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Concept of Jihad, the core of war of ideas


Rules of engagement in war of ideas against Jihadists

Part one: Roots of war of ideas In Muslim World

Chapter three: Concept of Jihad, the core of war of ideas

Before Jihad:

The starting point goes back to the Quranic term ‘those who believed’ and its original meaning being ‘Those who choose safety and security in their dealing with other even if they were persecuted and harassed by them. They are believers even if their faith does not respond to the Islamic monotheism.’ We understand better the intended meaning of ‘those who believed’ from the verse that says (“Oh you who believed! Believe in God and His messenger, and the scripture which He sent before. Any who denies God, His Angles, His Books, his messengers, and the Day of Judgment, has strayed far away’. (4:136). Thus God calls upon the believers, i.e., the peaceful ones to have a belief and faith in God, his prophets and his holy books. In other words, he calls upon those who chose peace to add to it the inner belief in God, His prophets, and His books.


Generally, in many Quranic verses the expression ‘Oh you who believed’ does not implies any particular religious group. It’s addressing those who choose peace as a way of life calling them to accept religion because He said ‘Oh you who believed!’ in other words, to complement the belief in security and peace by the true sincere belief in one God, His books and His prophets, and to finally be able to reach the blessing of paradise in the hereafter, namely peace and security. By the context we recognize the verses that indicate to the believers who were around the Prophet Mohammed.


In this regard we read in the Quranic war of ideas that tried to reform the believers around the Prophet Mohammed:

(066.006  : O you who believe! save yourselves and your families from a fire whose fuel is men and stones; over it are angels stern and strong, they do not disobey Allah in what He commands them, and do as they are commanded. )

(033.069  : O ye who believe! Be not as those who slandered Moses, but Allah proved his innocence of that which they alleged, and he was well esteemed in Allah's sight. 033.070   O you who believe! be careful of(your duty to) Allah and speak the right word, 033.071  : He will put your deeds into a right state for you, and forgive you your faults; and whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger, he indeed achieves a mighty success. )

After defeating Quraysh in the battle of Badr, some Muslims were in need for reform and education. This is from these Quranic verses:

( 008.020 O you who believe! obey Allah and His Messenger and do not turn back from Him while you hear.008.021 And be not like those who said, We hear, and they did not obey. 08.022
 Surely the vilest of animals, in Allah's sight, are the deaf, the dumb, who do not understand. 008.023 And if Allah had known any good in them He would have made them hear, and if He makes them hear they would turn back while they withdraw.008.024 O you who believe! answer (the call of) Allah and His Messenger when he calls you to that which gives you life; and know that Allah intervenes between man and his heart, and that to Him you shall be gathered. 008.025
 And fear an affliction which may not smite those of you in particular who are unjust; and know that Allah is severe in requiting (evil).008.026 And remember when you were few, deemed weak in the land, fearing lest people might carry you off by force, but He sheltered you and strengthened you with His aid and gave you of the good things that you may give thanks. 008.027 O you who believe! be not unfaithful to Allah and the Messenger, nor be unfaithful to your trusts while you know. 008.028And know that your property and your children are a temptation, and that Allah is He with Whom there is a mighty reward. 008.029 O you who believe! If you are careful of (your duty to) Allah, He will grant you a distinction and do away with your evils and forgive you; and Allah is the Lord of mighty grace.)

They were believers according to their manner, or according the Arabic root of the word ( Iman ) which is (Amn ) or security. So the believer in behavior is the one whom you trust as a peaceful human regardless of his faith. The Muslims and the believers around the Prophet Mohamed were peaceful and trust worthy but needed to be reformed in their faith. Before the death of the Prophet Mohamed Allah warned them from idolizing saints and sacred tombs saying directly to them: (005.090:O ye who believe! Intoxicants and gambling, (worshipping) tombs, and (divination by) arrows, are an abomination,- of Satan's handwork: eschew such (abomination), that you may be successful. 005.091   And obey Allah and obey the messenger and be cautious; but if you turn back, then know that only a clear deliverance of the message is (incumbent) on Our messenger. )

 Quranic war of ideas against allying the tribe, who were transgressors

Beside its war of ideas, Quraysh persecuted early Muslims and the Prophet Mohammed as well. It Early Muslims had to escape it twice immigrating to Al Habasha (Ethiopia), then to Al Madina. After escaping persecution in Mecca, Quraysh continued attacking Muslims in their new home at Al Madina, while it was prohibited for Muslims in that time to defend themselves. Permission was given to Muslims to fight only for defense not to attack unjustly.

For Early Muslims it was a big test, as most of them were passive and helpless and accepted persecution according to the Middle age culture that gave the elders of society the right to subjugate the poor people and the low class hard working people. This problem was more complex in the Arabian Peninsula where the tribal culture makes the person belong to his or her tribe, allying himself or herself to them as the tribe was the only some sort of state they had. Early passive peaceful helpless Muslims were victimized by this culture and were ready to tolerate persecution from the elders of their mighty Quraysh tribe. So the Quranic war of ideas had to deal with this issue of belonging to the religion of Islam or allying their tribe, supporting freedom of belief or supporting tribe supporting justice or supporting their tribe.

It was not easy for early Muslims as they had to sacrifice their belonging to their tribe for new order: Belonging to the new religion revealed to the Prophet Mohamed. It was not easy because they had to be enemy to their families and tribe; and to immigrate and even to fight their loved ones for the sake of Islam.

This opened a new page in war of ideas in which the Quran urged the early Muslims to be active and to stand for their rights facing their own people and families and all tribal tradition.

This leads us to discuss the issue of the identity of Muslim or belonging, is he/she belongs to his people, or his religion of Islam which means the unlimited freedom of religion for all and justice for all and peace in dealing with all, and Jihad to support all these high values ?

This is the basic of understanding the test of allying these Islamic values or allying the tribe and the people when they are against these values.

The essence of belonging:

A -It is that strong feeling that prompts a person to choose a way, a path and strives in its cause. Religion or Faith, linguistically in Arabic, means Way, Path, Road. Every human being chooses for himself a religion or a way in his life to interact accordingly with his Creator and people around him. Belonging is the center piece of this interaction

B- According to the Quran, and with respect to divinity, people are of two types. There is the one that believes in Almighty Allah alone as deity, no partner, no counterpart, did not bear an offspring, nor was He borne, and nothing is comparable to Him, believes in the Day of Resurrection, conducts himself in this life according to what Almighty Allah demands from him, obeys Him hoping to be one of the successful on that Day.

Then there is the vast majority of mankind that worships (DESIRE), any thing that the self desires in this life. All DESIRES have but one way, which is the longing for this earthly life, to gain wealth, power, prestige, glory, influence, pleasure and selfish cravings. Under the title of DESIRES, they differ. Some of them are atheists with their gods they belong to, some of them are followers of man-made religions that allows and permits all means to achieve status, power, wealth by any method, and there are some who consider their god they belong to, mere slogans to deceive people by, like pan nationalism, nationalism and workers’ rights, their goals is to reach power and wealth, as manifested by politico- religious careerists.

Then there is the silent crushed majority, the prey that the mightiest of the gladiators compete to rule and exploit, with their religious, national, pan national and social slogans. The dominant desire controlling that silent majority is to secure the basic needs of shelter, guaranteed steady income, health benefits, and security for his children and to live in peace. Towards that end, he sacrifices his strength and his life, and this is his practical religion which never exceeds the requirements of this life. Even when he prays to Almighty Allah, or besieges the saints, holy men, sacred graves and tombs to intercede on his behalf, his aspirations are limited to livelihood, kids’ success and marrying off the girls and to make it safely out of the hands of the oppressive ruler….and the rest of those trivial things. But the afterlife, he does not even think about, because he was oversaturated with ideas from his man-made religion that he will enter heaven, regardless of what he had done, for paradise is guaranteed for him with the prophet’s and other saint’ intercession. Or for the mere uttering of the two phrases of ” I bear witness” (1)-That there is no god except Allah and,(2)-That Mohammad is His messenger, but what is not guaranteed for him in this life is his sustenance, which is exactly opposite what have been mentioned in the Quran. For Almighty Allah has guaranteed sustenance to all creation and mankind regardless of their belief or disbelief. (2.126) (17. 18 - ) (11. 6) (29. 60) (6.151) (17.030 -) As for Paradise, (Entrance) is not guaranteed except for those who work for it diligently.


C-The issue of Identity in Islam has nothing to do with the one who follows his desires and chooses this earthly life over the eternal one. This type, his identity has been determined by his desires in this life; his identity is for this life. The worst of this type is the so called godly that uses religion to achieve power, or to provide means of living ,because he is deceiving people in the name of Almighty Allah, taking up lying as a vocation and spreading untruths upon which his earthly man-made religion is established to cheat and deceive.

D-The issue of identity and belonging in Islam is restricted to those who believe in Almighty Allah and Day of Resurrection, work for the pleasure of Almighty Allah, to attain his favor and his paradise, and always strive to do good deeds, to maintain justice and secure people’s rights without any religious ambitions or without asking for anything in return. It is the task of prophets and those who walk in their footsteps.

E-This believer; who strives in pursuit of Almighty Allah’s pleasure, to whom does he belong? What is his identity?

  The true believer and nationalism (tribe, people)


Does the true believer belong to his people?

The Glorious Quran recognizes nationalism when it mentions every prophet’s dealings with his own people. Does that mean that the prophets and their followers belong to and have allegiance with their people? Here we have to point out few things:


One-Every prophet used to summon his people to Faith by calling them (My people).This form of speech was repeated in the Quran. Some prophets even addressed their people after their demise, addressed them feeling sorry how they ended up. (7.79, 93) It means they were his people even after death.


Two- Determining nationality in Islam is by ancestry and living within a society, that is coexisting, or by both. For an incoming stranger, acquires a certain people’s nationality by living, sharing and interacting with them. Prophet LUT migrated with his uncle ABRAHAM from Iraq to Jordan and lived with different people than his uncle, and by living with them he became their brother and their description became people of LUT or LUT’s brothers. (50. 13) (11. 78)

A prophet or a person might belong to and be identified with his people by bloodline, though he was brought up far from them, but is considered one of them through bloodline and heritage. Moses grew up and was raised inside the Pharaoh’s castle , while his people were undergoing all sorts of torture from the pharaoh, as soon as he was in contact with the general public, he committed a murder, he fled the scene, leaving his people and his (homeland) and went to Syria. He returned to Egypt, few years later as a prophet, addressing children of Israel as his people, although he never lived among them. (7.128 -)

Here, nationality is determined by bloodline and ethnicity and not by living the society or the environment.


Three- Determination of nationality (being part of a certain people) is not affected by a prophet’s people denial of his message and his mission. They are still considered his people no matter how antagonistic they are to him and his message. He might even use this connection of common background to endear them to his message, and to show them how concerned he is for their safety. Every prophets used to say to his people (my people) and Almighty Allah refers to them as (his people),) despite their going astray, their deviation from the truth and their refusal of him, he is wooing them and they are abusing him. They are still his people even though they caused him all kinds of hardship. (7. 59 - ) (7. 65) (7. 66) (7. 67) (7. 68) (61. 5)

The same thing happened with the seal of all prophets Mohamed and his people of Quraysh, who denied him. Almighty Allah informs the prophet and about (his people), saying about the Quran: (43. 44): (And most surely it is a reminder for you and your people, and you shall soon be questioned ). So prophet Mohammad and his people were asked to believe in this Glorious Quran and to follow it, for they will be asked about it, like he will be, on Day of Resurrection. But Prophet Mohammad’s people, renounced and disbelieved in this Quranic truth all together, consequently, Almighty Allah ordered his prophet to declare that he is not responsible for them, for they are still his people, although they denied him and his mission. (6. 66).


Four-The duty of a prophet towards his people is to summon them to the worship of Almighty Allah, having no deity except HIM, to advise and preach to them, even when they go astray. He was ordered to persevere with their abuse, and if they insisted upon their conviction, he was not allowed to force them to adhere to the religion, rather to tell them to remain on what they believe in, and that he will remain on what he believes in. If this abuse escalated to torture and attempts on life, then time to declare absolution of belonging to the people, to migrate from his abode which he considered home, and not to partake in his people’s actions. Likewise did Abraham and the believers when they declared their innocence of their people’s actions and migrated from their homeland, Iraq. (60. 4 - ) .Here, Almighty Allah used them as an example for the migrating companions to learn not to maintain their allegiance to their people the Qureishite, who expelled the prophet Mohamed and the companions from their towns and their homes. (60. 1- ) 

To migrate away from one’s own people and to absolve one’s self from their deeds does negate the presence of nationalism. We saw the people of Mohammad are the same people until all will come back on Resurrection Day, when the prophet will be their adversary and a witness against them that they have deserted the Quran ( 25 :30 ) (And the Messenger cried out: O my Lord! surely my people have treated this Quran as a forsaken thing ). The existence of nationalism, its permanence and to recognize it does not mean that a believer belongs to it. The believer here includes the prophet and anyone who genuinely believes in and follows the true divinely inspired religion.

 We said that the prophet employs national ties as a means to summon and call for Truth. He addresses his people derived from his love and concern for them, calls upon them to seek righteousness, goodness and success in this life and the hereafter. He does not coerce them into believing; he returns their abuse with tenderness and kindness and endures it. If peaceful methods fail with them, he has to absolve himself from them, leave them and migrate abandoning them and his home. For here, affiliation and belonging of the prophet and the true believer is to Truth and not to people, he does not ask for compensation or glory, he just calls upon them to follow the Truth and what is good. If they refuse, he respects their refusal, and leaves them to their choice, if they went to extremes in abusing and persecuting him, it becomes imperative upon him to desert them and to declare his innocence of their actions, though they are still his people.

Quranic examples for: Not to ally your enemy the transgressors who are persecuting you or fighting you:

In early years after Immigrating to Al Madina, and before the real fight between Muslims and the transgressors of Quraysh, early Muslim immigrants suffered home sick which increased inside them the belonging to their Qurayshi tribe and their town of Mecca. This made some of them in a mood of allying the enemy (Quraysh) against their fellow Muslims.

Chapter 60 dealt with this case directly saying:

(060.001   O you who believe! do not take My enemy and your enemy for allies: would you offer them love while they deny what has come to you of the truth, driving out the Messenger and yourselves because you believe in Allah, your Lord? If you go forth struggling hard in My path and seeking My pleasure, would you manifest love to them? And I know what you conceal and what you manifest; and whoever of you does this, he indeed has gone astray from the straight path)

This is about their past, what about future?: The answer in the next verse :

(.060.002    If they find you, they will be your enemies, and will stretch forth towards you their hands and their tongues with evil, and they ardently desire that you may disbelieve.).

This is about the future in this life, what about the future in the Day of Judgment? The answer in next verse:

 ( 060.003  : Your relationship would not profit you, nor your children on the day of resurrection; He will decide between you; and Allah sees what you do. )

The next three verses gave them good example from their old Grandfather Abraham asking them to follow it:

(060.004  : Indeed, there is for you a good example in Ibrahim and those with him when they said to their people: Surely we are clear of you and of what you serve besides Allah; we declare ourselves to be clear of you, and enmity and hatred have appeared between us and you forever until you believe in Allah alone-- but not in what Ibrahim said to his father: I would certainly ask forgiveness for you, and I do not control for you aught from Allah-- Our Lord! on Thee do we rely, and to Thee do we turn, and to Thee is the eventual coming: 060.005   Our Lord! Make us not a prey for those who disbelieve, and forgive us, our Lord! Lo! Thou, only Thou, are the Mighty, the Wise. 060.006  : There was indeed in them an excellent example for you to follow,- for those whose hope is in Allah and in the Last Day. But if any turn away, truly Allah is Free of all Wants, Worthy of all Praise. )
Then the sixth verse gave them a hope that they may become friend after this enmity : (060.007  : It may be that Allah will bring about friendship between you and those whom you hold to be your enemies among them; and Allah is Powerful; and Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.).

The two verses 7 and 8 established the rules of fighting and allying in a clear term: (060.008  : Allah does not forbid you respecting those who have not made war against you on account of (your) religion, and have not driven you forth from your homes, that you show them kindness and deal with them justly; surely Allah loves the doers of justice. (060.009   Allah only forbids you respecting those who made war upon you on account of (your) religion, and drove you forth from your homes and backed up (others) in your expulsion, that you ally them, and whoever makes friends with them, these are the unjust. )

However, Some of Muslims disobeyed it for many years. So, Quran said to them in the last chapter revealed in the Quran:

( 009.023  O you who believe ! take not for alliance your fathers and your brothers if they love infidelity above Faith: and whoever of you takes them for a guardian, these it is that are the unjust. 009.024   Say: If your fathers and your sons and your brethren and your mates and your kinsfolk and property which you have acquired, and the slackness of trade which you fear and dwellings which you like, are dearer to you than Allah and His Messenger and striving in His way, then wait till Allah brings about His command: and Allah does not guide the transgressing people.)


1-Migration is the corner stone in the belonging of the believer to his faith and not to his people or his country or homeland. Migration becomes compulsory when persecution reaches unbearable levels, when the believer’s faith is threatened; his practice of his faith is restricted, prohibited, severely harmed, suffer of unjustified pursuit, torture, imprisonment and murder. Migration then is not a choice, but a duty, leaving his home, and his people, despite the fact that they are his people. Migration in this situation is very crucial, for based on his decision; his eternal fate will be decided; if he was capable of migrating and chose not to, holding unto his people and his home, acquiescing to oppression and injustice, his abode will be hellfire. But if he was incapable of migrating though he would have liked to, then he is forgiven :

( 004.097  : When angels take the souls of those who die in sin against their souls, they say: "In what (plight) Were ye?" They reply: "Weak and oppressed Were we in the earth." They say: "Was not the earth of Allah spacious enough for you to move yourselves away (From evil)?" Such men will find their abode in Hell,- What an evil refuge! - 004.098  : Except those who are (really) weak and oppressed - men, women, and children - who have no means in their power, nor (a guide-post) to their way. 004.099 : So these, it may be, Allah will pardon them, and Allah is Pardoning, Forgiving. )

Almighty Allah promises those who migrated, endured hardship and relied on Allah, with ample reward in this life and the hereafter : (016.041 :   To those who leave their homes in the cause of Allah, after suffering oppression,- We will assuredly give a goodly home in this world; but truly the reward of the Hereafter will be greater. If they only realized (this)! 016.042   (They are) those who persevere in patience, and put their trust on their Lord. )

(016.110   Yet surely your Lord, with respect to those who fly after they are persecuted, then they struggle hard and are patient, most surely your Lord after that is Forgiving, Merciful.)

(022.058  : Those who leave their homes in the cause of Allah, and are then slain or die,- On them will Allah bestow verily a goodly Provision: Truly Allah is He Who bestows the best provision.  022.059  : Verily He will admit them to a place with which they shall be well pleased: for Allah is All-Knowing, Most Forbearing. )

2-Migration also is a fundamental element in choosing the afterlife. For this life is but a bridge to cross to get to the eternal life, its joys and pleasures are mere ornaments and trials, all will be rendered ruins, that is why a believer keeps the afterlife between his eyes by doing good deeds, for those are the lasting things for the Day of Resurrection. (18. 7 – 8 . 48 ) ( 57 . 20 )


3-- Migration is tied to the purpose of creating mankind and to creating the universe to test mankind. For, Almighty Allah, created all this, created life and death, to test Man on this earth.(11. 7) (67. 2 - ). And appointed to each human being a time when he comes to this earth to live as a person, to live on it a specified period of time, then the person will die and this (self) will return to that abode it came from. And when all humanity is done with this trial period, this universe as we know it will be destroyed, thereby ending this earthly life and this Present Day making way for the Later Day, Day of Judgment, and either hellfire or paradise.(14. 48 ).

A believer understands that, and ever-present in his mind the notion that Almighty Allah did not create this universe in vain, (3.190-) (21. 16) (46. 3) (75. 36- ) (23.115) 

No, He created man for a trial no one can escape and no alternative for. So his belonging is to the everlasting permanent Afterlife and not to this someday, vanishing disappearing life. A believer is certain with this knowledge, how important it is, this short time he is permitted to be in this life, and how important it is to invest it, in doing what is good, to benefit him later on, and to have a genuine faith in Almighty Allah and in the Day After. It would be foolish for a believer to waste his limited stay in this life and the trial period, in being subjugated to religious persecution, that is why it is important for him, due to his awareness of the Afterlife, to leave his homeland of a country that seizes his right for free worship, and to absolve himself of those arrogant among his people who abuse him, trying to force him to go back off the right track. Belonging to the Afterlife fulfils an expectation for the believer to enjoy his freedom in exercising his faith and religion, for the duration of what is left for him on this planet, till the day he meets Almighty Allah on Resurrection Day and succeed in this trial on the Day of Reckoning.


4- Almighty Allah says: “O My servants who believe! Surely My earth is vast, therefore Me alone should you serve. Every soul must taste of death, then to Us you shall be brought back” (29. 56 - ).

This earth that Almighty Allah has created is very spacious, and because it is spherical, it extends to no end. A man on this earth is like an ant on a watermelon, an ant would keep moving along the surface of a watermelon without reaching the end, in that context, and earth is spacious with no end. But life is limited for Man, and every human being will someday taste death. Accordingly, if you were predetermined to live 60 years, your age which is limited with the arrival of death to end it, diminishes with every day that goes by, and it is incumbent on you, if you were a believer, who defined his belonging by believing in Allah and the Day After, that you do not waste a single minute of your life, for the minute that expires will never return, for you are riding the train of Time. It is not a train that never stops nor does it go back for any reason but keeps moving forward, and when the station for you disembark arrives-through death-then you must leave the train of life and time, and you become a prisoner to your deeds, good or bad. It is utter foolishness for a believer to waste his life and the time assigned for him on earth in a state of surrender to the one who despises him for his religion, and to the one who prevents him from practicing his faith and his rituals freely. He must migrate to Almighty Allah striving to utilize what is left of his life in attaining belonging to Allah and His religion.


5-Notice the word (My Earth), in His saying Glory to Him, “O My servants who believe! Surely My earth is vast”, (29. 56),here, the term, earth is attributed to Almighty Allah and is owned by Him, It is the only time that the term (My Earth) was mentioned in the Glorious Quran, although the word, Earth and its derivatives were mentioned 461 times in the Glorious Quran. What is intended here with the term (Earth), is that which people fight over, yet it belongs to Almighty Allah. A day will come when Allah Almighty will destroy this earth, and people will be summoned to account for their deeds, after a short predetermined life span, wasted by most people fighting and chasing an earthly mirage, forgetting that death, the big Zero, is in wait for them all. The ones, who will survive and escape the consequences of this Zero, are those who worked for the Hereafter, paid its dues while believing (17. 19).


6--The reference here to the spacious earth, came to emphasize upon the believer specifically in the matter of migration, if they restricted your freedom in this land, then Almighty Allah’s earth is spacious, this emphasis was repeated in rebuking those who were capable of migrating, yet lagged behind. Upon his death and upon losing his chance, the Angels of death would blame them. Allah says : “When angels take the souls of those who die in sin against their souls, they say: "In what (plight) Were ye?" They reply: "Weak and oppressed Were we in the earth." They say: "Was not the earth of Allah spacious enough for you to move yourselves away (From evil)?" Such men will find their abode in Hell,- What an evil refuge! “. (4. 97  )

Almighty Allah says about the spacious earth for those who migrate in it,” He who forsakes his home in the cause of Allah, finds in the earth Many hardships, and abundance in the earth, Should he die as a refugee from home for Allah and His Messenger, His reward becomes due and sure with Allah: And Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful. (4.100). By  hardships, you earn Almighty Allah’s pleasure when confronting difficulties and exercising patience in dealing with them, afterwards comes Almighty Allah’s abundant grace in His spacious earth.

This hardship in immigration for the cause of Allah needs patience. Almighty Allah also says "O ye my servants who believe! Fear your Lord, good is (the reward) for those who do good in this world. Spacious is Allah's earth! Those who patiently persevere will truly receive a reward without measure!" (39. 10). It is obligatory on the believer to be God-conscious in belief and in action. In return for his good deed, he will reap good reward. Almighty Allah’s earth is spacious before the believer in his short time on it. Nothing is asked of him except exercise patience, and the reward for patient persevering people is unlimited. The problem in Islamic Jihad was more.


  Legislation of jihad in the Islam


Let’s begin with the real Islamic Jihad as it is written in the Quran then the Quranic war of ideas which was needed to convince the early Muslims to accept this Jihad while they were victimized by their Arabian tribal culture.

  Understanding laws of Jihad in Islam

According to Quranic terminology, jihad is the striving of the soul, money, and energy to please God by all means. It includes giving money to the poor regardless of their religion and faith, and to fight only to defend not to attack. (29:8, 8:72, 25:52).  The Quran sets the legislation for jihad, its commandments, its principles and its final aims.

Generally, Quranic legislation is based on commandments or orders which serve principles or rules, and those principles or rules in turn serve the basic Islamic aims and values.

Regarding jihad, the order: “fight” is based on rules of self-defense in response to violent attack, or in the Quranic term, “fighting in the cause of God.” This principle serves the final aim/value of fighting which is to assure religious freedom and prevent religious persecution.

The greater value of jihad in Islam is to allow every person to follow the religion of his or her choice without any persecution. The Muslim state has to fight to prevent persecution and to defend itself and its freedom of belief and speech for the value of jihad.  In this way, every one has the freedom of choice in the realm of religion and he or she will be responsible before God only on the Last Day based to his/her freedom of choice. In this life, one is responsible only before society if he or she violates the rights of other people. 

For example, God said, “And fight in the cause of God those who are fighting you, but transgress not the limits. Truly, God loves not transgressors.” (2:190). Here the commandment is to fight and the principle is “in the cause of God those who fight you, but transgress not the limits. Truly, God loves not transgressors.” To fight for the cause of God means to fight according to His legislation which forbids transgression. God repeated and confirmed the same meaning, “...Then whoever attacks you, you may attack them to inflict an equivalent retribution.” (2:193).

The ultimate goal of this legislation in His saying is, “and fights them until there is no more oppression.”(2: 193). Therefore, the prevention of oppression is the essential aim for the legislation of fighting. Oppression in the Arabic and Quranic language means ‘fitnah,’ which is used in the Quranic terminology to refer to religious persecution committed by the criminal unbelievers in Mecca against the early Muslims. That persecution included the continuous fight against the peaceful early Muslims even after their escape from Mecca to Al Madina. God says, “And oppression is worse than slaughter. And they will not cease fighting you until they turn you back from your faith if they can” (2: 217).

By allowing religious freedom and preventing oppression in religion, every one deals with God alone, obeying or disobeying him, and every one will be responsible for his or her deeds only before God on the Day of Judgment.  None has the right to take upon oneself God’s sovereignty or judge other people’s faith or to persecute those who hold different religious opinions. This makes the realm of religion belong to God alone without any kind of human religious authority. This is precisely what the Quranic verse calls for when it says, “And fight them until there is no more oppression and all the religion will belong to God alone.” (8:39). God may forgive them if they refrain and stop transgression and persecution, and the Muslims have no right to attack them; otherwise they become transgressors themselves as God says, “And fight in the cause of God those who fight you, and transgress not the limits. Truly, God loves not the transgressors... But if they cease, then God is Oft- Forgiving, Most Merciful. And fight them until there is no more oppression and the religion will belong to God. But if they cease, let be no more transgression except against the transgressors only.” (2:190-193). This is confirmed in other verses (8:38-40). This legislation concerning fighting agrees with what is understood from the term ‘Islam’ which means submission and peace, and protects peace from any animosity or transgression.


  Jihad and freedom of religion


Jihad assures religious freedom. It’s enough here to remember that the Quranic principle states, “There shall be no compulsion in religion.” (2:256). Moreover, God said to Prophet Mohammed, blaming him, “And had your Lord willed, those on earth would have believed, all of them together. So, will you then compel people until they become believers? ” (10:99). This confirms the Quranic fact that religion belongs to God alone without any human religious authority, and that  Prophet Mohammed does not have religious authority over people , as it’s the will of God alone that let people exercise their freedom of choice and be responsible for their beliefs before Him alone on the Last Day.

Freedom in religion is the key of democracy, as is the freedom of thought and speech.


  Rules of alliance in time of war


For the first time in the Arab Peninsula, some Arabs established a real state according to our modern definition of state.  It was the first –and may be the last- Islamic state in the time of Prophet Mohammed. The new Islamic state had its border, army, people, and government. It also had allies and enemies.

Any believer from the Arab desert who wanted to be a member of this state had to immigrate to it and live inside its borders.  All the believers inside this state were allies to each other against their enemies who attacked the peaceful state. The Quran stated to them that the believers outside the state should immigrate to be a part of the state. If believers outside the Islamic state asked for protection, the state was obligated to defend them unless a treaty between the Islamic state and those who attacked these outsider believers existed.  So, all believers were to be allies to each other inside their state to stand firm against the transgressor unbelievers who were united against the Islamic state. (8:72 -73) .

Inside that Islamic state, there were different groups of oppositions who were against the state and its religion. The Quran called them the hypocrites.  They enjoyed freedom of speech and belief, and also the freedom of conspiracy against the state. The Holy Quran used to expose theirs plots and their inner thoughts, but at the same time, order the believers to avoid them, turn aside from them as long they did not fight the state.  Details can be found in the following :( 2:8-14, 204-206 ), (3:118-119, 155-158, 167-168), (3:60-69, 81-83, 105-115, 138-146), (5:52), (8:49), (9:42-68, 73-87, 93-98, 101, 107-110, 124-127), (24:11-26, 46-54), (33:1, 12-20, 24, 48, 57-61, 73), (37:16, 20-30), (48:6, 11-16), (58:7-22), (59:11-16), (63:1-8), and (66:9).

Although, the hypocrites inside Al Madina were under control, there was another kind of hypocrites who lived in the desert and used to come to the Islamic state claiming belief in Islam, with an inner goal of deceiving Muslims and to spy on them. Some of them offered to become allies to the state while in reality; they were enemies to the Islamic state. These hypocrites were a real danger to the Islamic state, so the Quran ordered Muslims not to ally with them until they immigrated to the state.  If they refused to immigrate, then they were to be treated as enemies in the battle field.  However, if they did not immigrate but did not attack the state, the Muslims were not allowed to fight them (4:88-91). God described most of those Arab Bedouins as the “worst in disbelief and hypocrisy and more likely to be in ignorance of the God’s Legislation.” (9: 97).

Most of them had a good relationship with the Arab Christians and Jewish tribes in the Arabian Peninsula. Some Arab Christians and Jewish tribes united together against the new Islamic state. Some people inside the Islamic state – including the hypocrites – had a good relationship with those allies in spite of their enmity. So, God ordered the Muslims not to take the hypocrites as allies as long as they fought the Islamic state.  If they did not fight the Muslims, the hypocrites were to be allies and a part of the Muslim state (5: 51-58).

The Islamic state had to defend itself against the attacks of Christian Arabs allied with Jewish tribes.  God ordered the Islamic state to fight them as they violated God’s commandment until they paid expiation as a punishment for their aggression (8:29).  It means not to occupy their land, nor to force them to convert to Islam, but only to pay back for their aggression as our modern international legislation deals with any country attacking other country and is finally defeated.  These rules of alliance protected the new peaceful Islamic state against all of its enemies who surrounded it.

Generally, God makes clear rules in dealing with the non- Muslims who are outside the Islamic state:


[1] Islamic state should deal kindly and justly with those who do not fight them, nor drive them out of their homes.

[2] Muslims are not allowed to be allies to those who attack and fight them because of their religion, those who expelled them from their home, or helped the transgressor unbelievers in driving the Muslims out of their homes.

God says:”Allah does not forbid you respecting those who have not made war against you on account of (your) religion, and have not driven you forth from your homes, that you show them kindness and deal with them justly; surely Allah loves the doers of justice. Allah only forbids you regarding those who made war upon you on account of (your) religion, and drove you forth from your homes and backed up (others) in your expulsion, that you make friends with them, and whoever makes friends with them, these are the unjust.”.(60:8, 9).

(3) If Muslims are persecuted inside a country that attacks Islamic state and this transgressor country is terrorizing the helpless Muslims, then those Muslims have the right to use (Al TAqyyyah) to save their lives, means to appease those transgressors. God says: “Let not the believers take the transgress unbelievers allies against believers; and whoever does this, he shall have nothing of (the guardianship of) Allah, unless you fear them.”( 3: 28 )


  Rules in battle field:


Not only does the Quran establish a clear relationship between the terms ‘Islam’ and ‘peace’ and the legislation of war , but the Quran also presents other legislations in order to confirm the main value of peace and to leave no ground for ambiguity or intended misuse.


1- A clear-cut example is presented in chapter 4 which talks about the prohibition of killing a peaceful, safe and secure believer.  The verse states, “It’s not for a believer to kill a believer except by mistake.” (4:92), this means that it is impossible or unjustifiable, that a true believer would intentionally kill another. The verse goes further in talking about the compensation due such a case and the rules related to it. Then, verse 4:93 talks about the Divine punishment awaiting the killer of a peaceful person or a believer, for, that matter doesn’t make a difference. The verse says, “And whoever kills a believer intentionally, his recompense is Hell, to abide therein forever, and the wrath and the curse of God are upon him and a dreadful punishment is prepared for him.” (4:93). Thus, whoever kills a peaceful believer faces eternity in Hell, wrath, curse, and great suffering. These are stated in the Quran as separate punishments each. Yet, it seems that the person who commits such a dreadful crime deserves all of these punishments added together.

Chapter 4 continues as verse 94 declares the right of life to any peaceful person regardless of his or her inner belief, it says, “Oh you who believed! When you go to fight in the cause of God, investigate carefully and say not to anyone who say peace to you ‘You are not a believer’.” Thus in times of war, the believers must carefully investigate to make sure that they aren’t committing the crime of killing a peaceful man, who by misfortune happens to be in the battle field. God gives everyone on the other side (the enemy) a constant right to be saved simply by pronouncing the words, “peace”, or the Islamic greeting: “Peace be upon you”. If the enemy says so, it then becomes unlawful to kill him or her. He/she even becomes a peaceful believer regardless of his/her inner belief and his /her strange presence in the battle field. If he/she is killed, the killer will deserve the punishments mentioned in the verse 93. Therefore, any peaceful person is a Muslim and a believer even during war time and in the battlefield. If he/she is killed, then the killer deserves the abode in Hell, the great suffering, and God’s curse and wrath.


2- It was a common practice of that time to kill the captives, enslave them, or free them for money or ransom. God blamed Prophet Mohammed when he set free all the captives of Badr Battle for money, as the main mission of the Prophet was not to seek the vanity of this life, but to be a good example to people. God ordered Prophet Mohammed to tell them that He would forgive them if they had any good in their heart, “O Prophet say to the captives that are in your hands, ‘If God knows any good in your hearts, He will give you something better than what has been taken from you and He will forgive you, and God is Oft- Forgiving, Most Merciful.’” (8:70). God ordered Prophet Mohammed and the Muslims only two choices in dealing with the captives: to either set them free or exchange them as prisoners of war. (37:4). Under all circumstances, the prisoner of war after release becomes Ibn Al Sabeel, or  a guest as long he is in the Muslim State, and should be given charity and alms and shelter until a safe return home. (76:8), (2:177, 215), (4:36), (8:41), (9:60), (17:26), (24:22), (30:38), (59:7).

These Quranic laws about the captives were ignored by Muslims during their history, and captives were killed as it was a bad habit in the Middle Ages. This used to happen during the battles between the Muslim Empire, the Roman Empire, and other nations, along with domestic wars during Muslims civil wars.  Moreover, killing the captives or enslaving them was accompanied by enslaving women and children. It was the culture of the dark Middle Ages which made Muslim traditions and history full of these aspects that manifested defiance to the real Islamic values.


3- In the case of a warrior fighting against the Muslims who decided to cease attack, he/she only has to seek an asylum. When he/she does so, his/her life is safe and secured. He/she should be allowed to listen to the Quran, to have no excuses before God on Judgment Day. The Muslims are ordered to escort him/her to a safe place, or a home, in security and peace. That is precisely what the Quranic verse says, “If one amongst the transgressor unbelievers seeks protection from you, grant it to him, so that he may hear the word of God, and then escort him to where he can be secured, that is because they are without knowledge.” (9:6). So, it is to make him know the peaceful message of the Quran, not to force him to be Muslim , then to escort him safely to his home, leaving him responsible for his choice before God in the Day of Judgment after knowing the Quran.


The first order of fighting


 The early Muslims in Mecca who were around the Prophet Mohamed suffered continuous persecution. It was so intense that God allows the believer to appease the transgressors even by uttering disbelief in God, :( 16 / 106).

When persecution became so intense the believers were encouraged by the Quranic war of ideas to immigrate to enjoy religious freedom. (16 / 41-42) (4 / 97 - ) (29 / 56 – 57).

After they migrated to Al Medina, they were continuously attacked by Quraysh who wanted to force them to go back to their previous idolatrous religion.  It is an unknown historic fact in Muslim tradition, but it is mentioned in the Quran only and ignored by old Muslim historians and scholars.  No Muslim scholar in our time knows that the mighty tribe of Quraysh used to attack Al Madina and fight the peaceful Muslims living inside who did not defend themselves because they did not have permission from God.

If it were not for the Quranic verses sent down which allowed them to practice self-defense, the early Muslims would have being destroyed and eradicated. Yet, the old Muslim scholars and historians during the Middle Ages did not consider these verses rationally, because rationalizing these verses would bring out a meaning that they preferred to be kept silent about.

The verse says, “Permission to fight is given to those were fought against because they have been wronged and verily God is most powerful in their aid.” (22:39), this verse gives permission for self-defense in case of persecution and injustice regardless of what the religion is. God encourages self-defense and brings victory to the victims who do so. The old Muslim scholars were oblivious to the generalization of this verse because it gave anyone the right to fight for his/her freedom of religion. Since this meaning is not exactly what the Middle Ages were about, it was better to disregard it.

The same scholars and historians also neglected a major factor of the verse. Since the followers of Prophet Mohammed were facing a dangerous enemy, if they had not been allowed to defend themselves, they would have easily been completely massacred.

The Quran demonstrates here a historical reality disregarded by the historians of the Abbasid Empire. The fact is that transgressors of Quraysh disbelievers repeatedly raided Al Madina, often killing the habitants, but the peaceful Muslims would not take action because they were not yet allowed to do so. It was not until they received the permission to fight that they began to defend themselves.

 The following verse is another case where the old Muslim scholars chose not to rationalize.  The next verse talks about those peaceful early Muslims: “Those who have been expelled from their homes unjustly only because they said ‘God is only Our Lord’. For had it not been that God checks one set of people by means of another, monasteries, churches, synagogues and mosques, in which the name of God is commemorated in a abundant measure would surely have been pulled down.” (22:40).

We understand from this verse that not only did the victims face a threat of genocide, but the reason for their expulsion from their homes was the commemoration of God’s name as their only God and Lord.


 In Islam: Fight to defend the churches, monasteries, synagogues and mosques


Due to the religious fanaticism during the Abbasid Empire, the religious scholars chose to overlook the main point of this verse (22:40), namely that all followers of the Divine messages pray to the same God, and thus, all the houses of prayers are all equal in God’s eye. If the believers had not defended themselves altogether, their houses of prayers would not have remained standing. The verse clearly mentions, without differentiation, the places of worship of the Christians , Jews, Muslims and others, all united by the act of ‘constantly commemorating God’s name’. What is of extreme importance here is that the Quran assures the need to protect and respect all these houses of prayers regardless of the disputes among all of their followers, because in spite of disputes, these houses of prayers are shelters of peace and security, or it should be so.

It is very important also to note that the mosques – of the Muslims - are mentioned last.  Had the Quran been biased for Islam only, the verse would have said ‘In which God’s name alone is constantly recited,’ but since there are non- Muslims who have attached other saints and names beside God, they are also taken into account even though they clash with the Islamic monotheist faith of ‘there are no Lord but God’ La illah illa ALLAH.  Therefore the aim of this verse is to put all houses of prayer belonging to all faiths under protection from any violation, making it religiously accepted for any of these groups to defend themselves and their places of worship even if blood has to be shed.

It is clear here that the only reason for fighting is to protect the freedom of belief which God grants to all mankind, no matter what the religion is, as long it is a peaceful one void of any violence or transgression. Every person who builds a house of prayer has his/her own view and perspectives about God and worships Him accordingly. By all means, these houses and the people praying in them must enjoy safety and peace regardless of the differences among them. God is the only one who will judge them on the Day of Judgment.

God said to his final Prophet ( Mohamed) in dealing with the people of scripture ( Christian and Jews ): “  And We have revealed to you the Book with the truth, verifying what is before it of the Book and a guardian over it, therefore judge between them by what Allah has revealed, and do not follow their low desires (to turn away) from the truth that has come to you; for every one of you did We appoint a law and a way, and if Allah had pleased He would have made you (all) a single people, but that He might try you in what He gave you, therefore compete with one another to hasten to virtuous deeds; to Allah is your return, of all (of you), so He will let you know that in which you differed;” It is an order to compete in doing the good deeds, leaving their religious disputes to the One God on the Day of Judgment to judge among them telling the truth. But in this life, the houses of worship must be protected, all of them.


  Be ready to defend yourself to achieve peace.


When the permission to fight was granted for the early Muslims, it was expected that they would rejoice with the idea of retaliation, but the opposite occurred. They had grown accustomed to passiveness and toleration of pain, so they hated the new legislation concerning Jihad- note that Jihad here implies holy war in terms of self defense- they were oblivious to the fact they needed to fight to defend themselves and to achieve peace, their own hope in this life. They didn’t realize that their enemy would seize to attack them once they show some resistance.

It is the only way to protect yourself and your enemy is to be ready to defend yourself to prevent him from attacking you. It is the Quranic policy of “deterrent”. God said to them and to every peaceful state: “And make ready against them all you can of power, including steeds of war to terrify the enemy of God and your enemy…” “And if they incline to peace you must incline to it. And put your trust in God, Verily, He is the All – Hearer, the All-Knower.” “And if they intend to deceive you, then, Verily, God is All- Sufficient for you :{ 8: 60 to 62}, by this way, you can stop any potential attack against you and save not only your people, but also your enemy’s. It means the Quranic policy of ‘deterrent’ is to serve peace, not to encourage the violence, especially when we read it in the context of all the rules of war in the Quran, which make the war only to defend not to attack.


Beside this basic rule of self defense, God revealed in the Holy Quran the other rules of self defense and condemned transgression against the peaceful people even they are your ardent enemy.

Quranic war of ideas to support the Islamic Jihad

Quranic war of ideas urged peaceful Muslims to defend themselves.

1- The early Muslims hated to defend themselves.


In spite of all these rules and their critical situation, the early Muslims in the time of the prophet Mohammed hated the permission of fighting, so God mentioned this in his Quran addressing them saying: “Fighting is prescribed upon you, and you dislike it. But it is possible that you dislike a thing which is good for you and that you love a thing which is bad for you. But God knows while you know not”)  (2:216).

Here God is telling them that even though they hated fighting, but it was good for them because they needed to defend themselves, at the same time they liked to be silent and passive towards the raging war, yet it was dangerous for them.

The problem was that they had gotten accustomed to patience and peace, but it had reached a degree that was not only threatening there religion. But even their existence. This Quranic clarification was not enough for them to change their attitude and to push them to prepare themselves for defense. A group among them rejected the legislation for fighting and even raised their voices asking God to postpone his command.

 So God answered (“Have you not seen those who were told to hold back their hands from fight but established regular prayers and spend in regular charity? When at length the order for fighting was ordained to them, be hold! A section of them feared men as-or even more than-they should have feared God; they said ‘our lord! Why have you ordained for us to fight? Would that you had granted us respite for a short period?) (4:77).

This verse came in context of the Quranic war of ideas that Urging believers to fight in the cause of Allah saying:

 (004.074   Therefore let those fight in the way of Allah, who sell this world's life for the hereafter; and whoever fights in the way of Allah, then be he slain or be he victorious, We shall grant him a mighty reward. 004.075 And why should ye not fight in the cause of Allah and of those who, being weak,  : And what reason have you that you should not fight in the way of Allah and of the weak among the men and the women and the children, (of) those who say: Our Lord! cause us to go forth from this town, whose people are oppressors, and give us from Thee a guardian and give us from Thee a helper. 004.076   Those who believe fight in the way of Allah, and those who disbelieve fight in the way of the Shaitan. Fight therefore against the friends of the Shaitan; surely the strategy of the Shaitan is weak. 004.077   Have you not seen those to whom it was said: Withhold your hands, and keep up prayer and pay the poor-rate; but when fighting is prescribed for them, lo! a party of them fear men as they ought to have feared Allah, or (even) with a greater fear, and say: Our Lord! why hast Thou ordained fighting for us? Wherefore didst Thou not grant us a delay to a near end? Say: The provision of this world is short, and the hereafter is better for him who guards (against evil); and you shall not be wronged the husk of a date stone. 004.078   Wherever you are, death will overtake you, though you are in lofty towers )(004.084  Fight then in Allah's way; this is not imposed on you except In relation to yourself, and rouse the believers to ardor maybe Allah will restrain the fighting of those who disbelieve and Allah is strongest in prowess and strongest to give an exemplary punishment. )

In Mecca they were ordered to refrain from self-defense and to consecrate their time and effort in praying and spending in charity. The fact that a group rejected the order to fight and asked for it to be postponed shows to what extent they were devoted to peace and hateful to bloodshed.


Early peaceful Muslims in battles, against the transgressors of Quraysh


The battles during the period of the prophet Mohammed were the biggest proof for their tendency towards peace and their hatred for the self-defense war, when it was forced upon them. We shall demonstrate from the Quran their peaceful attitude during three main battles, Badr, Ohod. Alahzab, and Al osra.

The battle of Bade:


It was the first and the most famous.In order to understand the real causes of this battle we must first understand what the terms [Eelaaf] or convenient of Quraysh which is mentioned in the sura of Quraysh (106:1-4). In its four verses God told that because of His sacred Mosque in Mecca, the Quryash tribe had its [Eelaaf] or trade convenient, accordingly, they used to send peacefully their trade caravans between Syria and Yemen during winter and summer, and lived without hunger or fear, while the other tribes suffered hunger and continuous wars. The same meaning was repeated in other verses :( 29:67) (28:57)

  Quraysh traded with Syria and Yemen exchanging goods once in the summer and once in the winter. They had obtained covenant of security outside Mecca, safeguarding the caravan during their journeys between Mecca and Yemen, and between Mecca and Syria. Inside Mecca there was another type of covenant among the inhabitants; the Quraysh people had to participate in financing the two caravans, the winter and the summer one. The budget, needed was divided into shares that the Quraysh people invested in. And at the end of the year they calculated the prophets of the shares and each one took his earnings.


When the Muslims were forces to leave Mecca and go to Madina they lost their investments and the ‘unbelievers’ confiscated all their homes and belongings.  They would not dare ask for their money from the enemy who was chasing and attacking them.


When the Muslims received the right to fight it was natural that they would claim their money back. For that reason they raided the caravans which traded with their money. They hoped to get their money or the caravan without fight. However, on their way to meet the caravan, Muslims were promised that they would either take over the caravan or that they would win over their enemy. They went for the caravans, But soon enough an army from Quraysh came to save the caravan and kill the Muslims who happened to be few in number.

It was clear that since there were no caravans, then they would surely win the battle, as God promised them, nevertheless some of the Muslims were frightened to face the enemy in the battle. The Quran describes this situation as follows) (“As Your Lord caused you to go out from your home with the truth, and verily a party among the believers disliked it. Disputing with you concerning the truth, after it was made manifest, as if they were being driven to death while they were looking) ‘Actually at it”) (8:5-6).

It’s clear that they hated fighting; that they were honest about their position even though God promised to support them, and when they were ordered to engage in war it was as if they could actually see death coming to seize them.


We need mention here that what the Quran says concerning the battle of Badr contradicts the stories written about the prophet during the Muslim Empire. In these stories the old historians confirmed that all of the Muslims of Badr were anxious to fight and no one of them was doubtful about it. If it was not for the Quran we would not have known the reality of the situation.

The real situation confirms that the early Muslims were not a bunch of blood thirsty fanatics welling to die for the though, called “Holy War”. They were peaceful people wanted to worship God and glorify Him in peace. But the stories have been twisted around in order to use these early Muslims ‘incorrectly’, to justify using violence under the name of God. The contemporary Islamic culture has until now ignored these verses for the same cause, so most of the Islamic reality is messing and continues to be so.

Quranic war of ideas accompanied the battle of Badr

Muslims were in bad need for encouragement as it was a big test for them to fight the famous notorious Quraysh. Defeat in this battle meant destroying Islam and its small state. Quranic war of ideas was badly needed in this critical time:

(008.005 “As Your Lord caused you to go out from your home with the truth, and verily a party among the believers disliked it.008.006 : Disputing with you concerning the truth, after it was made manifest, as if they were being driven to death while they were looking. ‘Actually at it’ 008.007   And when Allah promised you one of the two parties that it shall be yours and you loved that the one not armed should be yours and Allah desired to manifest the truth of what was true by His words and to cut off the root of the unbelievers. 008.008   That He may manifest the truth of what was true and show the falsehood of what was false, though the guilty disliked. 008.009  : When you sought aid from your Lord, so He answered you: I will assist you with a thousand of the angels following one another. 008.010  : And Allah only gave it as a good news and that your hearts might be at ease thereby; and victory is only from Allah; surely Allah is Mighty, Wise. 008.011  : When He caused calm to fall on you as a security from Him and sent down upon you water from the cloud that He might thereby purify you, and take away from you the uncleanness of the Shaitan, and that He might fortify your hearts and steady (your) footsteps thereby. 008.012   When your Lord revealed to the angels: I am with you, therefore make firm those who believe. I will cast terror into the hearts of those who disbelieve. Therefore strike off their heads and strike off every fingertip of them. 008.013  : This is because they acted adversely to Allah and His Messenger; and whoever acts adversely to Allah and His Messenger-- then surely Allah is severe in requiting (evil). 008.014   This-- taste it, and (know) that for the unbelievers is the chastisement of fire. 008.015   O you who believe! when you meet those who disbelieve marching for war, then turn not your backs to them. 008.016  : And whoever shall turn his back to them on that day-- unless he turn aside for the sake of fighting or withdraws to a company-- then he, indeed, becomes deserving of Allah's wrath, and his abode is hell; and an evil destination shall it be. 008.017   So you did not slay them, but it was Allah Who slew them, and you did not smite when you smote (the enemy), but it was Allah Who smote, and that He might confer upon the believers a good gift from Himself; surely Allah is Hearing, Knowing. 008.018   This, and that Allah is the weakener of the struggle of the unbelievers. 008.019  : (O Qureysh!)  If you demanded a judgment, the judgment has then indeed come to you; and if you desist, it will be better for you; and if you turn back (to fight), We (too) shall turn back, and your forces shall avail you nothing, though they may be many, and (know) that Allah is with the believers. )

 (008.065  O Prophet! urge the believers to war; if there are twenty patient ones of you they shall overcome two hundred, and if there are a hundred of you they shall overcome a thousand of those who disbelieve, because they are a people who do not understand. )

After the Battle of Ohod

Quraysh attacked Muslims for revenge aiming to destroy Al Madina. Muslims marched to face them near the mountain of Ohod to stop them reaching Al Madina. For many reasons Muslim army was defeated. It was a disaster that needed for the Quranic war of ideas as well. Quran says:  (003.138  : This is a clear statement for men, and a guidance and an admonition to those who guard(against evil). 003.139  : And be not infirm, and be not grieving, and you shall have the upper hand if you are( true ) believers. 003.140   If a wound has afflicted you (at Ohud), a wound like it has also afflicted the (unbelieving) people; and We bring these days to men by turns, and that Allah may know those who believe and take witnesses from among you; and Allah does not love the unjust. 003.141   And that He may purge those who believe and deprive the unbelievers of blessings. 003.142   Do you think that you will enter paradise while Allah has not yet known those who strive hard from among you, and (He has not) known the patient.003.143  And certainly you desired death before you met it, so indeed you have seen it and you look (at it) 003.144  And Muhammad is no more than a messenger; the messengers have already passed away before him; if then he dies or is killed will you turn back upon your heels? And whoever turns back upon his heels!s, he will by no means do harm to Allah in the least and Allah will reward the grateful. 003.145   And a soul will not die but with the permission of Allah the term is fixed; and whoever desires the reward of this world, I shall give him of it, and whoever desires the reward of the hereafter I shall give him of it, and I will reward the grateful. 003.146   And how many a prophet has fought with whom were many worshippers of the Lord; so they did not become weak-hearted on account of what befell them in Allah's way, nor did they weaken, nor did they abase themselves; and Allah loves the patient. p  And their saying was no other than that they said: Our Lord! forgive us our faults and our extravagance in our affair and make firm our feet and help us against the transgressors.003.148  So Allah gave them the reward of this world and better reward of the hereafter and Allah loves those who do good (to others). (003.149   O you who believe! if you obey those who disbelieve they will turn you back upon your heels, so you will turn back losers. 003.150   Nay! Allah is your Patron and He is the best of the helpers. 003.151   We will cast terror into the hearts of those who disbelieve, because they set up with Allah that for which He has sent down no authority, and their abode is the fire, and evil is the abode of the unjust. )

(003.152  : And certainly Allah made good to you His promise when you were about to annihilate them by His permission, until when you became weak-hearted and disputed about the affair and disobeyed after He had shown you that which you loved; of you were some who desired this world and of you were some who desired the hereafter; then He turned you away from them that He might try you; and He has certainly pardoned you, and Allah is Gracious to the believers. 003.153  : When you ran off precipitately and did not wait for any one, and the Messenger was calling you from your rear, so He gave you another sorrow instead of (your) sorrow, so that you might not grieve at what had escaped you, nor (at) what befell you; and Allah is aware of what you do. 003.154  : Then after sorrow He sent down security upon you, a calm coming upon a party of you, and (there was) another party whom their own souls had rendered anxious; they entertained about Allah thoughts of ignorance quite unjustly, saying: We have no hand in the affair. Say: Surely the affair is wholly (in the hands) of Allah. They conceal within their souls what they would not reveal to you. They say: Had we any hand in the affair, we would not have been slain here. Say: Had you remained in your houses, those for whom slaughter was ordained would certainly have gone forth to the places where they would be slain, and that Allah might test what was in your breasts and that He might purge what was in your hearts; and Allah knows what is in the breasts. )

(003.155   (As for) those of you who turned back on the day when the two armies met, only the Shaitan sought to cause them to make a slip on account of some deeds they had done, and certainly Allah has pardoned them; surely Allah is Forgiving, Forbearing. )

( 003.156  : O you who believe! be not like those who disbelieve and say of their brethren when they travel in the earth or engage in fighting: Had they been with us, they would not have died and they would not have been slain; so Allah makes this to be an intense regret in their hearts; and Allah gives life and causes death and Allah sees what you do. 003.157   And if you are slain in the way of Allah or you die, certainly forgiveness from Allah and mercy is better than what they amass. 003.158  :   And if indeed you die or you are slain, certainly to Allah shall you be gathered together. )

 (003.160  : If Allah assists you, then there is none that can overcome you, and if He forsakes you, who is there then that can assist you after Him? And on Allah should the believers rely. )

 (  003.165   What! when a misfortune befell you, and you had certainly afflicted (the unbelievers) with twice as much, you began to say: Whence is this? Say: It is from yourselves; surely Allah has power over all things. 003.166  : And what befell you on the day when the two armies met (at Ohud) was with Allah's knowledge, and that He might know the believers. 003.167  : And that He might know the hypocrites; and it was said to them: Come, fight in Allah's way, or defend yourselves. They said: If we knew fighting, we would certainly have followed you. They were on that day much nearer to unbelief than to belief. They say with their mouths what is not in their hearts, and Allah best knows what they conceal. 003.168  : Those who said of their brethren whilst they (themselves) held back: Had they obeyed us, they would not have been killed. Say: Then avert death from yourselves if you speak the truth. )

(003.169  : And reckon not those who are killed in Allah's way as dead; nay, they are alive (and) are provided sustenance from their Lord; 003.170   Rejoicing in what Allah has given them out of His grace and they rejoice for the sake of those who, (being left) behind them, have not yet joined them, that they shall have no fear, nor shall they grieve. 003.171   They rejoice on account of favor from Allah and (His) grace, and that Allah will not waste the reward of the believers).

( 003.172 ) : (As for) those who responded (at Ohud) to the call of Allah and the Messenger after the wound had befallen them, those among them who do good (to others) and guard (against evil)shall have a great reward.003.173  : Those to whom the people said: Surely men have gathered against you, therefore fear them, but this increased their faith, and they said: Allah is sufficient for us and most excellent is the Protector. 003.174 : So they returned with favor from Allah and (His) grace, no evil touched them and they followed the pleasure of Allah; and Allah is the Lord of mighty grace. 003.175  : It is only the Shaitan that causes you to fear from his friends, but do not fear them, and fear Me if you are believers. )

In the battle of Alahzab, [The Allies]


The Unbelievers [now we understand this Quranic term means those who attack the peaceful people] surrounded Al Madina to destroy it and to genocide all the Muslims who were strongly overtaken by fear and terror. It’s enough to see what the Quran has said about their state of mind; (“When they came from above you and from below you, and when your eyes grew deviating, and the hearts reached to the throats, and you were harboring doubts about God,. There, the believers were tried and shaken with a mighty shaking.)(33:10-11). [We also understand from these verses that the term of ‘believers’ has nothing to do with the faith, because they harbor doubt about God in this critical time. The only meaning here is the peaceful people who hate the violence even if it is to defend their lives.]

The fear was so great that some of them run away and called others to give up and spreading the rumors. On the other hand some others maintained great courage. (33:12-23).


For more details, let’s give a quick glance to this Quranic Chapter Alahzab, [The Allies]:


1- Describing the battle :( 033.009):  O you who believe! call to mind the favor of Allah to you when there came down upon you hosts, so We sent against them a strong wind and hosts, that you saw not, and Allah is Seeing what you do.)

2- Describing the siege and Muslims who were in a great fear: (033.010): When they came upon you from above you and from below you, and when the eyes turned dull, and the hearts rose up to the throats, and you began to think diverse thoughts of Allah. 033.011   There the believers were tried and they were shaken with severe shaking. )

3- Describing hypocrites and those in whose hearts were in a disease: 033.012   And behold! The Hypocrites and those in whose hearts is a disease (even) say: "Allah and His Messenger promised us nothing but delusion!" 033.013  : And when a party of them said: O people of Yasrib! there IS no place to stand for you (here), therefore go back; and a party of them asked permission of the prophet, saying. Surely our houses are exposed; and they were not exposed; they only desired to fly away.( 033.014 ) : If the enemy had entered from all sides and they had been exhorted to treachery, they would have committed it, and would have hesitated thereupon but little.  033.015   And yet they had already covenanted with Allah not to turn their backs, and a covenant with Allah must (surely) be answered for.)

4- Debating hypocrites and exposing them: (033.016  : Say: Flight shall not do you any good if you fly from death or slaughter, and in that case you will not be allowed to enjoy yourselves but a little. 033.017  : Say: Who is it that can withhold you from Allah if He intends to do you evil, rather He intends to show you mercy? And they will not find for themselves besides Allah any guardian or a helper. 033.018  : Allah knows indeed those among you who hinder others and those who say to their brethren: Come to us; and they come not to the fight but a little, 033.019  : Being niggardly with respect to you; but when fear comes, you will see them looking to you, their eyes rolling like one swooning because of death; but when the fear is gone they smite you with sharp tongues, being niggardly of the good things. These have not believed, therefore Allah has made their doing naught; and this is easy to Allah. 033.020  : They think the allies are not gone, and if the allies should come (again) they would fain be in the deserts with the desert Arabs asking for news about you, and if they were among you they would not fight save a little.)

5- The Messenger of Allah and the true believers: (:033.021  : Certainly you have in the Messenger of Allah an excellent exemplar for him who hopes in Allah and the latter day and remembers Allah much. 033.022  : And when the believers saw the allies, they said: This is what Allah and His Messenger promised us, and Allah and His Messenger spoke the truth; and it only increased them in faith and submission. 033.023  : Of the believers are men who are true to that which they covenanted with Allah. Some of them have paid their vow by death (in battle), and some of them still are waiting; and they have not altered in the least.)

6 – Finally: (033.024  : That Allah may reward the truthful for their truth, and punish the hypocrites if He please or turn to them (mercifully); surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. 033.025  And Allah turned back the unbelievers in their rage; they did not obtain any advantage, and Allah sufficed the believers in fighting; and Allah is Strong, Mighty.)

 In the battle of Alosra:


It was a difficult in the summer when Muslims had to fight some desert tribes to stop them from attacking the Islamic capital ( Al Madina ).   Muslims were still not eager to defend themselves against the aggressor tribes in the north of Al Madina. Here the Quran became more reprimanding in these verses : (009.038  : O you who believe! What (excuse) have you that when it is said to you: Go forth in Allah's way, you should incline heavily to earth; are you contented with this world's life instead of the hereafter? But the provision of this world's life compared with the hereafter is but little. 009.039   If you do not go forth, He will chastise you with a painful chastisement and bring in your place a people other than you, and you will do Him no harm; and Allah has power over all things. 009.040    If you will not aid him, Allah certainly aided him when those who disbelieved expelled him, he being the second of the two, when they were both in the cave, when he said to his companion: Grieve not, surely Allah is with us. So Allah sent down His tranquility upon him and strengthened him with hosts which you did not see, and made lowest the word of those who disbelieved; and the word of Allah, that is the highest; and Allah is Mighty, Wise. 009.041  : Go forth light and heavy, and strive hard in Allah's way with your property and your persons; this is better for you, if you know. )


 . Therefore the lack of motivation, they felt in the beginning remained with them until the end of the prophet’s life. This helped Quraysh to take over the Muslim State after the death of the Prophet Mohammed. Quraysh had to accept Islam to keep its interests, then used it after the death of the Prophet Mohamed to establish its mighty empire under the name of Islamic Jihad.


Quraysh tribe converted to Islam to keep its interest:


We can realize this situation better if we understand the nature of the daily life of the Arabian tribes in that time. Violence is the only key word that illustrates that life. Around the Sacred Mosque in Mecca, Every Arabic tribe had its idol under the custody of Quraysh. Quraysh controlled Mecca and the sacred Mosque and the pilgrimage, and lived in peace and prosperity while the other tribes lived in continuous bloodshed for any reason and for no reason but in the same time those Arabic tribes used to keep the safety of the Qurayshi trade between Yemen and Syria. This made Quraysh the most powerful tribe. To keep its power, the elders of Quraysh persecuted the followers of the new religion who were peaceful helpless people. Being against idolizing statues and tombs, the new religion threatened its religious trade and its political and social situation. It was fearful for those helpless believers to face the mighty powerful tribe of Quraysh. So the only way to save them from the potential total genocide is to encourage them to defend themselves.


The Quranic war of ideas in its unique Arabic Language made the big triumph. It made a big awareness educating Arabs tribes that idolizing tombs and human ashes is just nonsense. By the time many people in many tribes converted to Islam, and helped others to realize the nonsense of worshipping the sacred tombs and sacred statues, and the nonsense of submission to Quraysh because of these false idols. Some of them wanted to get rid of Quraysh and its influence and to enjoy equality in dealing with them by helping the new Islamic state facing Quraysh and reducing its power and its hegemony. This threatened Qurayshi trade routes. The elders of Quraysh reconsidered their situation. To keep their political and economical interests they had to convert to Islam to use it for their continuous hegemony, especially the active leaders inside the Islamic state were from Quraysh including the prophet Mohammed himself.
So the elders of Quraysh surrendered and converted to Islam after long history in persecuting and fighting Muslims. They converted to Islam in a short time before the prophet’s death, then after his death they became the new leaders of all Muslims and led them to a new kind of wars and a new way of life, establishing the Muslim powerful Empires which ignored the real rules of Islam and its peaceful nature; the empires that lasted six centuries under the rule of the children of Qurayshi elders. This destroyed the real Islamic State of the Prophet Mohammed.


The Islamic State was under the siege


1-The Islamic State lived a very short time, only ten years during the last ten years in the life of the Prophet Mohammed, then has become collapsed step by step after his death. This short time Islamic State was surrounded by enemies. Around its borders in desert, there were tribes used to attack the city of Al Madina. (9: 123). Inside Al Madina, there were the Jewish tribes and the hypocrites who allied each other against the Prophet Mohammed. Around Mohammed there were those peaceful passive Muslims, while Quraysh was representing the hard core of the ardent enemies to the Islamic State. The Last long Quranic chapter ( Sura al Tawba : Number 9 ) reflected this situation of the Islamic State before the death of the Prophet Mohammed. This Islamic State and its high values of freedom and justice contradicted the culture of theocracy, autocracy, slavery and holy war that controlled the middle ages. For all these reasons, it was expected for this Islamic not to survive one day. It was the Quranic war of ideas that made it survive for ten years. This Quranic war of ideas used to update the events happened inside and outside Al Madina, commenting and debating and exposing the figures and different groups in the time of the Prophet Mohammed.

Let’s read some examples:


Quranic example exposing conspiracy done by believers who deceived the Prophet Mohammed

(004.105  : Surely We have revealed the Book to you with the truth that you may judge between people by means of that which Allah has taught you; and be not an advocate on behalf of the treacherous. 004.106  : And ask forgiveness of Allah; surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. 004.107  : And do not plead on behalf of those who act unfaithfully to their souls; surely Allah does not love him who is treacherous, sinful; 004.108  : They hide themselves from men and do not hide themselves from Allah, and He is with them when they meditate by night words which please Him not, and Allah encompasses what they do.004.109  : Behold! you are they who (may) plead for them in this world's life, but who will plead for them with Allah on the resurrection day, or who shall be their protector? 004.110   And whoever does evil or acts unjustly to his soul, then asks forgiveness of Allah, he shall find Allah Forgiving, Merciful. 004.111  : And whoever commits a sin, he only commits it against his own soul; and Allah is Knowing, Wise. 004.112  : And whoever commits a fault or a sin, then accuses of it one innocent, he indeed takes upon himself the burden of a calumny and a manifest sin. 004.113  : And were it not for Allah's grace upon you and His mercy a party of them had certainly designed to bring you to perdition and they do not bring (aught) to perdition but their own souls, and they shall not harm you in any way, and Allah has revealed to you the Book and the wisdom, and He has taught you what you did not know, and Allah's grace on you is very great. )

Quranic example indicates to the undercover unknown hypocrites:

(009.101  : And from among those who are round about you of the dwellers of the desert there are hypocrites, and from among the people of Medina (also); they are stubborn in hypocrisy; you do not know them; We know them; We will chastise them twice then shall they be turned back to a grievous chastisement )

Quranic examples about the famous known hypocrites:

Sura AL-MUNAFIQOON (THE HYPOCRITES): chapter 63. Total Verses: 11,Revealed At: MADINA

1-( 063.001   When the hypocrites come to you, they say: We bear witness that you are most surely Allah's Messenger; and Allah knows that you are most surely His Messenger, and Allah bears witness that the hypocrites are surely liars. 063.002   They make their oaths a shelter, and thus turn away from Allah's way; surely evil is that which they do. 063.003  : That is because they believe, then disbelieve, so a seal is set upon their hearts so that they do not understand. 063.004  : And when you see them, their persons will please you, and If they speak, you will listen to their speech; (they are) as if they were big pieces of wood clad with garments; they think every cry to be against them. They are the enemy, therefore beware of them; may Allah destroy them, whence are they turned back? 063.005  : And when it is said to them: Come, the Messenger of Allah will ask forgiveness for you, they turn back their heads and you may see them turning away while they are big with pride. 063.006  : It is alike to them whether you beg forgiveness for them or do not beg forgiveness for them; Allah will never forgive them; surely Allah does not guide the transgressing people. 063.007  : They it is who say: Do not spend upon those who are with the Messenger of Allah until they break up. And Allah's are the treasures of the heavens and the earth, but the hypocrites do not understand. 063.008  : They say: If we return to Medina, the mighty will surely drive out the meaner therefrom; and to Allah belongs the might and to His Messenger and to the believers, but the hypocrites do not know.)

(004.081   And they say: Obedience. But when they go out from your presence, a party of them decide by night upon doing otherwise than what you say; and Allah writes down what they decide by night, therefore turn aside from them and trust in Allah, and Allah is sufficient as a protector. )

 (009.107  : And those who built a mosque to cause harm and for unbelief and to cause disunion among the believers and an ambush to him who made war against Allah and His Messenger before; and they will certainly swear: We did not desire aught but good; and Allah bears witness that they are most surely liars. 009.108  : Never stand in it; certainly a mosque founded on piety from the very first day is more deserving that you should stand in it; in it are men who love that they should be purified; and Allah loves those who purify themselves. 009.109  : Is he, therefore, better who lays his foundation on fear of Allah and (His) good pleasure, or he who lays his foundation on the edge of a cracking hollowed bank, so it broke down with him into the fire of hell; and Allah does not guide the unjust people. 009.110  : The building which they have built will ever continue to be a source of disquiet in their hearts, except that their hearts get cut into pieces; and Allah is Knowing, Wise. )

( 033.060  : If the hypocrites and those in whose hearts is a disease and the agitators in the city do not desist, We shall most certainly set you over them, then they shall not be your neighbors in it but for a little while.)

Quraysh violating Islamic Jihad after the death of the Prophet Mohammed



1-By the death of the Prophet Mohammed and the completing of the Quran, there was no more Holy revelation from Allah exposing the hypocrites and others. It was their time to feel free to plot against the Islam and Muslims without any red line .The picture has changed for the favor of Quraysh and the hypocrites and other enemies of Islam.

But it was not easy for them as the bad news came from the desert threatened their plans.

The desert tribes were angry because they saw all the tribe of Quraysh restored their homogony under the name of Islam after the death of the Prophet Mohammed. Those angry tribes revolted against Quraysh and Islam. Their leaders claimed themselves prophets. The strongest one of them was Mosaylama, the liar in Najd, in the same place where Ibn Abdel Wahab , the founder of Al Wahhabism was born , eleven centuries later. This false prophet Mobbsaylama the liar said expressing the real reason for their war: (Quraysh gets only half of the earth, and the another half is for us.).

Quraysh – all of them, the early Qurayshi Muslims and others who accepted Islam later on, became united under the leadership of Abu Bakr against all these tough tribes and defeated them after very hard painful struggle. Defeating them in this (War of apostasy) was not the end of the problem. It was expected more wars because these tough tribes had to revenge beside the daily bloodshed was their way of life and means of living.  It had become essential to find a way to twist the energy of these tough tribes and use it against the outsiders instead of Quraysh. Invading other countries and other nations was the only and the best answer for Quraysh. Under the name of Jihad, these tough tribes would justify their way of life in looting the richest land of rivers in the old mighty two empires, in Iranian and Byzantine Empires.

In only ten years, early Muslims had not time to understand the Quranic Jurisprudence during their busy time in fighting for survival, beside it was the only way for them to solve the problem of the tough Arab tribes. The passive helpless early Muslims had no room in this new picture which was full of the tough warriors of Quraysh and other Arab tribes of desert. They had then a religious excuse to start war as they used to do but under the name of Islam and its Jihad.

2- As a reminder: Islam means peace in dealing with people and any peaceful one is Muslim according to his / her behavior. Also, starting war and fighting those who do not fighting you is prohibited in Islam. As Jihad in Islam is only to defend not to attack unjustly, it is against Islam what Quraysh had done in fighting the Persian and the Byzantine Empire, and establishing the Arabic mighty empire in the time of the (Righteous Caliphs ) was a manifest defiance against Allah and His Quran.

To justify it, they used to send their army ready to attack, but before attacking any city or people, they gave them one of three choices: to become Muslims, to pay tribute or to fight. It meant just imposing Islam or tribute or fight. It is against this Quranic rule saying (002.256: There is no compulsion in religion.).

  Briefly,  After the Prophet Mohammed’s death, the other Muslims from the other tribes who converted to Islam to war Quraysh found themselves again under the hegemony of Quraysh, so they revolted under some individuals from inside them who claimed the prophecy. This was the war of apostasy which was the perfect chance for the elders of Quraysh to maintain the leadership of the Islamic state after the death of Mohammed. Quraysh tribe- the new Muslims and the old Muslims together- led the war against the other tribes who revolted against Islam and Quraysh. By defeating them, Quraysh became the real leader of all the Arabic tribes. To avoid other tribal revolts, Quraysh led all the Arabic tribes to fight the two super Empires; the Romans and the Persians. By defeating them both on the same time, Quraysh established the powerful mighty Muslim Empires which influenced the world history in the middle ages and ruled most of the world in that time according to the Middle age’s culture, not according to the real values of Islam. So, the Islamic values were ignored, including peace.
During the Muslim Empires the real Islamic rules of Jihad were changed to be attacking the other peoples for power and establishing empires. This has alienated the real religion of Islam as the Qurayshi dynasties have justified their unjust Jihad by (Hadeeth) or sayings attributed to the Prophet Mohammed two centuries and more after his death. Those fabricated hadeethes are the basic of their Sharee’ah. This Sharee’ah reflects its time of middle ages, but the Wahhabi Saudi Kingdom has restored and revived this Shareea’h and brought it to our time in the name of Islam. Our challenge is to revive the real Islam, having it with us, and using it against them in our war of ideas to reform Muslims from within Islam and to terminate peacefully the terrorist religious culture.

This needs more details.

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