn Ishaq made up a story about the tribe of Hawazen whose men converted to Islam after being defeated, and the tribesmen requested their enslaved women be freed, and the people of Yathreb agreed to their request, and the Prophet had asked his close companions to return the enslaved women he distributed among them days earlier for their sexual use! 

3- Ibn Ishaq recounts this funny story about Abdullah Ibn Omar Ibn Al-Khattab: (… A series of narrators told me that Abdullah Ibn Omar Ibn Al-Khattab prayed at the Sacred Kaaba Mosque while his folks were preparing his new enslaved woman for his bed for tonight, but as men of the tribe of Hawazen reclaimed their women, all Yathreb dwellers obeyed the Prophet by freeing and returned all enslaved women, and Abdullah Ibn Omar Ibn Al-Khattab  was sad that he could not get the chance to enjoy his female slave before being set free ! …).

4- Ibn Ishaq recounts a funny, strange story about one companion whose share of enslaved women was one old female of less physical beauty and he refused to return her to her folks in Hawazen unless he was compensated generously, more than ransoms of other freed female slaves, because he had no chance to enjoy her sexually as other companions did, because she was ugly!

5- Ibn Ishaq has written another vile story about the so-called companions of the Prophet who chased the Prophet as they were angry with their share of enslaved women, who were not pretty enough, until he had to hide from the furious lot inside a tree! They had to snatch his outer garment in anger, and he had to defend himself against being greedy or stingy!


Lastly: the human cattle of the Muhammadans still believe that such distorted biography of falsehoods fabricated by Ibn Ishaq as part of history of Prophet Muhammad and Islam! What fools!



1- Fathy Ahmed Madi: I feel bound to say that of course, historical rifts and political conflicts led to more disputes over loots and soon enough over religion itself. I thank Dr. Mansour for showing us the historical truth and how the Muslims' history has been forged for centuries. Whenever I discuss such topics with my friend and neighbors, their Salafist thought would stop their listening attentively to me, which made me feel sad; but once I read Quranist articles by Dr. Mansour, I no longer feel the odd one out or feel like a loner. I felt that my faith and ideas are true and just. History of caliphs is the one responsible for distorting meanings of the Quran for centuries until now. Fabricators of hadiths and narratives about Prophet Muhammad distorted real history of early Muslims: known only within the Quran alone. Corrupt imams justified grave injustices in their fiqh books to obsequiously gratify sultans and caliphs. Repeated lies and falsehoods have been believed eventually; see 43:22.   

2- Marwa Ahmed Mustafa: This is an excellent article, as usually typical of our dear Dr. Mansour, may God protect and help him in his time and endeavor to write to us useful articles and books, of both history and religion, that enlighten our minds.

3- Saeed Ali: Indeed, the religion of the Sunnite Muhammadans consists mainly of the book of lies and fabrications by Ibn Ishaq. I thank Dr. Mansour for his enlightenment in all his iconoclastic writings that clear our heads from so many intellectual idols and golden calves that persist in Arab culture today. Arabs spend millions to spread such books of falsehoods all over universities and schools, especially the one by Ibn Ishaq! The Muhammadans take their religion from oral sermons and such corrupt books of lies! The Quran tells us to read it, not to listen to such falsehoods accumulated for centuries after Prophet Muhammad's death.  

4- Dr. A. S. Mansour: We thank all of our beloved Quranists for their useful comments, and we implore the Almighty to help us go on with our efforts on our website. We welcome dear Fathy Ahmed Madi to our website and we wait for more of his useful comments. May God bless and preserve our dear fellow Quranists Marwa Ahmed Mustafa and Saeed Ali.



Malik in his Book Does Not Consider Slaves as Human Beings!



1- Sharia legislations of the Sunnite religion has nothing to do with the Quran, as the Sunnite scholars endorsed and allowed injustices such as enslavement and selling and buying human beings. This is a long story to tell that will entail another coming book. As for the scope of this present book, we will give a brief overview of such endorsement of injustice as per the book authored by Malik. We hope our fellow Quranists will be exploring this theme further later on: how the Sunnite sharia differs 100% from the Quranic sharia in all aspects. The book authored by Malik is called Al-Mowata', and it was oral traditions that was written in 20 surviving versions by different authors who were disciples of Malik, and we will quote from the version of M. Ibn l-Hassan Al-Shaybany and the version of Yehya Ibn Yehya within two topics: divorce and withdrawal method.

2- It is obvious that legislations of man-made, fabricated, earthly religion of the Sunnites express whims and caprices spread dominantly in the period when the legislations were written by men who oppress women and control life aspects at the Middle Ages.  This is different from the divine sharia in the Quran where there is no room for whims, caprices, injustices. Among the 20 versions of the book Al-Mowata', the version of Al-Shaybany, who was a former disciple of Abou Hanifa, the famous jurist with a doctrine carrying his name, is the most famous one, but it differs great deal from another authorized version written by Ibn Yehya. Both versions are held in high esteem by Sunnite scholars past and present, but they differ a lot in series of narrators, commentaries, texts, and numbers of hadiths.     

3- The masculine regard of lusting over women as sex objects with no minds and no souls is a dominant stance in all Sunnite books of fiqh (i.e., jurisprudence) and theology. Thus, during the Arab conquests, fighters and soldiers would eagerly enslave as many pretty women as possible to enjoy them sexually by rape before they might die in a coming battle, and this led many Sunnite scholars to overlook the three-month waiting period before marrying or copulating with divorced women and widows to make sure they were not pregnant. Sunnite scholars urged a less waiting periods for enslaved women and female slaves in general, in comparison to free women. 

4- The debate around withdrawal method was rife in the first century A.H., before and during the Umayyad caliphate, as this method (a.k.a. in Latin: coitus interruptus) consisted of a man withdrawing his penis from the vagina of a woman before ejaculation to prevent her being impregnated.  Arab soldiers during Arab conquests desired the women captured within the conquered nations, but hated to have offspring by such women, as Arabs felt at the Umayyad era deep contempt for non-Arabs in general. Hence, the withdrawal method was a common practice at the time, and Arabs needed an endorsed doctrinal view favorable to it by scholars and theologians, so that Arab conquerors would enjoy these non-Arab women sexually without having the disgrace to have offspring by them! When the Abbasids took over and establish their caliphate, the withdrawal method was frowned upon as the Abbasid rulers relied on staunch allies in Persia, and men of non-Arab origin rose in high-rank positions at the time. Hence, some scholars and theologians opposed withdrawal method and some were in favor of it, and hot debates ensued.   

5- Another important aspect that was hushed at the time was the moral degeneration, dissipation, and lewdness of the profligate Arabs during the Umayyad era, which was the social norm practiced unabashedly in public and no longer hushed within the Abbasid era. An Arab used to enjoy sexually a large number of concubines and enslaved girls, and would often marry a lot of wives and divorce them any time pleased that him. Ibn Saad, the historian, express in his book his surprise at the number of wives and concubines owned by old Arab men, which exceed the limit of the sexual prowess of young men at the time, and each Arab man had a large number of offspring born to him by free wives and enslaved women as well, and the social problem arises about parentage, as most Arab men enjoy concubines for a shirt while to replace them when they got bored by other enslaved women, and the number of fatherless children increased at the time, as some fathers refused to acknowledge such children to give their names to them, thus posing another social problem, as we discern from narratives of the time authored by Malik.  

6- Typically, the illiterate Malik would dictate to his various disciples, inventing in the process the series of narrators, who were dead and could not contradict him, and ascribe the deeds and words falsely to Muhammad, and the Sunnite human cattle would believe such nonsense authored by Malik, until this very day. Let us quote below Malik in the versions written by Al-Shaybany and Ibn Yehya.


Firstly: the version of Ibn Yehya about the topic of the withdrawal method

 (… Hadith No. 1260: Yehya told from Malik who took the word from a series of narrators that one of the Prophet's companions, Abou Saeed Al-Khodary, was asked in a mosque about withdrawal method to preen impregnation, and he asserted that during battle of Bani Al-Mustaliq with the Prophet, fighters coveted sex with women, and enslaved women were great in number and beauty, and when fighters asked the Prophet if they are allowed to copulate with them without making them pregnant by spelling semen outside their vaginas, the Prophet allowed us to do this…).(… Hadith No. 1261: a series of narrators asserted that the companion Saad Ibn Abou Waqas used to withdraw his virile member from his women and concubines before spilling his semen to avoid impregnation …).(… Hadith No. 1262: a series of narrators asserted that the companion Abou Ayoub Al-Ansari used to spill his semen outside his women to avoid their becoming pregnant …). (…Hadith No. 1263: a series of narrators asserted that the companion Abdullah Ibn Omar Ibn Al-Khattab used not to withdraw his male member at all from inside of his women as he hated the practice very much deemed by him to be unnatural …). (… Hadith No. 1264: a series of narrators asserted to Malik that the companion Zeid was asked by a man from Yemen about spilling one's semen outside women's vagina in case of a man's desire not to have more children, and Zeid asserted that women are owned totally by men like agricultural fields, to be irrigated or to stop water from them as a farmer would see fit …). (… Hadith No. 1265: a series of narrators asserted to Malik that one of the companions of the Prophet asked Abdullah Ibn Abbas about withdrawal, and he ordered his female slave to be brought to ask her about such practice if done to her by former masters. When she affirmed that she witnessed the deed by them, Malik assured that withdrawal must be done only after prior permission of one's free wife who was not a former slave, whereas in case of female slaves, their permission is not required at all, as they are owned, bought, and sold by their male masters …).


Secondly: analysis:

 Hadith No. 1260 allows withdrawal to be applied at will, and we remind readers here that the battle of the Bani Al-Mustaliq is a historical hoax never occurred, but it was forged in historical accounts in order to justify the crimes of enslavement as if done before by Muhammad and to accuse one of the wives of Muhammad, Aisha, of adultery, as she was hated by Shiites; more details of this are found in our book titled "The Quran Is Enough". Hadith No. 1261 contradicts with another confirmed historical account that the companion Saad Ibn Abou Waqas had a big number of children from his women, wives and concubines, and this shows that he never applied the withdrawal method at all, or maybe it was not known to him at the time. Hadith No. 1262 asserts that the withdrawal method was applied by Abou Ayoub Al-Ansari, while Hadith No. 1263 asserts that the Ibn Omar hated the practice in general, and most of his large number of children were born from the wombs of enslaved non-Arab women, as per the historian Ibn Saad. Hadith No. 1264 makes Zeid and Ibn Abbas allowing withdrawal and Malik added the detail that free wives must give permission to their husbands first, while female slaves are not to be told beforehand as they do not count as human beings! They were to Malik merely bought and sold sex objects! We conclude from the above that contradicting and conflicting views about this topic show that the female slaves were treated as sub-human sexual tools without rights of any kind.


Thirdly: discussion of accounts of withdrawal method in the version of Al-Shaybany:


1- Al-Shaybany mentions the above hadiths written by Ibn Yehya and he added a comment he ascribes to Malik in Hadith No. 550 in this version: (… Thus, we allow withdrawal as a perfectly harmless practice as per the needs of a man and his wives, with their prior permissions, but as for female slaves, no man would be obliged to ask their opinions, as asserted by Abou Hanifa …). Of course, such lies are ascribed by Malik and Al-Shaybany here to the scholar Abou Hanifa, decades after his death!

2- Al-Shaybany writes this hadith never mentioned by Ibn Yehya: (… Hadith No. 551: Malik heard from a series of narrators including Ibn Shehab Al-Zohary ending in Omar Ibn Al-Khattab as a caliph urged his men to withdraw their members from the female slaves as fatherless children became too many in number in Yathreb, as female slaves were enjoyed and then sold or their masters would die in battle, and Omar feared that the number of fatherless children would increase and threaten the Yathreb population … it came to pass that at a certain point of time, Omar had a pregnant female slave in his house, where he copulated with her, but he doubted that her pregnancy was not by him, and he prayed to God to guide him to the truth and never to allow unclean progeny into his bloodline. And when she gave birth to a black baby, she had to admit that she conceived him from her previous master, a black shepherd, and Omar sent her back with her baby to that shepherd, declaring that this is the shepherd's son and not his. This shows that withdrawing one's virile member from vagina of female slaves is a good practice to avoid such problem …). Of course, this story is not true at all; Malik never met with Ibn Shehab Al-Zohary who died decades before Malik was a grown-up man, as we have proven before in one of our previous books. Hence, such false account was authored by Malik as a response to the moral degeneration and decadence spread in his era reflected in other historical accounts.

3- (… Hadith No. 552: Malik told us that he heard from a series of narrators that Omar Ibn Al-Khattab threatened people of Yathreb that if a female slave would come to him to complain about her offspring which were unacknowledged by their masters, he would force men to acknowledge the offspring, and he urged men in the city to stop producing children by applying withdrawal …)


What Ibn Yehya writes about Malik and his opinions of divorce:

1- (… Malik asserts that if a male slave divorces his wife who is a female slave, her waiting period is before re-marrying another man is two months, and three months in case his divorced wife is a free woman … a female slave to be sold can wait only for one-month period …). (…Hadith No. 1255: Ibn Yehya told us that Malik told him from a series of anonymous narrators that female slaves enjoyed by their masters out of wedlock can marry after one-month or two-month waiting period if necessary …). (… Hadith No. 1256: Ibn Yehya told us that Malik told him from a series of anonymous narrators that female slaves enjoyed by their masters without marriage is one month if their masters died …). (…Hadith No. 1257:  Malik asserts that female slaves enjoyed sexually but had no period blood to wait for three consecutive months before being enjoyed in bed by a new master who bought her…). (… If the master of a female slave died after enjoying her in bed, she is to wait for two-month waiting period of time before copulating with her new master/husband …). (… Hadith No. 1258: Ibn Yehya told us that Malik told him from a series of anonymous narrators that a female slave whose husband died must wait for two months and five nights before getting remarried …). (… Hadith No. 1259: Malik told us that Ibn Shehab Al-Zohary told him that a female slave divorced by her husband who was a male slave must wait for two months before remarriage to another man, and three months if her dead husband or her divorced husband was a free man, and if she was freed before marrying her dead husband, she is a free woman that have a waiting three-month period …)


Fourthly: analysis:

 Malik again ascribed his words to Ibn Shehab Al-Zohary whom he never met at all, and he depends on anonymous narrators. Another big mistake is in the phrasing of hadiths with conflicting details about the length of waiting period for female slaves and making male slaves divorce two times instead of three times like free men; such utter nonsensical notion contradict the Quran, as waiting period for all women is three consecutive months without differentiating between free women and female slaves, and there is no differentiation between free men or slaves as husbands in the Quran; see 2:228-230.


Fifthly: Al-Shaybany and Malik about the topic of divorce:

 (…Hadith No. 555: Malik told us from Ibn Shehab Al-Zohary  that he heard a number of narrators assert that a male slave divorced his free wife twice, and caliph Othman told the slave that they cannot remarry ever again …). (…Hadith No. 556: Caliph Othman prevented a free woman to return to her husband after two times of divorce because this former husband was a slave and not a free man …). (…Hadith No. 557: A male slave cannot remarry his wife after two times of separation and divorce, even if she is a female slave or a free woman …). (… Hadith No. 558: Abou Hanifa and other scholars held in high esteem by people asserted the view that waiting period of divorced female slave is three months and female slave widow for two months …).


 Al-Shaybany has authored whole hadiths never mentioned in the version of Ibn Yehya, and such hadiths are contradictory and some are ascribed to Abou Hanifa after his death, who belittled hadiths in general as source of legislations. It is funny that Al-Shaybany has made male slaves divorce two times instead of three times like free men and made the waiting period of female slaves less than that of free women (i.e., widows and divorced ones), as if their wombs were different as per their social status or rank! It is as if anatomy and minds of female and male slaves differ from that of free persons!   

Finally: Malik never viewed female and male slaves as human beings!



1- Ben Levante: The above section shows that it was recurrent in former times in the Middle Ages that a free woman would free and marry her bought male slaves as per 70:29-30 that include believers of both genders.

2- Ahmed Drami: Indeed, Dr. Mansour, men in the Middle Ages treated women (free ones and slaves) as if they were cattle for breeding and sex tools. A female slave must have the same waiting period of three months before getting married to another man, just like free divorced women, especially that no scientific advances of echography to make sure a woman is pregnant or not. I think ancient scholars and imams deliberately misunderstood 4:25 as belittling female slaves with status lower than free women; but in fact, it indicates bearing in mind abuse suffered by female slaves.    

3- Dr. A. S. Mansour: We thank Ahmed Drami and Ben Levante; we assert here that polygamy was prevalent at the time and many free men fornicated with tens of female slaves, as moral degeneration spread when many men were killed in battles. Thus, free women married their male slaves after freeing them; yet, some extremist fatwas insisted at the time that former male slaves had no right to divorce their free women/wives. Matters exacerbated as slavery grew more in the Abbasid era as lucrative business; female slaves would learn all arts (sexual, literary, musical, poetical, and otherwise) to please rich, insatiable masters. Some female slaves and concubines married caliphs and became mothers of caliphs. Most of the Abbasid caliphs in fact were born of female slaves.   

4- Fathy Ahmed Madi: I would like to add this comment: to allow caliphs and affluent ones to sexually use female slaves while disregarding religion, the corrupt imams allowed female slaves to uncover in public their upper bodies and not their lower bodies, especially to allow potential buyers to 'examine' the commodity! This utter nonsense was fabricated in the form of hadiths! It is  shame to declare such a notion as part of Islam! Shame on them!   

5- Dr. A. S. Mansour: We thank  and welcome Fathy Ahmed Madi, and we have made him a writer on our website; we are looking forward for useful articles penned by him to build on accumulated knowledge in thousands of articles published here, while adhering to the conditions stipulated by the website regarding writing on it. May God reward him.

6- Abou Ayoub Al-Kuwaiti: I think it is justice, equality, and charity regarding the lack of difference between a man marrying  freed female slave and his marrying a free woman in terms of inheritance, rights, dowry, etc. as per the Quranic verses 2:228-230 and 4:11-12. Likewise, there is no difference between a woman marrying freed male slave and her marrying a free man. Thank you, Dr. Mansour.

7- Fathy Ahmed Madi: This is a testimony from Dr. Mansour in which I take pride; thank you, dear Dr. Mansour, for your kind words and for making me a writer in your great website of Quranism. I vow to adhere to the conditions stipulated by the website regarding writing on it. I hope my writings posted here would be beneficial and in service of real Islam: the Quran alone. 



Contradictions in the Legislations Related to Enslaved Female Singers:



1- The crime of Arab conquests has been the root of all evils that included enslavement and slave-trading  as well as social strata of male and female slaves as a demographic phenomenon in the past that influenced social and political life within the affluent ones' palaces, rulers' palaces, taverns, brothels, and traders and markets of slaves.

2- This had led to many results as follows:

2/1: socially: there was a negative influence on free women, as female slaves and concubines exceeded them in beauty, culture, brains, etc. and thus they had drawn the attention of men more instead of making men focus on educating free women.

2/2: politically: many concubines/ female slaves ruled without being enthroned (e.g., Al-Khayzuran, Shaghab, and Qabeeha) and while being enthroned (e.g., Shagaret Al-Dor).

2/3: historically: it is strange that historical accounts of the Middle-Ages caliphates ignored hundreds of millions of free men and women, whereas famous male and female slaves were mentioned within hundreds of lines in history along with rulers, princes, governors, viziers, poets, literati, religious imams and scholars, etc. Thus, female slaves were the focus of authors of books of history. Besides, they were the focus books of authors of books of literature, from which we know what is not written in history books within social history of the Middle-Ages.  

2/4: legislatively: since legislation or sharia of earthly, man-made, fabricated religions of the Muhammadans have been based on whims and caprices, they differ a great deal from one scholar/imam or historian to another and from one era to another within all topics, especially the topics related to free women and female slaves. Intellectual wars of ideas created a large number of tomes, volumes, and booklets authored by a range of writers: from conservative scholars/imams to liberal non-mainstream writers. Sadly, all such groups vied in fabricating hadiths and in penning erroneous and faulty interpretations of the Quranic verses.    

3- This topic above entails lots of fundamental historical researches; we will give here general lines and points, hoping that serious researchers would follow our example and explore such field further. We give more details on that subject below.



1- The Hejaz region, especially the cities of Mecca and Yathreb, was the location of hot ongoing debates and political and military opposition against the Umayyads, whose capital was Damascus. From both cities, revolts and rebels would break out to protest the Umayyad  monopoly of rule as hereditary caliphate where a caliph inherit his father/brother the caliph, within system of oppression and tyranny. From Yathreb many revolts broke out, such as that of Al-Hussein, who was killed in Karbala, Iraq, along with many of his family members, and he was deified by Shiites like his father deified by him before: Ali Ibn Abou Talib. This revolt drove the Umayyads to send troops that destroyed Yathreb, killing thousands of its inhabitants and raping many women. Later on, another revolt broke out from Mecca, led by Abdullah Ibn Al-Zubayr, who declared himself as caliph. He was defeated and crucified to death by the Umayyads, whose troops desecrated Sacred Kaaba Mosque. To prevent dwellers of Mecca and Yathreb of ever revolting again,  and to avoid more disgraceful bloodshed of the Umayyads murdering their kinsmen in Hejaz and Qorayish, the Umayyads found an easy, peaceful, ideal solution to their problem; dwellers of both cities must enjoy a decadent life of carnal pleasures: sex, lots of money and food, lots of imported exotic various goods, and many more female slaves who sing, dance, play instruments, chant verses, recount stories, anecdotes, histories, and jokes, and have sexual adventures. Hence, nights of decadence in Mecca and Yathreb were filled with pleasures, poetry, and promiscuity. Hence artistic schools of singing, chanting and composing poems, and playing music vied and rivaled within nights of carnal delights in houses and festivals. Poets thrived and gained a lot of money at such times within the Umayyad era.    

2- Within the Abbasid era, the same occurred: Hejaz was the hub and center of the opposition movements led by the Shiite Alawites against the Sunnite Abbasids, their kinsmen and sons of their great paternal uncle, Abbas. In Iraq, there was a cultural, intellectual, racial, and geographical diversity that was reflected during the First Abbasid Era in the liberal religious school of thought based on personal opinions regarding the Quranic verses interpretation, led by an imam called Abou Hanifa, who had his views on fiqh (jurisprudence), theology, and philosophy. He never authored any books, but his disciples did and convey some of his principles and notions. In  Yathreb, however, emerged another rival conservative school of thought that banned personal opinions and it had to make up and fabricate thousands of hadiths, i.e., sayings, deeds, and acts ascribed falsely to Prophet Muhammad, 200 years after his death! Some fabricated hadiths/stories were ascribed to historical figures that used to live around Muhammad in Mecca and Yathreb, who died without knowing that anything (deeds or words) would be ascribed to them two centuries after their deaths! Such fabrications, lies, and falsehoods began by an imam called Malik Ibn Anas. 

3- The thought school initiated by Malik was not merely a reaction to liberalism of Iraq in terms of intellectual endeavors; rather, it was also a violent reaction to the immorality, promiscuity, decadence, and degeneration that had become deep-seated in Mecca and Yathreb since the Umayyad era, that began gradually since the days of Arab conquests and became daily living and lifestyle. Thus, both cities turned into huge brothels or singing (by both male and female singers), sexual pleasures provided by prostitutes and female slaves as well as homosexual men, female dancers, poets and their lewd tales and poems, etc. Many well-known books of literature authored in the First Abbasid Era testify to such historical fact: "Al-Aghany''  by al-Isphahany, and "Al-Iqd Al-Fareed" by Ibn Abd Rabou, apart from numerous booklets of verses and long poems and books of biographies of poets and notable persons of the time. The though school of Malik faced all of the above by fabricating ''the punishment of stoning'' and by fabricating hadiths to restrict movement and lifestyle of free (un)married women, young and old. Strangely, such conservative school filled with prohibitions of hundreds of things condoned and was lenient with female slaves and concubines: to allow quick sexual exploitation of female slaves by men, Malik made the waiting period of them two months instead of the three-month period ordained by God in the Quran to all divorced women or widows before their remarriage. Malik and his disciples (who had written different versions of his hadiths and false historical accounts about Muhammad) authored several accounts and stories that assert a falsehood about Muhammad's marriage to an enslaved woman named Safiyya, while she was already married to living man, and without waiting period of the divorced women! To make masters check the human goods (female slaves) in slaves market, such Malik disciples, followers, and scholars made it in their sharia the notion that it was possible to see the naked-up-to-the waist body of a female slave before buying it, while free women would be covered when they got outside homes from top to toe! Such utter nonsense that Wahabism revived in the 20th and 21st centuries!   

4- Our previous writings on history of the Second Abbasid Era explain how obscurantism and close-minded notions moved to Baghdad decades later after the death of Malik. Let us remember that the Abbasid call or claim for caliphate before the demise of the Umayyad dynasty was based on making caliphate within the Qorayish Hashemites families who were close kinsmen of Prophet Muhammad: descendants of Abbas, one of the paternal uncles of Muhammad. Such claims were based as well on the myth of an just imam/leader (who is to be a descendant from Muhammad's tribe, presumably) that will emerge one day to restore peace and justice all over the Muslim nations, typical of the city-state of Yathreb led by Muhammad in the 7th century A.D., and therefore, the term ''Sunnite'' emerged and spread for the very first time shortly before the collapse of the Umayyad dynasty; it first denoted justice modeled on Prophet Muhammad, lost by the Umayyads, but later on, this un-Quranic and non-Islamic notion came to mean traditions ascribed to Muhammad centuries after his death. Opposition movements against the Umayyads sometimes included religious cultural elite figures such as religious figures Al-Hassan Al-Basry, Saeed Ibn Al-Musayyab, and Saeed Ibn Jubayr. Another group of opposition denied the notion of fatalism (i.e., the philosophy about bad occurrences ordained by God and imposed by Him on people) propagated by the Umayyads to force people to accept their injustices, and such group asserted that injustice was never ordained and it must be opposed; such group included Maabad al-Juhany, killed by the Umayyad vizier Al-Hajaj, and Ghilan Al-Dimishqi, killed by the Umayyad caliph Hisham Ibn Abdul-Malik.       

5- As the Umayyad dynasty collapsed, the Abbasid emerged and established their capital, Baghdad, in Iraq, and people thought that an era of injustice had ended. Cultural elite members of the period thought that an era of justice had begun. To their surprise and disappointment, more bloodshed and the gravest injustices occurred. The very first caliph gave himself the title "the Assassin", and indeed, he terrorized and murdered thousands of people, while his successor, the caliph Abou Jaffer Al-Mansour, committed more than a tenfold amount of the Assassin's crimes! Such madness and massacres drove some of the religious cultural elite crazy; they called themselves ''the weepers'', as they formed their religion based on weeping groups in public. We refer readers to our article on the weepers, published on our Quranism website. Political circumstances and conditions within the Abbasid caliphate drove the caliph Al-Motawakil to adopt the Sunnite religion and make hadiths a formal religion an core of Islam! The Sunnite religion came to be synonymous with Islam; this was a grievous error, indeed, and Arabs suffer because of it now. The extremist Sunnite Ibn Hanbal doctrine scholars were welcomed, supported, and paid by Al-Motawakil, but decades later, they destroyed Iraq; we have explained this in a previous article of ours. We focus here on the fact that the extremist Sunnite Ibn Hanbal doctrine scholars revived ideas formulated by Malik and explained by Al-Shafei, and both are still deities of the Sunnite religion until now.            

6- Liberal-minded authors existed during the early decades of the Abbasid era, such as the well-known author Al-Jahiz, died in 255 A.H., and who was contemporary to Ibn Hanbal, died in 241 A.H., and Al-Bokhary, died in 256 A.H., and both are still deities of the Sunnite religion until now. The negative views of women in hadiths forged by Al-Bokhary and Ibn Hanbal seem to seek to bury omen alive into the dust! Al-Jahiz, however, opposed them by his liberal views expressed in his books; he was shrewd and sly enough to choose from accounts and hadiths told by others to support his views and refute those of Al-Bokhary and Ibn Hanbal, his intellectual foes, suing their methodology. Let us here brief some of the liberal views of Al-Jahiz below.                


Secondly: an overview of the book about enslaved female singers authored by Al-Jahiz:


1- Al-Jahiz begins his book by dedicating his book to his intimate friends, mentioning their names and epithets, who were rich and enjoy an epicurean lifestyle, who were art lovers and loved culinary pleasures and carnal ones as well, and who were lovers of music, female singers among pretty slaves. He mockingly dedicated his book also to a group of his intellectual foes among the extremist scholars, whom he describes as the ignoramuses who are uncouth philistines. He dedicates his book to readers who love enslaved female singers and enjoy them as well as blessing from God.  

2- Hence, it seems that at the time, debates were hot about allowing or prohibiting the owning of enslaved female singers, and Al-Jahiz felt the urge to express his views on the subject. Al-Jahiz states clearly in the introduction that he opposes extremist views of religious imams and scholars who vehemently oppose arts like music, poetry, and singing, under the pretext of prohibition of listening to 'devilish' voices of female singers, and he asserts that he has authored this book to prove the habit of owning and enjoying listening to enslaved female singers as the best refined source of joy in this transient world.       

3- Within early lines after the introduction, Al-Jahiz asserts the higher stature of the female gender in comparison to the male gender, refuting the views adopted by the masculine, patriarchal scholars of religion about the female gender inferiority to the male gender, as women were treated as sexual animals for the pleasurable  use of men and for breeding only. Al-Jahiz asserts the superiority of women, who are for him the best companions of men on equal footing to them, and as they had the divine task of childbirth, they are the source of joy and fertility of the humankind; thus, they must be treated with more respect for men, who could not possibly live without the feminine presence in their lives. Thus, God created men in need of women and vice-versa; no one could deny this law of nature, as per Al-Jahiz.  

4- Al-Jahiz refutes negative views of extremist scholars about women and singing by asserting that as long as the Quran does not prohibit something explicitly, no one has to right to prohibit or ban such a thing never frowned upon by God and His messenger Muhammad. Hence, all things never mentioned in the Quran are allowed as halal: permissible and legal.  

5- Within lines later, Al-Jahiz touches on the main topic of his book: extremist scholars essentially claimed they must keep women indoors out of jealousy and because males love to own and control females. Al-Jahiz asserts that to guard one's women jealously against other male rivals is never a pretext to stifle women's freedom by prohibiting hundreds of things to restrict their mobility and lifestyle. He sees that such attitudes as against real Islamic jurisprudence that never prohibits lawful and permissible things, acts, and practices, like singing, music, and listening to both of them.

6- Al-Jahiz quotes historical accounts to prove that separation of women from outside social life and the segregation of the two sexes are both grave errors leading to unnatural psychological and social ailments. Al-Jahiz asserts that within the early years of Islam before the death of the Prophet, women enjoyed free mobility, travelled alone, participated actively in male-dominated societies, and before and after the advent of Islam, couples and lovers sang praises of each other in verse. Women used to see men and be seen by men; faces were not covered or veiled at all a century ago in Arabia, asserted Al-Jahiz. He quoted many instances of women-fighters who mingled with men and discussed affairs of tribes within meetings of men gathered to reach decisions on certain issues. No one at the time prohibited women from being looked at by men or from looking at men in public.     

7- Paragraphs later, Al-Jahiz tackles the topic of the female slaves, and how many of them were so accomplished, knowledgeable, and cultured that they became fit to the company of kings, governors, and caliphs. Al-Jahiz quoted many examples of such famous female slaves and their stories, adventures, and love relations with caliphs.  

8- Al-Jahiz uses some arguments that employ logical reasoning to refute segregation of genders imposed by scholars; how come old maids would be allowed to mingle with men, whereas young virgins would not?!

9- Al-Jahiz pinpoints the contradictions of extremist scholars' views that differentiate between free women and female slaves, mocking their views of different waiting periods and inexplicable marriages rules, as if female slaves were indeed freer from all social restraints imposed on free women, in an obvious paradox. Al-Jahiz accuses scholars of being unjust and therefore unrelated to Islam: the essence and soul of justice.  

10- Al-Jahiz within other paragraphs tackles the main topic of his booklet: enslaved female singers. He asserts that they were owned and enjoyed by Arab and non-Arab kings and affluent people for centuries, as a refined art wholesome to the soul of both the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphs. Al-Jahiz quotes many examples from history of the caliphates. 

11- Al-Jahiz refutes the extremist scholars' prohibition of poetry, music, and singing, asserting that the Quran never mentions anything on the three subjects; besides, such refined arts nourished the mind, heart, and soul, without diverting men from worshipping God, as such simple pleasures were not harmful at all to those who enjoy them. On the contrary, such arts made men appreciate life, people, and creatures and fill men with compassion and love and other higher values. He quoted stories about prophets to assert his viewpoint. Al-Jahiz asserts that arts were as vital to men as food and drink. 

12- Al-Jahiz belittles the matter of checking of female slaves in slaves-markets before buying them, and after a long argument about criteria of beauty of the body, soul, and mind of female slaves and asserting the proper accomplishments and talents to look for, Al-Jahiz asserts that small, petty mishaps and mistakes between men and female slaves inside houses may be forgiven by God as long as things would not amount to full process of fornication.  

13- Al-Jahiz eventually refutes hadiths fabricated by extremist scholars about prohibiting a woman to be alone with a man away from eyes of others. He refutes linking keeping, buying, and enjoying listening to enslaved female singers with immorality and promiscuity, as music and singing induced refined feelings, not driving men to think of carnal pleasures.


Slavery: A Fundamental Historical Overview

Slavery: A Fundamental Historical Overview

Authored by: Dr. Ahmed Subhy Mansour

25th of August, 2016
Springfield, VA, USA

Translated by: Ahmed Fathy

As the Quranic sharia tackles the topic of slaves, some people accuse Islam of endorsing and justifying slavery abolished by the European countries and the USA. These critics of Islam regarding that topic overlook the fact that enslavement has survived until now in different types despite being outlawed, and the West could not really abolish it entirely; rather, the problem has been exacerbated within contemporary slavery. We prove in this book that the Quranic solution to the problem of slavery is the ideal one. Details of this Quranic solution are discussed in this book that has begun as a series of articles that has provoked many comments that are so useful and important that we have decided to include them as part of this book.