United Nations condemned the stoning to death :
HOW SHARIA LAW PUNISHES RAPED WOMEN

محمد صادق Ýí 2010-01-12


en by flogging and beating them with shoes.<a title="" href="http://www.ahl-alquran.com/FCKeditor/editor/fckeditor.html?InstanceName=rte1&amp;Toolbar=Default#_edn1" style="mso-endnote-id: edn1" name="_ednref1"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="mso-special-character: footnote"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 14pt; color: black; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">[i]</span></span></span></span></a> In <st1:place w:st="on"><st1:country-region w:st="on">Pakistan</st1:country-region></st1:place> similar cases of punishing raped women are Mina v. the State, Bibi v. the State and Bahadur v. the State.<a title="" href="http://www.ahl-alquran.com/FCKeditor/editor/fckeditor.html?InstanceName=rte1&amp;Toolbar=Default#_edn2" style="mso-endnote-id: edn2" name="_ednref2"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="mso-special-character: footnote"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 14pt; color: black; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">[ii]</span></span></span></span></a> Sharia courts in <st1:country-region w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on">Pakistan</st1:place></st1:country-region> have punished many thousands of raped women by long term imprisonment.<a title="" href="http://www.ahl-alquran.com/FCKeditor/editor/fckeditor.html?InstanceName=rte1&amp;Toolbar=Default#_edn3" style="mso-endnote-id: edn3" name="_ednref3"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="mso-special-character: footnote"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 14pt; color: black; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">[iii]</span></span></span></span></a> It became so chronic that raped women stopped reporting to police.<span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span></span><span style="font-size: 14pt; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0in 0in 0pt; line-height: normal"><span style="font-size: 14pt; color: black; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><br />
There is a traceable dynamic in Sharia law about this barbarity. As we will shortly see, the laws are constructed in such a way that punishing raped women was almost inevitable. Problem is, rape was included in Hudud cases and any change in Hudud, let alone abandoning them is not allowed. Mawdudi, the founding father of modern Radical Islam, claims that even if all the world&rsquo;s Muslims together wanted to make the slightest change in these laws, they would not be allowed to do so.<a title="" href="http://www.ahl-alquran.com/FCKeditor/editor/fckeditor.html?InstanceName=rte1&amp;Toolbar=Default#_edn4" style="mso-endnote-id: edn4" name="_ednref4"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="mso-special-character: footnote"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 14pt; color: black; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">[iv]</span></span></span></span></a> <span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;</span>Another key element of all Hudood laws is that only eye-witnesses are acceptable and no circumstantial evidence can be accepted.<a title="" href="http://www.ahl-alquran.com/FCKeditor/editor/fckeditor.html?InstanceName=rte1&amp;Toolbar=Default#_edn5" style="mso-endnote-id: edn5" name="_ednref5"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="mso-special-character: footnote"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 14pt; color: black; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">[v]</span></span></span></span></a> <span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;</span>Also, there are laws that virtually protect rapists just by monetary punishment, such as:-<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0in 0in 0pt; line-height: normal"><span style="font-size: 14pt; color: black; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><br />
* A rapist is obliged to pay the victim the amount typically received as marriage payment to similar brides.<a title="" href="http://www.ahl-alquran.com/FCKeditor/editor/fckeditor.html?InstanceName=rte1&amp;Toolbar=Default#_edn6" style="mso-endnote-id: edn6" name="_ednref6"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="mso-special-character: footnote"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 14pt; color: black; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">[vi]</span></span></span></span></a><br />
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* If the rapist <a name="OLE_LINK2"></a><a name="OLE_LINK1"><span style="mso-bookmark: OLE_LINK2">cannot be punished </span></a>for any reason he will pay the victim the amount equal to bride-money.<a title="" href="http://www.ahl-alquran.com/FCKeditor/editor/fckeditor.html?InstanceName=rte1&amp;Toolbar=Default#_edn7" style="mso-endnote-id: edn7" name="_ednref7"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="mso-special-character: footnote"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 14pt; color: black; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">[vii]</span></span></span></span></a> <br />
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These laws do not warrant any other punishment, do not explain how and why a rapist &ldquo;cannot be punished&rdquo; and be available to pay compensation. Nor do they discuss the possibility of a rapist&rsquo;s financial inability to pay. <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0in 0in 0pt; line-height: normal"><span style="font-size: 14pt; color: black; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0in 0in 0pt; line-height: normal"><span style="font-size: 14pt; color: black; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">The Quran does not mention rape. It severely prohibits Zina that means sexual relation between a man and woman not married to each other. It can be translated as &ldquo;adultery&rdquo; for married persons and &ldquo;fornication&rdquo; for the unmarried. Muslim jurists included rape under Zina because, even though forced on the victim, sexual relations &ldquo;between a man and woman not married to each other&rdquo; have taken place. <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0in 0in 0pt; line-height: normal"><span style="font-size: 14pt; color: black; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0in 0in 0pt; line-height: normal"><span style="font-size: 14pt; color: black; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">Death sentence of rapists came from Prophet&rsquo;s example: - &ldquo;Narrated Wa'il ibn Hujr: When a woman went out in the time of the Prophet (peace be upon him) for prayer, a man attacked her and overpowered (raped) her. &hellip;..he said: Stone him to death&rdquo;.<a title="" href="http://www.ahl-alquran.com/FCKeditor/editor/fckeditor.html?InstanceName=rte1&amp;Toolbar=Default#_edn8" style="mso-endnote-id: edn8" name="_ednref8"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="mso-special-character: footnote"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 14pt; color: black; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">[viii]</span></span></span></span></a><span style="mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>This Hadis is the base of the Sharia law: - The rapist will be punished to death if force on the victim is proven.<a title="" href="http://www.ahl-alquran.com/FCKeditor/editor/fckeditor.html?InstanceName=rte1&amp;Toolbar=Default#_edn9" style="mso-endnote-id: edn9" name="_ednref9"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="mso-special-character: footnote"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 14pt; color: black; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">[ix]</span></span></span></span></a><br />
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So far so good &ndash; but problem starts from here, about proof of rape. There are specific requirements of Sharia law about it.<o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0in 0in 0pt; line-height: normal"><span style="font-size: 14pt; color: black; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><br />
(A)&nbsp; &quot;Proof of Zina (adultery) or Zina Bil-Jabr (rape) liable to Hadd shall be one of the following:<br />
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; (a) The accused makes confession, or<br />
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; (b) There are at least four Muslim adult male witnesses&rdquo;<a title="" href="http://www.ahl-alquran.com/FCKeditor/editor/fckeditor.html?InstanceName=rte1&amp;Toolbar=Default#_edn10" style="mso-endnote-id: edn10" name="_ednref10"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="mso-special-character: footnote"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 14pt; color: black; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">[x]</span></span></span></span></a> <br />
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(B)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &quot;Proof of adultery or rape liable to Hadd shall be one of the following:<br />
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; (a) The accused makes confession, or<br />
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; (b) There are at least four Muslim adult male witnesses.&rdquo;<a title="" href="http://www.ahl-alquran.com/FCKeditor/editor/fckeditor.html?InstanceName=rte1&amp;Toolbar=Default#_edn11" style="mso-endnote-id: edn11" name="_ednref11"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="mso-special-character: footnote"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 14pt; color: black; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">[xi]</span></span></span></span></a><br />
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(C)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &ldquo;Punishment will take place when Zina or rape has been proved by witness.&rdquo;<a title="" href="http://www.ahl-alquran.com/FCKeditor/editor/fckeditor.html?InstanceName=rte1&amp;Toolbar=Default#_edn12" style="mso-endnote-id: edn12" name="_ednref12"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="mso-special-character: footnote"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 14pt; color: black; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">[xii]</span></span></span></span></a><br />
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(D)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Sharia Law rejects the witness of women in Hudood cases.<a title="" href="http://www.ahl-alquran.com/FCKeditor/editor/fckeditor.html?InstanceName=rte1&amp;Toolbar=Default#_edn13" style="mso-endnote-id: edn13" name="_ednref13"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="mso-special-character: footnote"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 14pt; color: black; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">[xiii]</span></span></span></span></a><br />
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(E)&nbsp; &nbsp; &ldquo;The evidence of women is originally inadmissible on account of their weakness of understanding, want of memory and incapacity of governing.&rdquo;<a title="" href="http://www.ahl-alquran.com/FCKeditor/editor/fckeditor.html?InstanceName=rte1&amp;Toolbar=Default#_edn14" style="mso-endnote-id: edn14" name="_ednref14"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="mso-special-character: footnote"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 14pt; color: black; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">[xiv]</span></span></span></span></a><br />
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So we see that it is virtually impossible to prove in a Sharia court that the victim has been raped because such &ldquo;proofs&rdquo; are almost impossible to obtain and because circumstantial evidence is not accepted. On the other hand, &ldquo;sex outside marriage&rdquo; is proven by the woman reporting rape or by physical scars, torn clothes or pregnancy. Then the laws of &ldquo;Punishment for Sex Outside Marriage&rdquo; are applied. Those are stoning to death for married victims and/or flogging and/or exile for the unmarried.<a title="" href="http://www.ahl-alquran.com/FCKeditor/editor/fckeditor.html?InstanceName=rte1&amp;Toolbar=Default#_edn15" style="mso-endnote-id: edn15" name="_ednref15"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="mso-special-character: footnote"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 14pt; color: black; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">[xv]</span></span></span></span></a> <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0in 0in 0pt; line-height: normal"><span style="font-size: 14pt; color: black; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0in 0in 0pt; line-height: normal"><span style="font-size: 14pt; color: black; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">On the other hand, a rapist has simply to deny the crime and get away Scot free. As the <st1:state w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on"><i>New York</i></st1:place></st1:state><i> Times</i> reports: &ldquo;Ms. Lawal, a divorced woman, identified a man as the father of her child. The man denied the charge, swore on the Koran, and was deemed innocent by the trial court. No one suggested DNA tests.&rdquo;<a title="" href="http://www.ahl-alquran.com/FCKeditor/editor/fckeditor.html?InstanceName=rte1&amp;Toolbar=Default#_edn16" style="mso-endnote-id: edn16" name="_ednref16"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="mso-special-character: footnote"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 14pt; color: black; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">[xvi]</span></span></span></span></a><br />
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But DNA tests have no place in Hudood Laws either. The <i>BBC</i> reported that Zafran Bibi of&nbsp;<st1:place w:st="on"><st1:country-region w:st="on">Pakistan</st1:country-region></st1:place> &ldquo;went to the police to register a case of rape, but she herself was instead sentenced to death for having an adulterous affair.&rdquo;<a title="" href="http://www.ahl-alquran.com/FCKeditor/editor/fckeditor.html?InstanceName=rte1&amp;Toolbar=Default#_edn17" style="mso-endnote-id: edn17" name="_ednref17"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="mso-special-character: footnote"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 14pt; color: black; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">[xvii]</span></span></span></span></a> About conducting a DNA test to identify the rapist, <i>the Dawn</i> reports: &ldquo;Justice Ali Nawaz Chauhan of the Lahore High Court has observed that the DNA test is not acceptable as evidence to establish the offence of Zina under the Hudood laws which require a direct testimony in such cases&hellip;.&rdquo;<a title="" href="http://www.ahl-alquran.com/FCKeditor/editor/fckeditor.html?InstanceName=rte1&amp;Toolbar=Default#_edn18" style="mso-endnote-id: edn18" name="_ednref18"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="mso-special-character: footnote"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 14pt; color: black; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">[xviii]</span></span></span></span></a><br />
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This is how Sharia Law punishes raped women. The sources of these laws span the period from the 7th century to recent times. The jurists missed the point that rape is a crime of its own kind. It has a devastating psychological and social impact on raped women. They are shamed to death, socially outcast, unsuitable for marriage, bring shame on the family and in some countries become the victims of honor killing. In Muslim countries many raped women commit suicide. There has never been a concerted and effective effort to end this barbarity. World Muslims must reject this barbarity or Islam itself will continue to be judged as barbaric. <o:p></o:p></span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0in 0in 0pt; line-height: normal"><span style="font-size: 14pt; color: black; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p>
<p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0in 0in 0pt; line-height: normal"><span style="font-size: 14pt; color: black; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">The screams of little Aisha Duhulowa will echo around the world until this is done.&nbsp;<br style="mso-special-character: line-break" />
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<o:p></o:p></span></p>
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<div id="edn1" style="mso-element: endnote">
<p class="MsoEndnoteText" style="margin: 0in 0in 0pt"><a title="" href="http://www.ahl-alquran.com/FCKeditor/editor/fckeditor.html?InstanceName=rte1&amp;Toolbar=Default#_ednref1" style="mso-endnote-id: edn1" name="_edn1"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;"><span style="mso-special-character: footnote"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">[i]</span></span></span></span></span></a><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;"> </span><span style="font-size: 12pt; color: black; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">The Daily Star on 04 April 2006</span><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
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<div id="edn2" style="mso-element: endnote">
<p class="MsoEndnoteText" style="margin: 0in 0in 0pt"><a title="" href="http://www.ahl-alquran.com/FCKeditor/editor/fckeditor.html?InstanceName=rte1&amp;Toolbar=Default#_ednref2" style="mso-endnote-id: edn2" name="_edn2"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;"><span style="mso-special-character: footnote"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">[ii]</span></span></span></span></span></a><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;"> </span><span style="font-size: 12pt; color: black; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">&ldquo;Rape Law in Islamic Societies&rdquo; by Julie Norman, CSID 6th Annual Conference</span><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
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<div id="edn3" style="mso-element: endnote">
<p class="MsoEndnoteText" style="margin: 0in 0in 0pt"><a title="" href="http://www.ahl-alquran.com/FCKeditor/editor/fckeditor.html?InstanceName=rte1&amp;Toolbar=Default#_ednref3" style="mso-endnote-id: edn3" name="_edn3"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;"><span style="mso-special-character: footnote"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">[iii]</span></span></span></span></span></a><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;"> </span><span style="font-size: 12pt; color: black; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">Annual report of the US Commission on International Religious Freedom, May 2004 &ndash; Ref - National Commission on the Status of Women in <st1:country-region w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on">Pakistan</st1:place></st1:country-region>.</span><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
</div>
<div id="edn4" style="mso-element: endnote">
<p class="MsoEndnoteText" style="margin: 0in 0in 0pt"><a title="" href="http://www.ahl-alquran.com/FCKeditor/editor/fckeditor.html?InstanceName=rte1&amp;Toolbar=Default#_ednref4" style="mso-endnote-id: edn4" name="_edn4"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;"><span style="mso-special-character: footnote"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">[iv]</span></span></span></span></span></a><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;"> </span><span style="font-size: 12pt; color: black; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">Islamic Law and Constitution - page 140.</span><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
</div>
<div id="edn5" style="mso-element: endnote">
<p class="MsoEndnoteText" style="margin: 0in 0in 0pt"><a title="" href="http://www.ahl-alquran.com/FCKeditor/editor/fckeditor.html?InstanceName=rte1&amp;Toolbar=Default#_ednref5" style="mso-endnote-id: edn5" name="_edn5"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;"><span style="mso-special-character: footnote"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">[v]</span></span></span></span></span></a><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;"> </span><span style="font-size: 12pt; color: black; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">Codified Islamic Law Vol 2 page 600 </span><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
</div>
<div id="edn6" style="mso-element: endnote">
<p class="MsoEndnoteText" style="margin: 0in 0in 0pt"><a title="" href="http://www.ahl-alquran.com/FCKeditor/editor/fckeditor.html?InstanceName=rte1&amp;Toolbar=Default#_ednref6" style="mso-endnote-id: edn6" name="_edn6"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;"><span style="mso-special-character: footnote"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">[vi]</span></span></span></span></span></a><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;"> </span><span style="font-size: 12pt; color: black; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">Shafi'i Law Reliance of the Traveler -# m.8.10</span><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
</div>
<div id="edn7" style="mso-element: endnote">
<p class="MsoEndnoteText" style="margin: 0in 0in 0pt"><a title="" href="http://www.ahl-alquran.com/FCKeditor/editor/fckeditor.html?InstanceName=rte1&amp;Toolbar=Default#_ednref7" style="mso-endnote-id: edn7" name="_edn7"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;"><span style="mso-special-character: footnote"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">[vii]</span></span></span></span></span></a><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;"> </span><span style="font-size: 12pt; color: black; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">Codified Islamic Law Vol 1 page 301 &nbsp;</span><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
</div>
<div id="edn8" style="mso-element: endnote">
<p class="MsoEndnoteText" style="margin: 0in 0in 0pt"><a title="" href="http://www.ahl-alquran.com/FCKeditor/editor/fckeditor.html?InstanceName=rte1&amp;Toolbar=Default#_ednref8" style="mso-endnote-id: edn8" name="_edn8"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;"><span style="mso-special-character: footnote"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">[viii]</span></span></span></span></span></a><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;"> </span><span style="font-size: 12pt; color: black; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">Abu Dawood Book 38, Hadis# Number 4366</span><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
</div>
<div id="edn9" style="mso-element: endnote">
<p class="MsoEndnoteText" style="margin: 0in 0in 0pt"><a title="" href="http://www.ahl-alquran.com/FCKeditor/editor/fckeditor.html?InstanceName=rte1&amp;Toolbar=Default#_ednref9" style="mso-endnote-id: edn9" name="_edn9"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;"><span style="mso-special-character: footnote"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">[ix]</span></span></span></span></span></a><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;"> </span><span style="font-size: 12pt; color: black; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">Codified Islami Law Volume 1 Law#134, Shafi&rsquo;i law Reliance of the Traveler &ndash; o.7.3</span><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
</div>
<div id="edn10" style="mso-element: endnote">
<p class="MsoEndnoteText" style="margin: 0in 0in 0pt"><a title="" href="http://www.ahl-alquran.com/FCKeditor/editor/fckeditor.html?InstanceName=rte1&amp;Toolbar=Default#_ednref10" style="mso-endnote-id: edn10" name="_edn10"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;"><span style="mso-special-character: footnote"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">[x]</span></span></span></span></span></a><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;"> </span><span style="font-size: 12pt; color: black; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">Pakistan Hudood Ordinance VII of 1979 amended by Ordinance XX of 1980 </span><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
</div>
<div id="edn11" style="mso-element: endnote">
<p class="MsoEndnoteText" style="margin: 0in 0in 0pt"><a title="" href="http://www.ahl-alquran.com/FCKeditor/editor/fckeditor.html?InstanceName=rte1&amp;Toolbar=Default#_ednref11" style="mso-endnote-id: edn11" name="_edn11"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;"><span style="mso-special-character: footnote"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">[xi]</span></span></span></span></span></a><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;"> </span><span style="font-size: 12pt; color: black; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">Codified Islami Law Volume 1 Law#133</span><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
</div>
<div id="edn12" style="mso-element: endnote">
<p class="MsoEndnoteText" style="margin: 0in 0in 0pt"><a title="" href="http://www.ahl-alquran.com/FCKeditor/editor/fckeditor.html?InstanceName=rte1&amp;Toolbar=Default#_ednref12" style="mso-endnote-id: edn12" name="_edn12"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;"><span style="mso-special-character: footnote"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">[xii]</span></span></span></span></span></a><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;"> </span><span style="font-size: 12pt; color: black; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">Ibid Law #135</span><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
</div>
<div id="edn13" style="mso-element: endnote">
<p class="MsoEndnoteText" style="margin: 0in 0in 0pt"><a title="" href="http://www.ahl-alquran.com/FCKeditor/editor/fckeditor.html?InstanceName=rte1&amp;Toolbar=Default#_ednref13" style="mso-endnote-id: edn13" name="_edn13"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;"><span style="mso-special-character: footnote"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">[xiii]</span></span></span></span></span></a><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;"> </span><span style="font-size: 12pt; color: black; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">Hanafi Law-Page 176, 353, Shafi&rsquo;i Law- page 638 Law#o.24.9, Criminal Law in Islam and the Muslim World &ndash;page 251, The Penal Law of Islam &ndash; Kazi Publications Lahore- page 44, 45, Tafsir of Translation of the Qura&rsquo;an by Muhiuddin Khan pages 239 and 928</span><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
</div>
<div id="edn14" style="mso-element: endnote">
<p class="MsoEndnoteText" style="margin: 0in 0in 0pt"><a title="" href="http://www.ahl-alquran.com/FCKeditor/editor/fckeditor.html?InstanceName=rte1&amp;Toolbar=Default#_ednref14" style="mso-endnote-id: edn14" name="_edn14"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;"><span style="mso-special-character: footnote"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">[xiv]</span></span></span></span></span></a><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;"> </span><span style="font-size: 12pt; color: black; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">The Penal Law of Islam &ndash; Kazi Publications Lahore- page 44 &ndash; 45</span><span style="font-size: 12pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
</div>
<div id="edn15" style="mso-element: endnote">
<p class="MsoEndnoteText" style="margin: 0in 0in 0pt"><a title="" href="http://www.ahl-alquran.com/FCKeditor/editor/fckeditor.html?InstanceName=rte1&amp;Toolbar=Default#_ednref15" style="mso-endnote-id: edn15" name="_edn15"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; color: black; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;"><span style="mso-special-character: footnote"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; color: black; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">[xv]</span></span></span></span></span></a><span style="font-size: 12pt; color: black; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;"> </span><span style="font-size: 12pt; color: black; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'">Hanafi Law Hedaya 178, Codified Islamic Law#129 Vol 1, Sunan Abu Dawood Book 38,4451&amp; 4423</span><span style="font-size: 12pt; color: black; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
</div>
<div id="edn16" style="mso-element: endnote">
<p class="MsoEndnoteText" style="margin: 0in 0in 0pt"><a title="" href="http://www.ahl-alquran.com/FCKeditor/editor/fckeditor.html?InstanceName=rte1&amp;Toolbar=Default#_ednref16" style="mso-endnote-id: edn16" name="_edn16"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; color: black; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;"><span style="mso-special-character: footnote"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; color: black; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">[xvi]</span></span></span></span></span></a><span style="font-size: 12pt; color: black; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;"> </span><span style="font-size: 12pt; color: black; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><a href="http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.htmlres=9900E0D9153DF935A1575AC0A9659C8B63"><span style="color: black; text-decoration: none; text-underline: none">http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.htmlres=9900E0D9153DF935A1575AC0A9659C8B63</span></a></span><span style="font-size: 12pt; color: black; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
</div>
<div id="edn17" style="mso-element: endnote">
<p class="MsoEndnoteText" style="margin: 0in 0in 0pt"><a title="" href="http://www.ahl-alquran.com/FCKeditor/editor/fckeditor.html?InstanceName=rte1&amp;Toolbar=Default#_ednref17" style="mso-endnote-id: edn17" name="_edn17"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; color: black; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;"><span style="mso-special-character: footnote"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; color: black; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">[xvii]</span></span></span></span></span></a><span style="font-size: 12pt; color: black; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;"> </span><span style="font-size: 12pt; color: black; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><a href="http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/womanshour/03_06_02/thursday/info1.shtml"><span style="color: black; text-decoration: none; text-underline: none">http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/womanshour/03_06_02/thursday/info1.shtml</span></a></span><span style="font-size: 12pt; color: black; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;"><o:p></o:p></span></p>
</div>
<div id="edn18" style="mso-element: endnote">
<p class="MsoEndnoteText" style="margin: 0in 0in 0pt"><a title="" href="http://www.ahl-alquran.com/FCKeditor/editor/fckeditor.html?InstanceName=rte1&amp;Toolbar=Default#_ednref18" style="mso-endnote-id: edn18" name="_edn18"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; color: black; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;"><span style="mso-special-character: footnote"><span class="MsoEndnoteReference"><span style="font-size: 12pt; color: black; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">[xviii]</span></span></span></span></span></a><span style="font-size: 12pt; color: black; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;"> </span><span style="font-size: 12pt; color: black; line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'"><a href="http://www.dawn.com/2005/05/21/top4.htm"><span style="color: black; text-decoration: none; text-underline: none">http://www.dawn.com/2005/05/21/top4.htm</span></a></span></p>
</div>
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اجمالي القراءات 64252

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