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Quranic Terminology: (Darknesses) and (Light)

Quranic Terminology: (Darknesses) and (Light)

 

 

 

Published in February 16, 2020

Translated by: Ahmed Fathy

 

 

 

Firstly: the reason why, in the Quranic text, the term (darknesses) is always plural and the term (Light) is always singular:

1- This linguistic feature in the Quran is very much like the French word (les ténèbres) which is always plural feminine noun and it has no singular form at all. This is because the Quranic term (darknesses) refers to the too many different ways/paths of misguidance within devilish religions, denominations, doctrines, sects, orders,...etc. with their disputes, schisms,...etc., whereas the Light of guidance in Islam has but One, Unique Source and one Straight Path: the Divine, Celestial Book; namely, the Holy Quran itself. This is why polytheists who have rejected the Quran have so many sects/ways; they have abandoned the Only Divine Book, or the Straight Path, containing the Lord God's Word: the Quran.

1/1: "This is My Path, straight, so follow it. And do not follow the other paths, lest they divert you from His Path. All this He has enjoined upon you, that you may attain piety." (6:153).

1/2: "Turning towards Him - and be conscious of Him within piety, and perform prayers, and do not be among the polytheists. Among those who divided their religion, and became sects; each faction pleased with what they have." (30:31-32).

1/3: "He prescribed for you the same religion He enjoined upon Noah, and what We inspired to you, and what We enjoined upon Abraham, and Moses, and Jesus: “You shall uphold the religion, and be not divided therein.” As for the polytheists, what you call them to is outrageous to them. God chooses to Himself whom He wills, and He guides to Himself whoever repents. They became divided only after knowledge came to them, out of envy among themselves. Were it not for a predetermined decision from your Lord, judgment would have been pronounced between them. Indeed, those who were made to inherit the Book after them are in grave doubt about it." (42:13-14).

1/4: "Those who were given the Book did not splinter except after the Clear Evidence came to them. They were commanded only to worship God, devoting their religion to Him alone, and to practice prayers and Zakat. That is the upright religion." (98:4-5).

1/5: "If they believe in the same as you have believed in, then they have been guided. But if they turn away, then they are in schism..." (2:137).

1/6: "That is because God has revealed the Book in Truth; and those who differ about the Book are in deep discord." (2:176).

1/7: "...The unjust ones are in profound discord." (22:53).

1/8: "Those who disbelieve are steeped in arrogance and schism." (38:2).

1/9: "Say, “Have you considered? If it is from God and you reject it - who is further astray than he who is profound discord?”" (41:52).

1/10: "Religion with God is Islam. Those to whom the Book was given differed only after knowledge came to them out of envy among themselves. Whoever rejects the Verses of God - God is Quick in Judgment." (3:19).

2- The singular noun (darkness) is never mentioned in the Quranic text. The Quranic term (darknesses) exists in both the Arabic tongue and in the Quranic text though there is no such a plural term in the English tongue.

3- Linguistically, in the Quranic/Arabic text, injustices are linked to darknesses in terms of their shared Arabic root; namely, (Dh/L/M). In the following Quranic verses, we read about the fact that the Lord God is never unjust towards human beings.

3/1: "“This is on account of what your hands have forwarded, and because God is not unjust towards the servants.”" (3:182).

3/2: "“This is on account of what your hands have forwarded, and because God is not unjust towards the servants.”" (6:51).

3/3: "That is for what your hands have forwarded, and because God is not unjust towards the servants." (22:10).

3/4: "Whoever acts righteously does so for himself; and whoever works evil does so against himself. Your Lord is not unjust towards the servants." (41:46).

3/5: "The decree from Me will not be changed, and I am not unjust towards the servants.”" (50:29).

4- Because of the shared Arabic root (Dh/L/M), the meanings of (darknesses) and (injustices) overlap.

4/1: This is about linking darknesses to sins/injustices/trespasses.

4/1/1: "The lightning almost snatches their sight away. Whenever it illuminates for them, they walk in it; but when it grows dark over them, they stand still..." (2:20).

4/1/2: "As for those who have earned evil deeds: a reward of similar evil, and shame will cover them. They will have no defense against God - as if their faces are covered with dark patches of night. These are the inmates of the Fire, abiding therein forever." (10:27).

4/1/3: "Another sign for them is the night: We strip the day out of it -and it grows dark over them." (36:37).

4/2: This is about committing grave injustice.

4/2/1: "Who commits graver injustice than him who forbids the remembrance of God’s name in places of worship, and contributes to their ruin?..." (2:114).

4/2/2: "...Who commits graver injustice than he who conceals a testimony he has from God?..." (2:140).

4/2/3: "Who commits graver injustice than someone who fabricates lies against God, or denies His Verses? The unjust ones will not prosper." (6:21).

 

Secondly: how the Quranic terms (darknesses) and (Light) are mentioned in the Quranic verses:

1- The Lord God says the following in the Holy Quran.

1/1: "God is the Ally of those who believe; He brings them out of darknesses and into Light. As for those who disbelieve, their allies are Taghut; they bring them out of Light and into darknesses - these are the inmates of the Fire, therein they will abide forever." (2:257).

1/2: It is a recurrent notion in the Quran that believers get out of darknesses and get into Light and that disbeliever get out of Light and get into darknesses.

1/3: The Lord God reveals the Divine Book so that people get out of darknesses of polytheism and disbelief and get into the Light of guidance so that they are among the allies of the Lord God: "My Ally is God, He Who sent down the Book, and He is the Ally of the righteous ones.”" (7:196). Satan makes devilish revelations (i.e., distracting discourses/narratives/hadiths) in order to repel human beings from the Divine Light of the Celestial Book; such devilish revelations, lies, and fabrications are Taghut (i.e., literally, grave injustice/tyranny) which gets people out of Light to get them into darknesses. This is exactly the summary of the story of the Muhammadans.

2- By following the Divine, Celestial Book (i.e., the Holy Quran), people get themselves out of darknesses and into the Light.

2/1: The Lord God says the following in the Holy Quran about the Quran itself.

2/1/1: "...A Book that We revealed to you, that you may bring humanity from darknesses to the Light - with the permission of their Lord - to the Path of the Almighty, the Praiseworthy." (14:1).

2/1/2: "It is He who sends down upon His servant Clear Verses, to bring you out of darknesses into the Light. God is Gentle towards you, Most Compassionate." (57:9).

2/1/3: "O People of the Book! Our messenger has come to you, clarifying for you much of what you kept hidden of the Book, and overlooking much. A Light from God has come to you, and a Clear Book. God guides with it whoever follows His approval to the ways of peace, and He brings them out of darknesses into Light, by His permission, and He guides them to the Straight Path." (5:15-16).

2/1/4: "...So be conscious of God within piety, O you who possess intellect and have believed. God has sent down to you a Reminder. A Messenger who reads to you God’s Verses, clear and distinct, to bring those who believe and work righteousness from darknesses into Light..." (65:10-11); the Quran is described here twice: as the Reminder and as the Messenger.

2/1/5: "It is He who reaches out to you, and His angels, to bring you out of darknesses into the Light. And He is Ever-Merciful towards the believers." (33:43). The Lord God reaches out to people by giving them His Word; i.e., the Quran, in order to get them out of darknesses and into the Light.

2/2: This is about the Divine Book descended upon Moses: "We sent Moses with Our Verses: “Bring your people out of darknesses into the Light, and remind them of the Days of God.” In that are signs for every patient and thankful person.”" (14:5).

3- This is about the contrast between darknesses and Light.

3/1: "Not equal are the blind and the seeing. Nor are the darknesses and the Light." (35:19-20).

3/2: "Say, “Who is the Lord of the heavens and the earth?” Say, “God.” Say, “Have you taken besides Him allies, who have no power to profit or harm even themselves?” Say, “Are the blind and the seeing equal? Or are darknesses and Light equal?..." (13:16).

3/3: "Is he who was dead, then We gave him life, and made for him a Light by which he walks among the people, like he who is in the darknesses, and cannot get out of it? Thus the doings of disbelievers are made to appear good to them." (6:122).

4- In the abovementioned Quranic verses, the terms (darknesses) and (Light) are employed figuratively to denote misguidance and guidance, respectively. In the following Quranic verses, we find that the literal sense of both terms is intended.

4/1: "Praise be to God, Who created the heavens and the earth, and made the darknesses and the light. Yet those who disbelieve ascribe equals to their Lord." (6:1).

4/2: "Their likeness is that of a person who kindled a fire; when it illuminated all around him, God took away their light, and left them in the darknesses, unable to see." (2:17).

 

Thirdly: the Quranic verses in which the Quranic term (darknesses) is mentioned without the Quranic term (Light):

 The Lord God says the following in the Holy Quran about literal darknesses in general: "Or like a cloudburst from the sky, in which is darknesses, and thunder, and lightning. They press their fingers into their ears from the thunderbolts, in fear of death. But God surrounds the disbelievers." (2:19). The term (darknesses) here is employed literally.

  This is about the darknesses of land and sea.

1- "With Him are the keys of the unseen; none knows them except He. And He knows everything on land and in the sea. Not a leaf falls but He knows it; and there is not a single grain in the darknesses of earth, nor is there anything wet or dry, but is in a clear book." (6:59). This is about the darknesses of land only.

2- "Say, “Who delivers you from the darknesses of land and sea?” You call upon Him humbly and inwardly: “If He delivers us from this, We will surely be among the thankful.”" (6:63).

3- "And it is He Who created the stars for you, that you may be guided by them in the darknesses of land and sea. We thus explain the revelations for people who know." (6:97). Guidance here through routes and seas is literal, and the term (darknesses) is also employed here in the literal sense.

4- "Or, who guides you through the darknesses of land and sea, and who sends the winds as heralds of His mercy?..." (27:63).

  This is about different layers/levels of darknesses above one another.

1- "And Jonah, when he stormed out in fury, thinking We had no power over him. But then He cried out in the darknesses, “There is no God but You! Glory to You! I was one of the unjust ones!”" (21:87). There are darknesses of the sea and also inside the fish/whale which gulped Jonah.

2- "Or like darknesses in a vast ocean, covered by waves, above which are waves, above which is fog. Levels of darknesses upon one another. If he brings out his hand, he will hardly see it..." (24:40). These are different layers/levels of darknesses.

3- "He created you from one person, then made from it its mate, and brought down livestock for you - eight kinds in pairs. He creates you in the wombs of your mothers, in successive formations, in three levels of darknesses..." (39:6). These are three different layers/levels of darknesses around the human fetuses.

  This is about figurative darknesses which indicate misguidance: "Those who reject Our Verses are deaf and dumb inside darknesses. Whomever God wills, He leaves astray; and whomever He wills, He sets on the Straight Path." (6:39).

 

Fourthly: the Quranic verses in which the Quranic term (Light) is mentioned without the Quranic term (darknesses):

  This is about describing the Quran as the Light.

1- "So believe in God and His Messenger, and the Light which We sent down. God is Aware of everything you do." (64:8).

2- "Those who follow the Messenger, the Prophet of the Gentiles, whom they find mentioned in the Torah and the Gospel in their possession...and follow the Light that came down with him - these are the successful." (7:157).

3- "O people! A proof has come to you from your Lord, and We sent down to you a Clear Light." (4:174).

4- "O People of the Book! Our Messenger has come to you, clarifying for you much of what you kept hidden of the Book, and overlooking much. A Light from God has come to you, and a Clear Book." (5:15).

  This is about describing the Quran as the source of guidance.

1- "God is the Light of the heavens and the earth. The allegory of His Light is that of a pillar on which is a lamp. The lamp is within a glass. The glass is like a brilliant planet, fueled by a blessed tree, an olive tree, neither eastern nor western. Its oil would almost illuminate, even if no fire has touched it. Light upon Light. God guides to His Light whomever He wills. God thus cites the parables for the people. God is Cognizant of everything." (24:35).

2- "...You did not know what the Book is, nor what belief is, but We made it a Light, with which We guide whomever We will of Our servants. You surely guide to the Straight Path." (42:52).

  This is about describing how the Lord God preserves the Holy Quran.

1- "They want to extinguish God’s Light with their mouths, but God refuses except to complete His Light, even though the disbelievers dislike it." (9:32).

2- "They want to extinguish God’s Light with their mouths; but God will complete His Light, even though the disbelievers dislike it." (61:8).

  This is about describing the previous Celestial, Divine Books.

1- "If they deny you, those before them also denied. Their messengers came to them with the clear proofs, with the Scriptures, and with the Enlightening Book." (35:25).

2- "If they accuse you of lying, messengers before you were accused of lying. They came with the proofs, with the Scriptures, and with the Enlightening Book." (3:184).

  The Torah is described here as the source of guidance and as Light: "We have revealed the Torah, wherein is guidance and Light..." (5:44); "...Say, “Who revealed the Book which Moses brought - a Light and guidance for people?”..." (6:91).

The Gospel is described here as the source of guidance and as Light: "In their footsteps, We sent Jesus son of Mary...and We gave him the Gospel, wherein is guidance and Light..." (5:46).

 Islam here is described as Light: "What about someone whose heart God has opened to Islam, so that he follows a Light from His Lord?..." (39:22).

 Islamic piety is described as Light: "O you who believe! Fear God within piety, and believe in His Messenger: He will give you a double portion of His mercy, and will give you a light by which you walk, and will forgive you. God is Forgiving and Merciful." (57:28). The (Messenger) here is the Holy Quran itself.

 This is about the Divine Light in the Hereafter: "And the Trumpet will be sounded, whereupon everyone in the heavens and the earth will be stunned, except whomever God wills. Then it will be sounded another time, whereupon they will rise up, looking on. And the earth will shine with the Light of its Lord; and the Book will be put in place; and the prophets and the witnesses will be brought in; and Judgment will be passed among them equitably, and they will not be wronged." (39:68-69).

 This is about the Light of pious monotheistic believers in the Hereafter.

1- "On the Day when you see the believing men and believing women - their light radiating ahead of them, and to their right: “Good news for you today: gardens beneath which rivers flow, dwelling therein forever. That is the great triumph.” On the Day when the hypocritical men and hypocritical women will say to those who believed, “Wait for us; let us absorb some of your light.” It will be said, “Go back behind you, and seek light.” A wall will be raised between them, in which is a door; within it is mercy, and outside it is torment." (57:12-13).

2- "Those who believe in God and His messengers - these are the truthful ones and the witnesses with their Lord; they will have their reward and their light..." (57:19).

3- The monotheists who followed the Quran, and those who followed previous Divine Books, in this world will enjoy the Divine Light in the Hereafter; this means that they will obtain mercy from their Lord God and they will not be tormented in Hell.

4- This Divine Mercy is near to the charitable monotheists: "...God’s mercy is close to the charitable ones." (7:56). The nearer to the Lord God in Paradise are the Forerunners, followed by those on the Right; the Hell dwellers will be screened from the Lord God's mercy and they will be tormented forever. The Lord God says the following in the Holy Quran.

4/1: "And you become three classes. Those on the Right - what of those on the Right? And those on the Left - what of those on the Left? And the Forerunners, the Forerunners. Those are the nearest." (56:7-11); "And those on the Right - what of those on the Right?" (56:27); "For those on the Right. A throng from the ancients. And a throng from the latecomers. And those on the Left - what of those on the Left? Amid searing wind and boiling water." (56:38-42); "But if he is one of those brought near. Then happiness, and flowers, and Garden of Delights. And if he is one of those on the Right. Then, “Peace upon you,” from those on the Right. But if he is one of the deniers, the misguided. Then a welcome of Inferno. And burning in Hell. This is the Absolute Truth. So glorify the Name of your Lord, the Magnificent." (56:88-96).

4/2: "Not at all. Their hearts have become corroded by what they used to earn. Not at all. On that Day, they will be screened from their Lord. Then they will roast in Hell. Then it will be said, “This is what you used to deny.” No indeed; the record of the righteous is in Elliyyeen. But how can you know what Elliyyoon is? A numerical book. Witnessed by those brought near." (83:14-21).

 There are other Quranic expressions about darknesses and Light in the following contexts about the Hereafter.

1- "On the Day when some faces will be whitened, and some faces will be blackened. As for those whose faces are blackened: “Did you disbelieve after your belief?” Then taste the torment for having disbelieved. But as for those whose faces are whitened: they are in God’s mercy, remaining in it forever." (3:106-107).

2- "Faces on that Day will be radiant. Laughing and rejoicing. And Faces on that Day will be covered with misery. Overwhelmed by remorse. These are the disbelieving sinners." (80:38-42).

3- "For those who have done good is goodness, and more. Neither gloom nor shame will come over their faces. These are the inhabitants of Paradise, abiding therein forever. As for those who have earned evil deeds: a reward of similar evil, and shame will cover them. They will have no defense against God - as if their faces are covered with dark patches of night. These are the inmates of the Fire, abiding therein forever." (10:26-27).

 

 

 


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