( 19 )



Firstly: manuscripts and documents:



"Takseer Al-Ahjar", an ancient manuscript in Dar-Al-Kotob (i.e., he Egyptian National Library and Archive), Cairo, 4040, Taymoriyya manuscripts.

"Historical Accounts by Al-Biqaay", an ancient manuscript in Dar-Al-Kotob (i.e., he Egyptian National Library and Archive), Cairo, Volume No. 5631, History manuscripts.



Documents in the Iraqi National Library and Archive, 15-5-1922, Baghdad.

Documents in the Iraqi National Library and Archive, Baghdad, December, 28-10-1922, 30-11-1926, No. 619, No. 4 page 709, and No. 197, 1-11-1927.


Secondly: sources and references in Arabic and translated into Arabic:


Mansour (Dr. Ahmed Subhy):

An article titled "The Egyptian Religiousness and the Najd Religiousness", published in ''Humanity and Development" Magazine, issue No. 61, April and June 1998.

A study titled ''Democratic Elections in Egypt'', published in the annual report of civil society and democratic transition, 1997, Cairo.

A study titled "An Islamic Vision Concerning the Relation with the Other", published in the book of the third intellectual forum of the Egyptian organization of human rights, 1992, Cairo.

A book titled "Inquisition between the Quran and Tradition", Al-Mahroussa Printing and Publishing House, 1995, Cairo.

A book titled "Punishment of Apostasy", published in 1993 and 2000 in Cairo, translated into English in 1999, and published as a supplement in Cairo Magazine, issue No. 152, 1995.

A research paper titled ''Women's Right to Aspire to the Presidency of Any Islamic State", published earlier in 1999 in the periodical of (Rowaq Arabi), issued by the Cairo Center for Human Rights Studies, issue No. 15 & 16, 1999, Cairo.

A research paper titled "Rights of Women between International Agreements and Political Islam", published in the series titled "human rights debates" No. 6, 1999, issued by the Cairo Center for Human Rights Studies, Cairo.

A research paper titled "Human Rights in the Thought of Islamists", published in the series titled "human rights debates" No. 7, 2000, issued by the Cairo Center for Human Rights Studies, Cairo.

An article titled "Which Is Permitted or Prohibited: Banks or 'Islamic' Money Investment Companies", published in the governmental daily Cairo-based Al-Akhbar Newspaper, on 29th of June, 1998.

An article titled "The Issue of Usury and the Crisis of Innovative Thinking", published in the Cairo-based Al-Akhbar Newspaper, on 30th of May, 1990.

An article titled "The Issue of Usury and the Crisis of Morality", published in the independent Cairo-based Al-Midan Newspaper, on 15th of Oct., 1996.

A study titled ''Freedom of Thought between Islam and Muslims'', published in 1992 in the book of the Third Intellectual Forum of the Egyptian Organization of Human Rights.


And several articles published before in the Friday issues of the independent daily Al-Alam Al-Youm Newspaper, within the section titled "Islamic Topics", between 1992 and 1993.


Abonti (Salvatore), ''The Kingdom of Imam Yahiya'', translated by Taha Fawzy, Cairo, 1947.

Al-Assad (Muhammad), ''The Way to Islam'', Dar Al-Elm Lilmalayeen publishers, Beirut, translated by Afeef Al-Baalbaky.

Abou-El-Shaar (Amin), ''Memoirs of King Abdulla'', published by Amin Abou-El-Shaar, 1965, Oman.

Al-Ashaary (Abou Al-Hassan), who died in 330 A.H.

"Articles of Islamists", edited by M. Mohei-Eddine Eid Abdel-Hameed, Al-Nahda Al-Masreiyya Library, 1969, Cairo.

Al-Ansari (M. Ibn Abdullah Ibn Abdul-Muhsin), ''Tuhfat Al-Mustafeed in the Ancient and Modern History'', editions of Riyadh, 1960.

Al-Banna (Gamal),"Muslim Women between the Quranic Sharia and Restrictions of Scholars", Islamic Center, 1998, Cairo.

Al-Otaybi (Juhayman), ''Letters of Juhayman Al-Otaybi", published and edited by Dr. Rifaat Sayed Ahmed, Jaffa Center, 2nd editions, 1998, Cairo.

Al-Hosni (Abdul-Razik), ''History of Ministries in Iraq'', 1934, Baghdad.

Al-Heidary, "Onwan Al-Majd in Chronicles of Baghdad, Basra, and Najd", 1334 A.H., Baghdad editions, Baghdad. 

Al-Khateeb (Abdul-Hameed), ''Abdul-Aziz the Just Imam'', 1951, Cairo.

Khazaal (Hassan Khalaf), ''Political History of Kuwait'', Aliya editions, 1962, Kuwait.

Khila (Mahmoud Kamel), an MA thesis, in the Faculty of Arts, Cairo University, titled "The Political Development of Jordan", 1969.

Al-Khamees (Abdul-Rahman), ''Lions of Al-Saud'', 1972, Beirut.

Al-Zahaby (M. Ibn Ahmed Ibn Othman), died in 748 A.H., ''The Justice Balance", edited by M. Ali M. Al-Bijawi and Fatheiyya Ali Al-Bijawi, Dar Al-Fikr Al-Arabi publishers, undated, Cairo.

Ahmed (Rifaat Sayed), "The Desert Saint", Riyadh Al-Rayyes editions, 1991, London and Cypress.

Ahmed (Rifaat Sayed), introduction to the book titled ''''Letters of Juhayman Al-Otaybi".

Al-Rasheed (Abdul-Aziz), "History of Kuwait", undated, Beirut.

Al-Rossan (Mamdouh Arif), "Iraq and Arab Politics 1921:1941'', an unpublished M.A. thesis, Faculty of Arts, Cairo University, 1972.

Al-Rihany (Amin), ''Najd and its Annexes'', 3rd edition, 1964, Beirut.

Al-Rihany (Amin), "History of Najd", 1928, 5th edition, Beirut.

Al-Zarkeley (Kheir Eddine), ''Arabia in the Reign of Abdul-Aziz'', 1970, Beirut.

Qassim (Jamal Zachariah), ''The Stance of Kuwait vis-à-vis the Saudi Expansion in Al-Ahsa and Najd'', an article in the History Magazine, number 17, 1970.

Ibn Saad (Muhammad), died in 222 A.H., ''Al-Tabakat Al-Kubra", Dar Al-Tahrir publishers, 1968, Cairo.

Al-Siyouti (Jalal Eddine), died in 911 A.H., ''History of Caliphs", edited by M. Abou-Al-Fadl Ibrahim, Cairo edition, Cairo.

Al-Shaarany, ''Lataif Al-Ninan", Dar Al-Hadeeth, undated, Cairo.

Arslan (Shakib), '''Funny Stories from History'', 1350 A.H., Cairo.

Al-Shamlan (Seif Marzouk), "On History of Kuwait", undated, Cairo.

Al-Safady (Salah Eddine Khalil Ibn Aybak), died in 764 A.H., "Al-Wafy in Deaths", 2nd edition, edited by S. Diedring, 1981, published in 22 volumes by the German Orientalists Society.

Al-Mukhtar (Salah Eddine), ''History of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia'', undated, Al-Hayat Library, Beirut.

Ibn Al-Sirafy (Ali Ibn Dawood), died in 900 A.H., "Inbaa Al-Hasr in Chronicles of People of the Age", edited by Hassan Habashy, 1970, Cairo.

Al-Tabari (Abou Jaffer M. Ibn Jarir), 224:310 A.H., "History of Al-Tabari", edited by M. Abou-Al-Fadl Ibrahim, 4th edition, Cairo.

Al-Farhan (Rashid Abdullah), ''A Short History of Kuwait'', 1960, Cairo.

Philby (John), "Arabia: Three Years of Wahabi Rule", Contemporary Magazine, London.

"History of Najd", translated by Omar Al-Deirawi, 1952, Beirut.

Al-Jawziyya (Ibn Al-Qayyim), died in 751 A.H., "Al-Wabel Al-Sayyib Min Al-Kalim Al-Taiyyib", edition of 1952, Cairo.

Al-Jawziyya (Ibn Al-Qayyim), "Al-Manar Al-Manif Fe Al-Sahih Wa Al-Daweef", edited by Dr. Abdul-Ra'uf Saad, edition of 1952, Cairo.

Abou Al-Ela (Mahmoud Taha), "Geography of Arabia", 1930, Cairo.

Abou Aliyya (Abdel-Fattah Hassan), "Development of the Saudi Society", an unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Faculty of Arts, Cairo University, 1972, Cairo.

Al-Attar (M. Abdul-Ghafur), ''The Hawk of Arabia'', Mecca editions.

Al-Alawy (Abdulla Hassan Ibn Feisal), ''Sidq Al-Khabar in Al-Khawarij of the 12th Century'', 1927, Latikia.

Kishk (Jalal), ''The Saudis and the Islamic Solution'', 4th edition, 1984, Cairo.

Abou-Al-Mahasin (Jamal Eddine), died in 874 A.H, "Al-Nojom Al-Zahira", 83/9, edited by Faheem Shaltout (1938-1972), Cairo.

Abdel-Majeed (Muhammad), "In the Beginning was the Pen", undated, Cairo.

Ibn Abdul-Wahab (Muhammad), "Kashf Al-Shubuhat" + 13 Messages, 4th edition, Cairo, 1399 A.H., edited and published by Moheb Eddine Al-Khateeb. We have quoted in our book from six Messages:

-       Message on Monotheism

-       Message on Fundamentals of Faith for the General Public

-       Message on Three Issues

-       Message on The Meaning of Taghut

-       Message on Six Events from Prophet Muhammad's History 

-       Message on Our Faith Rules to Differentiate Believers from Infidels

Abdou (Muhammad), "Islam between Science and Modernity", Enlightenment Series, GEBO Publishers, 1993, Cairo.

Mahmoud (Hassan Suleiman), ''Kuwait Past and Present'', undated, Cairo.

The book titled ''The Earthquake of Al-Saud Family'', without author's name, found in the following link:


Al-Masaary (Dr. M. Ibn Abdullah), "The Fatwa on Polytheistic Rulers", undated, London.

Al-Masaary (Dr. Muhammad Abdullah), "Judging Rulers", 2nd edition, 2000, London.

Al-Masaary (Dr. Muhammad Abdullah), "The Decisive Proofs of the Illegitimacy of the KSA", 4th edition, 1999, London.

Al-Makrizi (Taqei Eddine Ahmed Ibn Ali), "Khetat Al-Makrizi".

Annual Reports of Ibn Khaldoun Center of 1996, published in 1997, of 1998, published in 1999, and of 1999, published in 2000, on the civil society and democratic transition.

A report titled "Egypt and the World", published by Al-Mahroussa Center for Publishing and Distribution, 1st edition, 1994, Cairo.

A report by Liberty Organization (National Council for Civil Liberties: NCCL)

A report issued by the Committee of Defending Legitimate Rights: an annual book comprises all statements, reports, and newsletters issued by the Committee of Defending Legitimate Rights in its first year, plus reports of Liberty Organization by the end of the book, undated, published on the following link:


Amnesty International reports:



Report of Islamic Uprising commemorating the 7th memory of the Kaaba Mosque accident, issued by the Islamic Revolution publishing

Thirdly: periodicals, newspapers and magazines:

The governmental Cairo-Based daily Al-Akhbar Newspaper, 24th Nov., 1979

Al-Osboue Al-Arabi newspaper, No. 1058, 21st Jan., 1980

The following issues of Umm Al-Qura Newspaper:

No. 115, 3rd year, 25th Feb., 1927

No. 111, 3rd year, 28th Feb., 1927

No. 308, 7th year, 31st Oct., 1930

9th year, 23rd Sept., 1932

No. 169, 4th year, 9th March, 1928

No. 167, 4th year, 24th Feb., 1928

No. 165, 4th year, 10th Feb., 1928

No. 291, 6th year, 4th July, 1930

No. 51, 2nd year, 18th Dec., 1925

No. 287, 6th year, 6th June, 1930

No. 292, 6th year, 11th July, 1930

No. 303, 6th year, 16th Sept., 1930

No. 289, 6th year, 2nd Feb., 1930

Vol. 12, 2nd year, June, 1913, page 576

No. 57, 2nd year, 19th Feb., 1926

No. 352, 8th year, Oct., 1931

No. 302, 19th Sept., 1930

No. 292, 11th July, 1930

No. 208, 5th year, 18th Dec., 1928

No. 298, 6th year, 21st Aug., 1930

No. 67, 2nd year, 9th Apr., 1926

The Kuwait-based Al-Anbaa Newspaper: 22nd, 24th, and 25th of Nov., 1979

The Lebanese Al-Anwar Newspaper: 16th Jan., 1980, 24th Nov., 1979, and 22nd Nov., 1979

The Cairo-based governmental daily Al-Ahram Newspaper: 22nd, 24th, 25th, and 30th of Nov., 1979

Al-Ahram, No. 14500, 15th Oct., 1924, an article on war in Arabia

Al-Ahram, No. 14502, 17th Oct., 1924, an article on Wahabis and Hejaz

Al-Ahram, No. 14512, 29th Oct., 1924, an article on Wahabis and Hejaz

Al-Ahram, No. 14508, 24th Oct., 1924, an article on Hejaz

 Al-Ahram, No. 14501, 16th Oct., 1924

The Saudi newspaper Al-Youm, 9th Jan., 1980

The Economist, 15th Dec., 1980

The Saudi newspaper Al-Bilad, 24th Nov., 8th Dec., and 11th Dec. 1979

The Lebanese Al-Hawadeth newspaper, 7th Dec., 1979 and 18th Jan., 1980

The Guardian, 4th Feb., 1980

Al-Jazeera Al-Jadida, a Yemeni newspaper used to be issued by the Democratic Popular Party beginning in 1970, South Yemen, No. 6, March 1974

Arabia Magazine, issued dated 16th May, 1992

The Saudi newspaper Al-Jazeera, 22nd Nov., 27th Nov., 25th Nov., 10 Dec., and 11th Dec., 1979

The Cairo-based governmental Al-Gomhouriyya Newspaper, 24th, 26th, and 27th Nov., 1979

The Lebanese newspaper Al-Dostour, 24th and 30th Nov., 1979

Der Spiegel, 23rd Dec., 1979

The Kuwait-based Al-Rai Al-Aam newspaper, 23rd, 24th, 25th, 26th, and 28th Nov., 1979 and 9th Dec., 1979

The Saudi Al-Riyadh newspaper: 22nd, 23rd, 25th, 26th, 28th, and 29th Nov., 1979 and 1st and 4th Dec., 1979

Al-Zahraa Magazine, Vol. 8 part 18, 15th Feb., 1925, Vol. 4 part 1, and part 51, 1343 A.H.

The Lebanese Al-Safeer newspaper, 6th Feb., 22nd, 24th, and 29th Nov., and 2nd, 12th, and 21st Dec. 1979, 9th, 10th, and 20th Jan., 1980, and 1st Feb., 1980

The Kuwait-based Al-Siyasa Al-Kuwaitiyya newspaper, 25th Nov., 1979

The Saudi Middle East newspaper, 27th Nov., 1979

Al-Shura Magazine, No. 69, 2nd year, 18th Feb., 1926, No. 169, 4th year, 16th Feb., 1928

Al-Fath Magazine, No. 178, 19th Dec., 1929, No. 166, 4th year, 17th Feb., 1928, and No. 66, 2nd year, 2nd Apr., 1926

The Kuwait-based Al-Qabas newspaper, 18th Dec., 1979, and 21st Nov., 1979

The Saudi Al-Qibla newspaper, No. 453, 5th year, 26th July, 1921, No. 492, 3rd year, 1343 A.H., and No. 454, 5th year, 3st Jan., 1925

The Lebanese Al-Louaa newspaper, 22nd Nov., 1979

Le Point, 28th Jan., 1980

Le Monde, 22nd Nov., 24th Nov., and 3rd Dec., 1979

Lughat Al-Arab Magazine: Vol. 1, 2nd year, Aug. 1912, Vol. 7, Jan. 1914, Vol. 8, 5th year, undated, Vol. 10, 5th year, No. 637, Vol. 11, 8th year, May 1913, Vol. 5, 3rd year, Nov., 1914, Vol. 1, 3rd year, July 1913 and March 1914 

 The Cairo-based Al-Muqattam Newspaper: No. 11246, 38th year, 26th Feb., 1926, No. 11029, 1925, No. 11077, 37th year, 19th Aug., 1925, No. 11074, 37th year, 16th Aug., 1925, No. 12006, 40th year, 19th Aug. 1928, No. 12202, 41st year, 10th Apr., 1292, No. 12268, 41st year, 29th June, 1929 (an  of the newspaper with Abdul-Aziz Ibn Al-Saud), No. 12203, 41st year, 11th Apr., 1929

Al-Manar Magazine: Vol. 7, part 1, "Ibn Saud Conquers Al-Ahsa" 4th July, 1913, Vol. 8, part 25, "Special Reasons to Conquer Hejaz" 27th Nov., 1924, Vol. 8, part 25, ''Wahabis and Hejaz" 27th Nov., 1924, Vol. 7, part 25, 18th Oct., 1924, Vol. 8, part 26, "Hejaz and Arabs" 

The Saudi Al-Madina newspaper, 26th Nov., 2nd, 6th, and 11th Dec., 1979

The Lebanese Al-Nahar newspaper, 21st, 22nd, 25th, 24th and 30th Nov., 1979 and 10th Jan, 1980

Nour Al-Islam Magazine, 28th Shabaan, 1349 A.H.

Newsweek, 7th Dec., 1979

Huda Al-Islam Magazine, 1935 A.D.

Al-Watan Al-Arabi newspaper, No. 147

The Kuwait-based Al-Watan newspaper, 22nd Nov., 1979  


Fourthly: references and sources in English:


Armstrong (H. C.), "Lord of Arabia (Ibn Saud)", 1954, Beirut.

Bell (Gertrude), "The Arab War", London, 1940.

Bullard (Reader), "The British and the Middle East'', 1952, London.

Burckharat (John Lewis), "Travels in Arabia", 1829, London.

Dickson (H. R. P.), "The Arab of the Desert", 1930, London.

Dickson, "Kuwait and her Neighbor", 1950, London.

Dickson (Violet), "Forty Years in Kuwait", 1970, London.

Glubb (John Bagot), "War in the Desert", 1960, London.

Hiro, "Iran under the Ayatollahs", 1985, London.

Hopwood (Derik), "The Arabian Peninsula: Society and politics", 1972, London.

Howarth, (David), "The Desert King: A Life of Ibn Saud", 1964, London.

Herwitz (I. C.), "Diplomacy in Near and Middle East", Document Record, VOL. 1, 1960, London.

Herwitz (I. C.), "Middle East Politics: The Military Dimension", 1969, London.

Kelly (J. B.), "Eastern Arabian Frontiers", 1963, London.

Lawrence (T. E.), "Seven Pillars of Wisdom", 1962, London.

Meullen, "The Wills of Ibn Saud'', 1958, London.

Philby (John), "Arabian Jubilee", 1951, Mecca.

Sanger (Richard H.), "Arabian Peninsula", 1953, Washington.

STITT (George) "A Prince  of Arabia", 1948,  London.

Twitchell (K. S.), "Saudi Arabia", 1958, London.

Wahba (Hafiz), "Arabian Days", 1964, London.

WARTH (C. H.), "The Arabs and the West", 1964, London.

The Wahabi Opposition Movements in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in the Twentieth Century
The Wahabi Opposition Movements in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in the Twentieth Century

Authored by: Dr. Ahmed Subhy Mansour
26th of June, 2001
Cairo, Egypt
Translated by: Ahmed Fathy


We publish here the complete book titled "The Wahabi Opposition Movements in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in the Twentieth Century", after writing it previously in a series of successive articles before on our website. We authored this book in 2001, and it is published here online after omitting an introductory chapter about Wahabism and its origins and roots; we have omitted this chapter because it repeats what we have written in hundreds of articles about Wahabism, Salafism, and the Sunnite Ibn Hanbal doctrine. We have decided to confine this book to the rest of this research, whose details are summarized in the new introduction, and we consider this research or book as adopting a neutral historical viewpoint of events. Parts of this book have been published before separate

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