From the Archive
These Cursed Wahabis!
Pakistan needs more than elections. Only a new political class will do
Tony Blair, 'The Trouble Within Islam,' and Kumbaya in Kosova
The Quranic Expression of the Trumpet is Blown
Houston Conference about the Quran
Faults and Errors of Prophets
The Concept of Terrorism (Irhaab) In the Glorious Quran
The Permissible, Obligatory, and Prohibited Types of Argument within the Religion of Islam
The False Alarm of Evangelism
Would the Crown-Prince Ibn Salman Witness the Collapse of his Saudi Kingdom?
Quranic Terminology: The Term (Dubur) and Its Derivations
A Call for the Trial of the Head Sheikh of Al-Azhar Institution by the International Criminal Court because of the Incarceration of Mr. M. Abdullah Nasr
Fatwas Part Seventy-Eight
The Testimony of Islam Is (There Is No God But Allah) ONLY!
The Quranic Term (Better) Within Deeds and Comparatives
The Tyrant Ruler Is the Most Powerful Deity in the Human-Made Earthly Creeds of the Muhammadans
An Adulterated Remedy!
Does the Holy Quran Contain an Indication of the Crime of Aisha within the Battle of the Camel? (2 of 2)
A Peasant, a Sheikh, and a Donkey
A Case Study of A Quranist Chick who Criticizes our Person!
Peaceful Solution For The 21’st Century
Democratic Islam and Muslims' Tyranny

************** {……And you will remember what I am telling you. And my fate I leave it to God. Verily, God is all seer of [His] servants.} The Holy Quran: [40:- 44] ************** Table of Contents Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………... Preface:………………………………………………………………………………....... • Islam and Muslims • Shura and Democracy Chapter One: Democracy In Islam. : …………………...………………………... …. • The Islamic Society Of Democracy: 10 , Aspects Of the Islamic Society/ Values • Human Rights Between the Islamic Society and its Individuals • The Roots of the Democratic Culture In Islam • The Roots of Democracy In the Islamic Faith and its Ritual Commandments • The Difficulties of Applying Democracy in the time of the prophet Mohammed. [Democracy under Siege ] • The Process of Democracy In Islam Chapter Two: The Arabs and Muslims In the Field of Democracy In a Brief History • A Brief History of Arab Tribes Before and After Islam In Ancient and Middle ages • Arab Tribes In Modern History • Arab Tribes In This Century Finally: ……………………………………………………………………………. A-Just To Remember B- Can Muslim Apply Democracy Now? Introduction This research is mainly depending on the Quran in an objective way. Accordingly, it analyzes its verses by the Quranic terminology, code, and idiom. The fanatic Muslims understand the Quran according to their traditions, which are in a big contradiction with the Quran. As a result, they distort its meaning and its terms to support their previous inherited dogmas. Then they support their vision by adding the sayings that they attribute to the prophet Mohammed, some centuries after his death. The sayings that Mohammed himself died knowing nothing about them. Those traditions in many parts illustrate the real images of the fanatic Muslims, but in the same time it proves the big gap between them and Islam, as it was revealed in the Quran, and practiced by the prophet Mohammed during his life, and some years after his death. It was planned to give a comparison between Islam and the fanatic Muslims in the realm of democracy, proving how the Quran makes democracy one of its aspects of faith, culture, and its daily rituals. And how Muslim’s rulers distorted all of this, in their history and in the religious tradition invented for them, and how they changed the Quranic democracy to be a religious dictatorship in the name of Islam. It was planned also to make this fundamental research the key to amend the Egyptian Constitution to be more democratic, from this Islamic perspective. Such a research needs enough time, old scriptures and text books all of them are in Arabic and not available here in the U S, so I have to limit this research in its first chapter on the Quran; the only resource of Islam, and the divine scripture that anyone can recognize Islam through it if he reads it according to its code, its idioms, and its terminology. From the Quranic verses this research tries to provide the Islamic democracy as it is mentioned in the Quran, and as it was applied in the time of the prophet Mohammed. This Quranic research not only discovers an absent Islamic fact, but it also discloses how the fanatics Muslims have abandoned the Quran and its commandments. Among these commandment is democracy or ‘Al Shura’ in the Quranic terminology. The second chapter gives a brief history of the Arabs tribes, and democracy, from their early history before Islam to our current time. Then it tries to predict some of the aspects of their future in this century, calling to adopt democracy in Muslim Arab World, to solve the international problem after the attack of September 11, 2001. Finally, the book gives an out line of its Quranic and historic facts and suggestions to apply democracy in the Arab Muslim World. Ahmed Subhy Mansour December, 11, 2002 PREFACE Islam and Muslims Sometimes, it needs to forget the Arabic word (Islam), because the fanatic Muslims have given Islam a notorious name. But in any language and in any time, Islam as a religion means submission to the One God, and to be a peaceful in dealing with the people. Simply, it is ‘Submission to God and Peace.’ We can use this term ’S, P’ instead of the Arabic word ‘Islam.’ ‘S,P’ is the core of the religion of God ;which was revealed to all the prophets in many languages in ancient times, then the final divine message was revealed to the seal of the prophets ‘Mohammed ’to confirm the previous divine Messages. This final message;’ the Quran’ has pronounced in the Arabic language. According to the Quran, God wants all the people to believe in Him alone, the only God, and to submit themselves to Him only, to their real Lord, but He gives them the total freedom of choice to believe or to disbelieve, to obey Him or to disobey Him. They will be questioned by God only on the Day of Judgment concerning their belief and deeds. No one in this world has the authority to judge any one on his belief, because this belongs to God alone in the last day. According to the Quran also, any believer, or any Muslim is the one who is dealing with the people peacefully, and people trust him, regardless of his inner faith, religion, and sect. The society has the authority to punish any one who violates the peace. In his life, Mohammed was commanded to obey and to apply the commandments of the Quran, (6:50,106) (7:203) (10:15,109) (33:2) (45:18) (46:9).Al Shura ,or democracy was one of these commandments which was applied by the prophet Mohammed when he was persecuted in Mecca ,and when he was the leader of the Islamic state of Al Madina . After the death of Mohammed, his Arabic tribe, {Quraysh} had used the name of Islam to invade and to occupy countries in Asia, Africa and in Europe, where the dynasties of {Quraysh} had ruled that middle aged empire for 650 years. During this Arabic Muslim Empire, Muslims for many reasons invented their religious traditions, which they ascribed to God and His Messenger. The hardest line of those middle aged tradition was the Hanabela Sunni tradition, which has been revived under the new doctrine, named “Al Wahabeyya’ of the Saudi kingdom. Al Wahabeyya is the practical religion of the current fanatic Muslims. Accordingly, the real commandments of the Quran were abandoned. In such a religious middle-aged authoritative empires, Al Shura or democracy was the first absent commandment. There are thousands of the Arabic-Muslim scriptures written in Muslim traditions, every one of them claimed to depend on the Quran, but nothing of them mentioned the Quranic verses that clarify the democracy, or Al Shura. More over, they defined Al Shura to be one aspect of dictatorship, where the ruler may consult the elders around him, just like the Egyptian Pharaoh used to do; they call those elders ‘Ahl Al Hal wa Al akd.’ It means the people who could decide the affairs, but the ruler has a total freedom to consult them or not. In the same time, he is not accountable before any one, only before God on the last day, when God will ask him about his subjects. They call the ruler ‘Al Ra’ey.’ It means the ‘Grazer’, and they call the people ‘Al Ra’eiah’, it means the cattle. It is not only distorting the Quranic commandment of democracy, but it also disobeying the Quran that forbids believers from using that specific Arabic word in dealing with themselves (2:104)(4:46). Al Khalifah or the religious empire has the total authority to kill any one of his subjects or cattle. There is a famous verdict in the Sunni tradition said: ‘The Imam’ means the religious ruler’ has the right to kill the third of the subjects [Al Ra’eyah] to reform the other two thirds.’ The fanatics celebrated this middle-aged verdict in Egypt in 1990’s. So, I do not use the past tense here, because the fanatic trend has revived this middle-aged culture of dictatorship, as their own understanding of Al Shura. According to that middle aged religious culture the Saudi kingdom was built, and by its finance, the fanatic culture of Al Wahabeya represents Islam, the religion of peace, justice, freedom of belief and democracy! The Saudi regime understands Al Shura, or the Islamic democracy, as their absolute right to monopolize the power and the authorities for their own family only. That’s why they give the kingdom their own family name, as it used to be in the dark middle aged culture, and rule it the same way the dark middle aged tyrant used to rule, under the name of Al Shura. Shura and Democracy The term of democracy has many applications, some of them misuse the meaning of democracy, let‘s remember the democratic state of the Eastern Germany, in the time of the Soviet Union. Shura also has been misused to be an aspect of the religious dictatorships. Originally, both Shura and democracy mean the right of the people to rule themselves by themselves on the base of power; it means people have and assume the power, and they use the ruler to serve them in the way that is designed by the people. Society is the realm of democracy or the cattle of the dictatorship. Power is the factor that determines the winner, the people or the dictator. In the west, people struggled hard for centuries to free themselves, and to assume the power, or to be democratic. If this is understandable in the case of democracy, it needs a clarification in the case of Al Shura. Although Arabs and Muslims have the Quran, the guidance for democracy and human rights, they have a very poor historic experience in the realm of democracy. It is only the time of the prophet Mohamed [23 years]; in front of [1400 years] most of it is the history of dictatorship, which has its religious culture, in the name of Islam. The western scholars could have their democratic history, and democratic tradition, but the Muslim scholar has only the Quran and some lines in the Muslim long history. He has to prove for the fanatic Muslims that the Quran advocates democracy, freedom of belief, justice and peace. Islam has these high values before the western culture. Some of these values were practiced by some righteous Muslim rulers some years in different eras after the prophet Mohammed. Those righteous rulers were fair and just dictators during the dark middle ages. They were inspired by some Quranic verses, but they had not the complete Quranic system of the high values which were applied in the time of the prophet Mohammed. Their history could be used as base of a recent reform movement, but the Saudi Wahaby doctrine control the Islamic field, confiscating any other discourse that try to prove the Islamic culture of Al Shura or democracy, and other high values, which are now upheld by the western culture. As a matter of fact, the western culture of high values is nearer to Islam which is against the fanatic terrorist trends. However, when I use the term of Al Shura, it is the Islamic democracy. CHAPTER ONE DEMOCRACY IN ISLAM Islamic Democracy in the Holy Quran Democracy is one detail of the Islamic Values in the Quran. It needs an Islamic society, an Islamic Culture, and an Islamic faith and rituals. It has also its process and its own history, which is mentioned in the Quran; the only book of Islam. Let’s try to read this in the Quran. The Islamic Society of Democracy Democracy is only one aspect of the Islamic Society; the other aspects are justice, freedom of speech and belief, peace, and human rights. In fact, the term of ‘Islamic Society’ means that high values, any society uphold these values, in any time, any place, and in any language is an Islamic Society. Democracy is one of these values. As we are talking about Islam in this regard, let’s forget the Muslim dictators, and fanatic Muslims, knowingly the contradiction between their deeds and Islam. Aspects of the Islamic Society/Values: - * Equality and freedom:- 1-Equality among different races, and cultures: In the Quran God said :( O people, we have created you from a male and female, and we made you into nations and tribes to recognize each other. Verily, the most honorable of you with God is the most righteous. God is the All Knowing, All Cognizant.’[49:13] It means, all of us belong to one father,’ Adam’ and one mother, ’Eve’, but God makes us different races and different cultures to recognize each other not to fight each other, to utilize from this plurality, to enrich each other, not to confiscate each other. As we belong to the same father and mother we are equal in this life, but in the Day of Judgment, the best of us is the righteous, the real believer who uphold the divine values of peace, justice, freedom of belief and human rights. In this life no one –according to the Quran- has the right to claim himself to be a righteous, or to exalt himself. God said:’ and do not exalt your selves, He [God] is fully aware of the righteous.’[53:32] this verse prevents the use of religion as a means of living, and power. Only God is the one who know the secrets of the hearts, and He is the only one who will judge us according to our deeds in this life. That will happen only in the Day of Judgment. So, in this life we are equals, as a brothers and sisters belong to the same parent. 2-Equality and justice between genders - God in the Quran confirms the equality between man and woman, in the creation, in the responsibilities, and on the Day of Judgment [3:195] [4:124] [16:97] [40:40]. In the realm of marriage, the Quranic laws state the justice along with the equality. {The details in my unpublished book: ‘the rules of woman between the Quran and the Sunny laws’}But the Islamic democracy confirms the right of woman as the half of the society. Muslim women and Muslim men should be active together in advocating the high values and forbidding the bad. [9:71] 3- Equality between the different religions - The Islamic society means the total freedom of belief and speech, and the right of every one to advocate his own ideas in a peaceful way without insulting any one in his belief, or in his personality. In this society every peaceful one is Muslim, regardless of his belief. It includes even the atheist who denies the God; because it is his freedom of choice, and God will judge him and all of us in the last day. It’s the right of God only. But the right of the individual in the Islamic society is to enjoy peace, justice, and freedom of belief and speech, so every peaceful one is Muslim. The society here identifies any one by his manner, as his practical religion, if he is a faithful, honest, peaceful, generous, decent, polite, then he is the best Muslim, regardless of his faith or sect or religion. If he is an aggressor, aggressive, killer, liar, deceitful, thief, then he is a criminal, disbeliever or infidel according to his bad deeds. * Strong Peaceful society:- The Quranic word ‘Islam’ means peace and the total belief in the one God. The one who submits his life to the one God, and lives in peace. [6:161 to 163][2:208][4:94].The Arabic word ‘Iman’: [belief] means the total belief in the One God, and being trusted by the people. [9:61][6:82] [26:47-49-111]. The peaceful one, who believes in the One God and is trusted by the people because of his good deeds, is the winner in the Day of Judgment. The one who is peaceful and is trusted by the people but does not believe in God, the society considers him a believer and Muslim according to his deeds. As for his religion or faith it is his freedom of choice, and his responsibility before God in the last day. The one who violates the others rights, in life, in wealth, in honor, in security is considered a disbeliever or infidel, because of his bad deeds, and should be punished according to his crime against the individuals, or according to his deeds, not his belief. The society has the right to judge you if you violate its peace and security. The peace and the security of the society mean the peace and security of all his members. But the society or any human authority has no right to judge any one in the realm of belief and thoughts. This belongs to the One God alone in the day of resurrection. Actually, Islam is a secular religion which has no religious authorities in its state. The Islamic state has the right to defend itself when another state attacks it; it has the right to retaliate equivalently, but not to start fight against the others. God says ’You shall fight in the cause of God against those who fight you, but do not aggress, for God does not love the aggressors’ [2:190}’...If they attack you, you may attack them to inflict an equivalent retribution.’[2:194] To maintain peace in front of the enemy, the Islamic State should have a strong army. Once it has such a strong army, the Aggressor State will refrain from attacking the peaceful strong Islamic State. If the enemy asks for peace, the Islamic state should respond to the peace, trusting in God alone. [8:60-62] this means the strong army here is to keep peace, and to prevent the bloodshed of the human beings, including those of the aggressor state itself. Human rights between the Islamic society and its individuals In the dictatorships, the ruler owns the society, and all rights are exclusively for him. He has rights more than the free society has. He gives some of them to the people around him. Every one outside his elders and servants has no rights. Any one who does not confirm his loyalty to the dictator is considered suspected until he will be proven guilty. In the free democratic society, the confusion between the rights of the individual and the rights of the society has been solved. Although this problem was solved also in the Quran, fourteen centuries ago, but Muslim traditions has ignored it in the middle ages. Most of Muslims today believe that Islam is the religion of the great values, but they can not prove it, while the fanatics uphold the middle-aged tradition and its culture of tyranny, because they believe themselves to be the chosen ones to rule their people by the name of God and Islam. As they monopolize the name of God and Islam for themselves, they are against the western democracy, dooming it as the rule of Satan, [Taghout], while they are the representatives of God and His religion, and the owner of the absolute truth. This effective dominating fanatic religious culture has alienated the old Quranic facts that not only stated the human rights, in the middle dark ages, but also balanced between the rights of the individual and the rights of the society. Until now, we can recognize this balance as if it’s revealed to us today. How does the Quran balance between the rights of the society, and the rights of the individual? There are five rights in this regard: the right of: Justice, freedom, wealth, security, and power. Justice: According to the Quran, justice is the aim, and the target of all the divine messages revealed from God to the prophets. [57:25] [16:90].Muslim and the Islamic state must apply justice in dealing with relative, and with enemies; the peaceful enemies or the aggressor enemies. [4:135] [5:8] [60:8] [2:194]. As its main duty, the Islamic state must apply the complete justice in its courts, [4:58] [42:15] [2:282] [65:2] and in its fields of trade and commerce, [2:282] [6:1520 [55:8-9]. The Islamic state must uphold justice in the international conflicts. [49:9] [60:8] Muslim must apply justice inside his family. [4:3] More over, The Quran considers the 99% of justice is wrong; According to the Quranic terms, there is a difference between two Arabic Quranic words,’ Al mokseteen’ and ‘Al kaseteen’ The first word means people who uphold 100% of justice, so God loves them[5:42] [49:9] [60:8],the other word means the people who mostly apply justice, but not 100%,so God will through in hell, in the last day.[72:15]. As a result, the individual inside the Islamic society has the absolute right in justice. Freedom of speech and belief: God has created us and this universe just to test us. [11:7]Then He will destroy this entire universe, and will create a new world for the Day of Judgment, [14:48-] where He will question us about our deeds and belief in this life, before death. To be effective trial on that day we must have the total freedom of choice. So God has created us free minded, we have the total freedom to believe or not ,to love or to hate, to say whatever we want to say ,do whatever we want to do. Moreover, the Quran confirm this freedom of belief or unbelief, freedom of obey or disobey, and we will be responsible for our deeds and thoughts. {17:107] [18:29] [41:40] Moreover, the Quran forbids the compulsion in the religion of Islam [2:256] and said to the prophet Mohammed:( and if your Lord willed, those on earth would have believed, all of them together. So, will you then compel people, until they become believers?) [10:99] Moreover, God will forgive those who forget, or were forced to do wrongly, or mistake unintentionally, [2:286] [16:106] [33:5]. It is not the state mission to guide the people to the right path, because it is a personal responsibility, the Quran usually confirms that fact. [28:56] [10:108] [17:15] [27:92] [39:41] [3:20] [6:104]. Actually it is against justice itself to judge the human being concerning his belief or thoughts, because the judge in the court, either against this belief or has the same belief, in the same situations he will be with or against; he will not be just at all. The Islamic state has to insure the total freedom of belief and speech for every one, because the individual has an absolute right in freedom of belief and speech. He has the right to preach his own religion, to advocate his own thoughts, but not to insult the others in their beliefs [6:108] [25:72] [23:3] [28:55] [29:46] or to insult the others in their personality, he should be punished if he accuses the innocent people without prove.[24:4-5] The Wealth: Originally, the wealth belongs to the creator, the One God, He provides all the resources of the earth for all the generations, and He made these resources in an equal opportunity for all the seekers. [41:10] As for the Islamic society, it owns the resources and the properties of its land; it’s an absolute right of the society. But it’s a relative right of any individual to own, and to exploit it according to his abilities, efforts, and endeavors, because it increases the wealth of the society. If he is fool enough to destroy his property, the society has the right control it instead of him, and sponsoring him. It’s the same case of the young rich orphan, he must be tested until he attains puberty, if he is found majority, and it will be his right to run his properties. During his childhood the society must handle his properties by an appointed guardian. This guardian is accountable before the authority of the Islamic society. [4:5-6] It means the society has the absolute right in the wealth, but it is for the individual, unless he is not a fool or young minor, if he is a fool or minor, the society invests his wealth for him, keep it to his heirs, sponsors him, and treats him amicably. If he has majority, he has the right to seek the wealth and happiness as he likes, [11:3] [67:15] The poor and the needy are sponsored by the society and by any one who is able to give ‘Zakat’, or alms. There are two kinds of charity, one which is collected by the state, as a tax, the other is what the individual gives in the cause of God. [9:60] [2:215]. In all cases, the poor, the needy, and deprived, have their own right in the wealth of the society, [17:26] [30:38] [6:141] [51:19] [70:24]. In the same time, the Quran forbids the monopoly of the society’ wealth by few monopolists, [59:7], because they will control the power and the state instead of the majority of the people. In such a case, the society will be divided into two classes, the greatest majority of the people, who are poor, needy and deprived, in front of the few richest monopolists, who are very luxurious. The Quran makes this case a sign of the destroying the society, [17:16] Also see [23:33] [21:13] [11:116] [34:34] [43:23] [56:45] [23:64]. The Quran warns people from such a case, calling the Islamic society to give the rights of the poor; otherwise they will destroy their society. [2:195] This Quranic fact is a real historic fact, not only in the Muslim history, but also in the modern western history. [Do you remember the late communists?] Security: - The society has the absolute right of security, so it has to prepare a strong army to defend its homeland. The security of the society includes the security of every peaceful individual of the society; this peaceful person has also an absolute right of security. [6:82]. the society has to prepare another force to protect the peaceful people, and to insure the security inside the homeland. The crime against any peaceful person is a crime against the society. In the same time, the criminals have relative rights of security, according to their deeds, under the enforcement of justice. As for the dictator, all the troops are to maintain his security, and to defend him, or his regime, because his personality represents the society, the nation, and the homeland. That is why he monopolizes all the power, all the authorities, and all the influences. The people are just his assets, or the lebensraum, the living room, the living space in which he assumes his authorities. This is about the dictatorship, what about the democracy? What is the relationship between the right of [having] the power and democracy or dictatorship? The right of power: Shura or Democracy means the society owns the power, and assumes its authorities according to its rules, and its benefits. It‘s the strong society. If the society is helpless, all the powers are owned by the ruler who becomes a dictator, who represents the people, and the homeland. Any one opposes him will be accused to be a traitor. When the society has some power, the dictator has to fabricate some kinds of false democracy; he may rigs the elections, creates some self maid opposition, and makes his own parliament. This is the usual democratic reform of the despotic regimes. To change this false democracy, the society has to struggle more to win more power that may enable it to get a real democracy, which means all the powers are exclusively to the society, not to one human being of that society. This is the stance of power between the democracy and the dictatorship, and this is what the Quran explains in the story of the Egyptian Pharaoh of the prophet Moses, and the history of the final prophet Mohammed. Pharaoh of Egypt in the time of Moses declared himself the owner of Egypt, its kingdom, its rivers, its troops, and its people [43:51]. That what we can understand from the Quran about him. This was proven by the modern discoveries made by the Egyptology of the time of the Ra’amsises, when the pharaoh used to monopolize the wealth, the troops, and the total authority. The Quran has its unique description of the personality of that tyrant, and how his elders were just an echo to his sound saying to him what he wanted to say. As the teacher of all the dictators after him, pharaoh said to his people asking them to kill Moses: ‘Let me kill Moses, and let him implore his Lord. I fear lest he alters your religion or spread corruption on the earth.’... .’ I show you only what I see [right] and what I see is the only way of guidance’. [40:23-29]. Killing the prophet of God is the pharaonic guidance; It’s the same culture of all the dictators after him in dealing with the peaceful reformers. As a result of his dictatorship, he lost his life, his kingdom, and his people, to be a reminder and admonition for the generations after him. This is what God said frankly to us about pharaoh in his story in the Quran: [3:11] [8:52] [38:12] [50:13] [28:38-41] [40:36-37] [10:92] [43:56]. More over ,God repeated his story in the Quran more than the stories of many prophets,[7:103-141][8:52-54][10:75-92][11:97-99][14:6][17:101-103][20:9-97][23:45-48][26:11-68][27:7-14][28:3-42][29:39-40][40:23-46][43:46-56][44:17-31][51:38-40][66:11][79:17][85:18] It’s so clear that the Quran confirms that the society should undertake the power instead of one person, because that person will be another pharaoh, who will destroy himself, and his country, and may be his people. This is usually happens in countries, where the people recite the Quran, by day and night, but unfortunately, they do not understand what the Quran says about pharaoh, or even what the Quran says about the seal of the prophets, Mohammed. The fanatic Muslims believe that the ruler in Islam has his political authority from God, the same [divine right of kings] as it was in Europe in the Middle Ages. But the fanatic Muslims have their own idiom; ’Al Hakemeyya’ which is an Arabic word generated from its root word: ’Hokm’ which means the rule, or the governance. The term of’’Al Hakemeyya ‘means the right of the rule comes from God, not from the people, or the society. As a result, they consider the democracy to be disbelief in the One God, because it establishes the rule of the devils; Taghout’ on the earth, instead of the rule of God. Did the prophet Mohammed as the ruler of Al Madina, get the right of rule from God? If so, well, he was the one who was revealed by God, the seal of the prophets, and no prophet after him, so no one after him has the privileges the prophet Mohammed had in his life. That means the fanatics have no right to claim themselves the chosen people who should rule their people in the name of Islam. But Mohammed as a ruler got the right of power and authority not from God, but from the people who established the state for him. The prophet Mohammed had to escape from Mecca to’ Yathreb’ because of the severe persecution. Yathreb has become ‘Al Madina,’ means the civilized city, which was the first capital of the new –and the last- Islamic state in Muslim history. [There is a difference between the ‘Islamic state’ and the Muslim state] The believers of the new religion immigrated to Al Madina, where they together with the believers of Al Madina, established the new state for the prophet Mohammed to protect him and themselves from the continuous persecution of Quraysh, the tribe of the prophet Mohammed, which was the leader tribe of all the Arabs in religion, trade, and in power. The elders of Quraysh were against the prophet Mohammed because his religion is against worshipping other idols beside God, and the leadership of Qurysh was based on idolizing the saints and their sacred tombs and statues. Because of that religious business they refused Islam, although they admitted it as the guidance. [28:57] Al Madina was the shelter that protected the prophet from his ardent enemies. This shelter had to be a state, not alike any state, but an Islamic state in which the prophet by himself used to apply the revelation of the Quran, to establish the great values of justice, peace, freedom, and democracy or Al Shura, the values that were denied and rejected in that early middle ages. However it is expected to such a state to vanish quickly, because it was against the dominant culture of tyranny and misusing the religion of God to serve the political and commercial affairs. This culture was upheld by Quraysh, in the Arab desert, and by the two super powers in that time; the Romans and the Persians. It’s also expected that Quraysh, the tribe of the prophet Mohammed, and his ardent enemy, will inherit the new state after converting to Islam to serve its own interest. That’s exactly what happened after the death of the prophet. The democratic state of the prophet was changed to be a military tribal dictatorship in the dynasty of the Qurayshy family named ‘Al Omaweyyeen’ about thirty years only after the death of the prophet. The Qurayshy family ‘Al Abbaseyeen’, was the next dynasty, who established the religious dictatorship which lasted 526 years. In this religious empire, the Muslim traditions were written, to respond to middle-aged religious culture of tyranny and fanatics. That tradition became the practical religious teachings in the following dynasties, the Mameluks and the Ottomans. Then, the fanatic trend in our time believes in it as the real Islamic teachings, which should be applied. It’s also expected to forget about the young old Islamic democratic state of the prophet Mohammed after 14 centuries of the dictatorships, it dominant culture, and thousands of traditional scriptures, all of them ignored the Quranic verses which indicate and explain the value of democracy. It’s only because God has guarded the Quran, [15:9] we can prove the democratic aspects of the Islamic state, and prove the contradiction between it and the Muslim state of the fanatics. Prophet Mohammed, the leader and the ruler of the state of Al Madina, got the right of rule and governance not from God, but from the people around him, the society that protected him, insured his safety, and defended him against his enemies. This society is his resource of power and authorities. God said to him in the Quran, “And because of the mercy of God that you treated them compassionately. Had you been harsh and hardhearted, they would have broken away from about you. Therefore, you shall pardon them, ask forgiveness for them, and consult them in the matter. Once you reach a decision, then carry it out, putting your trust in God, God loves those who trust in Him.”[3:159]. It means God made him deal with them gently, to get their sincere loyalty. If he was not so, they would have abandoned him. If they abandoned him, he would lose their power and protection, and became homeless and helpless in front of his enemies. This is the way that the Quran confirmed to the prophet his need to the people or the society of Al Madina. The Quran made it a mercy from God that He made the prophet so kind to them to win their power for the new state. It’s not only to be gentle in treating them, but also he had to forgive them if they insult him, and consult them in every matter as they were the strength that would carry out that matter, by the trust in God. The prophet who was revealed by God was ordered by God to consult the society, not to ask the answer from God. Consulting is the literal meaning of the Arabic word: ’Al Shura’, but this Quranic term means the prophet himself as a ruler, had to share all the people in decision making in any matter. Not to decide any thing by the divine revelation, or by himself, or by the advice of some elders around him. He had to consult all the people, all the society; the rich and the poor, the high class and the low class, the educated and the uneducated. In such a democratic case, some of them might insult the prophet, but he has to forgive them, because it is the right way to teach them and to purify them. It was his mission to teach them and to purify them as a messenger, as a leader and ruler. [2:151-129-][3:164][62:2]. Al Shura or the Islamic democracy was the school in which the Muslims around the prophet Mohammed were taught and purified in continuous sessions that were held in the mosque of Al Madina, and attended by all the believers. This process confirmed to them that they were the real owner of the state, and the resources of the authorities. That’s why they were a small group, but they finally defeated all the enemies around them, including the mighty tribe ‘Quraysh’ itself. The Arab nomads were naturally rebellious, and the Arab settled tribes were hardly aware of that kind of the state that established by the prophet Mohammed. It was impossible to such a state surrounded by enemies, from inside and outside, to survive, it was more impossible to it to defeat its enemies. It’s easer in our time to sacrifice the democracy and justice in the emergency situations, but in the time of the prophet Mohammed, democracy and justice were the reason of strength, security and victory. This unique democracy has its own miracle, which is mentioned in the Quran. The Quran said that God made the hearts of the believers united around the prophet Mohammed, and it was impossible for Mohammed, as human being, to make this by himself. [8:63]. This miracle could be understood if we imagine those believers around the prophet, enjoying his kindness, care, and nobleness, feeling that they own the state in the presence of the leader, who- in their sight- is greater than any king. In that case, they must be united around him, because his kingdom is theirs. This is the grace of God, that He made the prophet treat them gently, and ordered him to apply Al Shura, or democracy. We can say it’s the miracle of democracy itself that changed the Arabic notorious rebellious hearts, tamed them to be united in such a way that enabled them to defeat all their enemies. One can argues that it was a specific unique case, not accessible in our time, because it belongs to the prophet Mohammed, and his course of teachings which are no longer exist. Actually, the Muslim tradition, which written two and more centuries after the prophet’s death, ignored all the real history of the prophet which included his weekly Friday speech, and his continuous teachings in the[ Majalis] or meetings or assemblies, and its activities, although the Quran referred to them.[58:8-13][4:114]. Surely, the Muslim tradition ignored the Mohammed’s real teachings, but The Quran has the original culture of democracy, which its real miracle is in its validity for any time after Mohammed. The roots of the democratic culture in Islam [The culture of power and justice] The strong society is the one who maintains its power, assumes his authorities, and rules himself by himself through a rulers and executives, who are servants of the people, not the masters of them, and accountable before the society, or its representatives. In this society, all the military forces belong to the society, and so are the rulers and the governors. This is the democratic society. The helpless society is the one that usually produces the dictators; or it is the society that enables any average president to be dictator controlling every thing, because the people usually are subject themselves to any ruler. Whatever the ruler is, or he was, they obey and submit to him. The difference between the strong society and the helpless one is in only one thing; the culture. The helpless society has his culture of cowardliness, fearfulness, passiveness, negative ness, laziness, hypocrisy, dissimulation, and subservience. It’s easy for any one or any people to have this culture, if they accept it as a way of life. But it’s hard to uphold the culture of power, because it needs a struggle and sacrifice. The struggle begins inside the person himself to choose the honorable way of life, and then he will be ready to sacrifice for this choice. Struggle and sacrifice are not the favorite words in the helpless society, it usually prejudges the freedom fighters, believing what the dictator said about them, accusing them to be trouble makers, but when the freedom fighters take over the state, the helpless society changes its loyalty to the new regime, encouraging the new leaders to be dictators. This society is actually enslaved not by the dictators, but by his own culture that encourages any one to be a tyrant, not only the president, but also any official in this regime. In the democratic society, the officials are servants of the people, and act in that way; serving the people with smile. But in the tyrant regimes the officials usually mistreat the public because their loyalty is to the dictator, not to the people. More over, he considers the people in his field to be his servants or his subjects, in the same way the people themselves think about themselves. This culture of bondage should be changed from inside the society itself. This is the mission of the peaceful freedom fighters who will suffer in their struggle to advocate the values of peace, justice, freedom of belief and belief, and all human rights. It may be difficult to make such a change in only one generation, unless it’s sponsored by the regime itself. As if we imagine in our dream that there is a dictator decides to change his life to be democratic. Then he needs to change the culture of his people, using all the powers and all the methods he has to change the people peacefully from inside. Most of the human history belongs to the tyranny rulers, not to the democratic rule. That’s why the culture of tyranny is engraved inside the human memory. It has begun in ancient Egypt, when the gangs controlled the villages, then the strongest gangs controlled the provinces, making them states, after some centuries, there were two big provinces in ancient Egypt, one in the south, and the other in the north, then the southern leader conquered the northern one, and united Egypt in one kingdom under the rule of the biggest gangster, or the biggest king; the pharaoh. It’s the same story in the European history; the gangs that were changed to be feudatories beside the king or the biggest gangster, and their struggle among each other, then the appearance of the middle class and its culture which brought the modern secular democratic state after centuries of wars and bloodshed. In many historic cases, tribes from desert and/or planes of Asia conquered the cultivated lands, under the name of religion and/or the motive of hunger, establishing a mighty empires that enslaved the helpless nations, intensifying and deepening the culture of bondage more and more in their soul, especially when they linked it in religion, as it happened in the Muslim world. This makes the Muslim case different from the western case, not only because the eastern tyranny is justified by the practical religion, but also because this religion of Islam is controlling all the aspect of life, including the political affairs which were easily changed to conform and/or confirm the prevalent culture of bondage. In the western case, the Christianity as a religion is separated from the world of politics, enjoying their own sacred kingdom, so it was easy to the western freedom fighters to call for the separation between the state and the church. After they neutralized the church, it became easier to the western intellectuals to change the people culture to be in harmony with the democratic ideology. It was easer to them to concentrate on this practical life, forgetting the kingdom of God, and all the religious traditions, to invent a peaceful compromise in which all the competing powers have their chance to rule according to the will of the people, or the elections. But it’s still a dilemma in the Muslim world where there are two active different trends, the strongest fanatic religious trend, whose slogans are in harmony with the dominant desires of the masses, and the weaker secular trend which is influenced by the western culture, and is fond of its leaders, calling for the total separation between state and the religion of Islam, in a manifest defiance to the religious belief of the people. The fanatic trend knows how to influence the masses by the Islamic slogans, without saying how to apply these mottoes in the real life. This fanatic trend killed the secular leader of Egypt;”Farag Fouda” in 1992, because he kept asking them: how could you apply your slogan of Islam is the solution? The assassination of Farag Fouda was their real answer of their motto’: Islam is the solution’ The terrorist crimes committed by this trend make the Muslim masses more confused. Most of those people are peaceful and against the culture of terrorism, and have the belief that Islam is the religion of high values, but they are confused between the religious teachings of the fanatics who control the education, the media and the mosques, in one hand, and the secular liberal trend and its western arguments in another hand. Those people are against the ‘westernism,’ and against the ‘alienation ‘of Islam in its home, under any justification. They believe in their independent eastern Islamic old civilization, and very proud of it. They want to listen to a discourse of human rights, democracy, and justice, but not from the western fathers of enlightenment but from inside Islam, while the two main trends- the fanatics and the seculars- are unable to produce such a discourse, more over , they are together against that discourse, for different reasons. The Arabic secular trend is reluctant of every Islamic discourse, even if that Islamic discourse upholds democracy, justice, peace and human rights. Its call for the total separation between Islam and the state ignores the difference between Islam and Christianity, and the different circumstances of the west society and the Muslim peoples. This dilemma could be solved in the guidance of the Quran; God said in the Quran about the people who follow the Quran and the people who follow the previous scriptures ’Torah, and Gospel’:” To each of you We have prescribed a law and a clear way, If God had willed, He would have made you one nation, but He may test you in what He has given you; so compete in good deeds.”[5:48] It means ,in spite of the different details, all the believers of the religion of God have the same values, and they should compete in doing the good deeds, which go with these high values of the religion. As the majority of Muslims believe in Islam as the religion of the great high values, they could be easily convinced by the Quran, when they will be lectured by it, in a free society where every one has the freedom of belief and freedom of the speech. But what is going on is something else, The fanatic are imposing their tradition as the religion of Islam, by the help of the regime, who banns any other religious perspectives, or religious reform, to make the educated people more confused between the religious culture of terrorism and the secular culture that calls for westernization. That’s why the Muslim educated people and the masses do not know that Islam has its unique democratic culture which is different from the western democratic culture. The Islamic democratic culture is peaceful, but in few years it changed the Arabs in the time of the prophet Mohammed, and made them a strong state and strong nation. But the western democratic secular culture has been generated from centuries of wars and bloodshed, from Magna Charta, to the world war two. Could this Islamic democratic culture make another miracle in our century? Let’s recognize it firstly. The Quran has its unique democratic culture. In Islam, this culture is a part of its divine revelation ’the Holy Quran’, but it’s so simple and practical that any one can recognize it, and apply it if he wants. Briefly; this democratic Islamic culture could be defined in four aspects:- 1-The Belief of the Day of Judgment. The Quran confirms that whoever believes in the One god, and in the last day, and maintains the righteous deeds in this life, he will be the allies of God in the last day, whatever religion he belongs to, be a Jews, Christian, Muslim, or any one who revolts against the common religion.[2:62][5:69] In many verses the Quran calls all the humans to believe in the oneness of God and the last day; this is the real belief that makes the human being control himself by himself, to enter the kingdom of God, or to be the owner of the paradise. This belief should be reflected in his manner in this life, means to be a good decent person who upholds the great values of peace, justice, tolerance, and freedom. These are the target of all the good deeds which confirm the real belief. The good deeds are misunderstood by the Muslim tradition and the current fanatic Muslim. They believe that they are only the four ritual commandments which are: the daily five prayers, the alms, the pilgrimage to the sacred Mosque in Mecca, and fasting the month of Ramadan. They think that any Muslim who makes these commandments will go to paradise whatever crimes he commits. So, you can see how the terrorists usually keep doing these four ritual commandments believing that they are the owners of the paradise whatever crimes they may commit. More over, they believe in their Jihad as the top of all the ritual commandments, which means –according to their belief- killing the innocent peaceful people. In this regard, they believe in a fabricated [Hadeeth] or saying which they attribute to the prophet Mohammed, claiming that he said” I was commanded to fight all the people until they testify that there is no god but One God, and I am his messenger” This false Saying or [Hadeeth] is their religious justification in their religious culture of terrorism, which determines the compulsion in religion, forcing the other people to be Muslims or to be killed, makes this criminal deeds the highest degree of their good deeds. According to the Quran, God said ”There is no compulsion in religion”[2:256] and guidance is personal responsibility, God said:” Whoever is guided, is guided for his own good; and whoever goes astray, does so to his own detriment. No burdened soul will bear the burden of another soul.”17:15]. Killing one innocent peaceful person is the most outrageous crime, because any peaceful one is a Muslim regardless of his religion, sect, cult or belief. This terrorist killer will be in Hell to abide therein, and has the wrath and the curse of God upon him, and suffer a great punishment forever, [4:93] this is one aspect of the gap between the Muslim terrorists and the Quran. According to the Quran; all the real ritual commandments should be done, but they are not the aim or the end, they are just a means to the final aim, which is the righteousness or”AlTakwa” in Arabic language.[2:21-183- 196-197-263-] [22:30][29:45] .People who maintain righteousness in any time ,any place, any language, are the dwellers of the paradise for ever, in the last day.[3:15-133] [19:63-72][39:71-73] This term:”Al Takwa” or: “righteousness’ in the Quran means to obey God, and to observe and fear Him, to do the good deeds, and to refrain the bad deeds to please Him. The good deeds are not only the four religious commandments, but it includes also any useful deed for the society, specially to be active in advocating the high values of justice, freedom of belief and speech, peace and tolerance. All these values are including in the Quranic term’ advocating the good deeds and forbidding the denied deeds’ [Al Amr Bel Maarouf-Wal Nahy an Al Monkar], which is usually mentioned in the Quran. For example: [3:104-110-114] [7:157] [9:71-112] [16:90] [22:41] [31:17]. Although it’s a great Islamic value to advocate the good and to forbid the evil, yet the Quran makes it just an advice, not to force any one to do or not to do it, [26:214-216] [16:125-128]. Also the Quran makes it a general commandment, any Muslims, male or female, should do it[103:1-3][9:71][3:103-104-105] not to be an authority for specific group that consider themselves higher than the other people; order the people to do good things , but no one can order them. [2:44] [60:2-3] The fanatic Muslims violate this Quranic value when they claim themselves the chosen people among all Muslims to monopolize this commandment, and change it to be a kind of authority to force people to obey them in the name of Islam. More over, they expand the meaning of forbidding the evil or the denied to include the political regimes, to give themselves a religious justification to take over these regimes. Actually they are active, but for their own purpose of power. Their activity is against the Islamic values of peace, tolerance, justice, and freedom of belief and speech. Their activities are responsible for killing thousands of innocent peaceful people around the world, inside and outside the Muslim world, besides tarnishing the image of Islam. The real Muslim who believes in the Day of Judgment makes his activities to win in the test of the last day, by upholding the great values in a peaceful way, not to subject the people in this life for his ego. God says in the Quran about the paradise and its owners in the last day:” That home of the Hereafter, We shall assign to those who do not want exaltedness in the earth nor they want corruption. And the good end is for the righteous” [28:83]. In the dictatorships and/or the fanatic oppositions, you find the two aspects of corruption and the exaltedness by the power and against the human rights, justice and tolerance. Middle East is one example of this case which is mentioned in the Quran. Real Muslim in his activities for the high values is respectable in the society of the high values, but he will be a persecuted when he lives in the other society, where he will be a victim to the tyrant and the religious fanatics together. As a Muslim, his real home is these great values, so he is ordered by the Almighty God in the Quran to immigrate when the persecution prevents his mission in his home land. He has to find another home that enables him to practice his values. It’s hard to leave your own country, but the Quran says reminding the believer of the last day: “Oh my servants, who believe, my earth is spacious, so worship me alone. Every one will taste the death, then, to us you will be returned.”[29:56-57]. surely, this life is short, and we will leave this world sooner or later, so we must devote this short life in a fruitful useful deeds. If the persecution waists this short life in our home land we must try to activate it in another place, because the earth is spacious while the age is short. It’s a real consolation for any active Muslim suffers from homesick and nostalgia. God promises to bless and help this activist in his difficulties. [4:100] [3:195] [16:41-42-110]. When he is able to immigrate but refuses to leave his country, God will punish him in the Hell. If he is unable to immigrate, God calls the righteous people to help him, [2:272-273]. If he is too weak to immigrate, God will forgive him. [4:97-99].Accordingly, the real Muslim must be active in advocating the high values to please God. He has no other way. As he believes in God and the last day, he does not ask any price from the people in this world waiting the reward from God in the hereafter. All the messengers of God and the active believers were ordered in the Quran not to ask the people any pay; because their pay came from God. [25: 57][26: 109-127-145-164-180][36:21]. this is another difference between Islam and the fanatic Muslims, who are usually seeking for price. This includes the official religious people and the religious opposition. All of them are competing for the vanity of this life in the name of God and Islam, ignoring the belief in God and the Day of Judgment. Those people are cursed by God, and they will suffer the painful retribution. [2:159-160, 174-176][3:77-79] It’s a big contradiction between this noble active believer and the fanatic terrorist activist. In his struggle in the cause of God and the day after, the peaceful active believer welcomes the persecution or death any time, expecting the rewards of God. When he gets old, he usually looks at his second life in a great hope in the eternal enjoyment. The others, have a live full of violence, and competition for the vanity of this life, under the name of God, by tarnishing His religion, while they have no real belief in God and His day of judgment. If they get old and useless, they feel they are loosing all what they had struggled for it in their past, and they will leave it by death. The death proves to them that this life alone is a big zero without the belief in God and in the last day. 2-The belief in the divine predestination: - The divine predestination is a long controversial debate in the religious traditions of Muslims and Christians in middle ages. Therefore it has a strong relationship with the religious tyranny, which claims that whatever crime and wrong happens by the dictators, it is predestinated by God, and people have to accept what may happen to them, because if they oppose it, they actually oppose the predestination of God. This is the fatalism which means that every thing is done and controlled only by God, and the human being has no freedom of choice at all. Muslin scholars of fatalism believed that the human being is just a feather in the wind, and what we imagine of our freedom of choice is just an illusion, which has nothing to do with the divine truth. This creed of fatalism was- firstly- sponsored by the Omawy Muslim Empire, to justify its tyranny and bloodshed. Then the Abbasy Empire encouraged this creed, and made it Muslim concept under the name of Sunna. While the religious political opposition of the Omawy Empire upheld another creed which believe in the human freedom of choice. In the Amway era, that opposition were tortured and branded to be the deniers of the Divine Ability of the One God, who controls every thing. In the Abbasy long educated empire, the creed of fatalism was improved, and adjusted by the Abbasy scholars to be the official creed of the empire under the name of “Ahl Al Sunna”. More over, Many “Hadeeths” or prophet’s sayings were attributed to the prophet Mohammed cursing the creed of the human freedom of choice, or “Al Kadariah” or the people who deny the possessing power of the One God. This creed of fatalism contradicts Islam because it destroys the freedom of choice which is the basic of the test on the Day of Judgment. One can simply argue; if God controls every thing including all the human criminal behavior, then why He will punish the criminals if they had no choice in this life? According to the Quran; God has predestinated only four things for every human being in this world: his birth, his death, the crises and the sustenance. All these dimensions of every human being are belonging to The One God alone, and to His knowledge and His measure which are unknown to us. If we control those four dimensions, every one of us will have all what he needs; the longest happiest, richest healthiest life, and may be without death. Simply, every one wants to be millionaire, but every one is not a millionaire, even the millionaire of today he does not guarantee to be a millionaire for the next year or the next month. You may plan to go here and there, or to do some perfect thing, but you do not be sure of the result, because you are not alone in this world, and you do not control every thing in it. Your interest is interfering or contradicting with the others, who are different from you in their abilities, and attitudes. Finally, all the unexpected events are controlled by God, including the events that happen by us to us, or to inflict us. No one can avoid or change those four inevitable things of birth, death, crises, and sustenance. God is the only One who shapes our features, defines our parents, and the date and the place of our birth. He is the only One who knows the time and the place of our death or killing, and our age in this life.[7 :11][3: 6][35 :11][41:47][13 :8][3 :154-158][4:78][62: 8][31: 34]. During this life, the sustenance for every alive being is prepared and guaranteed by God. Through different means, the alive beings are themselves included in these means. This sustenance means the food and other things that keep the life inside the alive being until his death. It includes those means of living and their changes, and the changes that happen to the creature during his life, all of them are written in God’s eternal Book before this world.[11: 6][6: 151][17:31][29 :60] Every misfortune, sickness illness, infectious disease, accident, calamity, and disaster is predestined by God before this world, so no one can harm or benefit you unless according to what was written before our lives.[9: 51][57: 22-23][64 :11] The fatalism in Islam is limited in the realm of these four dimensions only; but this is not the only difference between the predestination of the Quran and the fatalism of the Sunni Muslim. In the Quran, no one knows the unseen, or what will happen in the future,[10:20][27:65]7:187-188][6:50][46:9] and every one has the total freedom to do what he wants to do, to think and believe what he wants to believe. Therefore, many people choose to disbelieve in The One God, while many other people add to the one God some gods according to their belief. What is usually happening in the realm of religions is the strongest prove that the human being has the total freedom of choice, not only in his secular life, but also in his religious life, even it’s against the will of God Himself. God Said in the Quran:”If you disbelieve, God is in no need of you, and He dislike for His servants disbelief. But if you are appreciative, then He is pleased for you. No one is responsible for anyone else’s sins. To your Lord is your final return; then He will inform you of every thing you did? He is fully aware of the innermost intentions.”[39:7].This is the total freedom of choice. In the same time, this human being does not know the unseen and what will happen in the future, therefore he decides and acts freely in his usual life, and faces these predestinations knowingly or unknowingly. According to the Quran, any one is not responsible before God about these four predestinations, but every one is responsible before God about all his deeds beyond this limit, where he has the total freedom to obey or not, to believe or not, to do good deeds or bad deeds. As a believer one, he recognizes his freedom of choice, and in the same time he believes that God does not break His promises. This is a Quranic fact, repeated in the Quran. [2:80] [3:9] [13:31] [22:47] [30:6] [20:39]. So, any one can decide to be in the paradise if he chooses to believe in God alone and in the last day, and maintain the good deeds. This decision is up to the human, not to God, and God will fulfill His promise. The believer should recognizes these facts, and acts accordingly. He should have all the courage, act bravely, obeying God, putting his trust in Him, because no one can harm him or benefit him unless according to what God has predestined to him before this life, and no one can kill him before or after the specific time and the condition of death predestined by God. To outline the belief in the divine predestination and the belief in the day after, the believer one can say to himself: God created me and all the human beings to test us in the Day of Judgment. He brought me in this life and has predestined for me four thing: my birth[date, family and shape], my death[when, where and how],His providential sustenance for me, and the accidents and the crises that will happen to me in this life. In the Day of Judgment, I will not be questioned before God concerning those four predestinations, but I will be responsible for any deed beyond these four inevitable predestinations. Beyond them, no one can harm or benefit me in this life, while I have the total freedom to believe or to disbelieve, to be active in good or in bad, or to be inactive. According to my freedom of choice in this life I will be in Hill forever, or in the eternal paradise. As a believer, I know all the enjoyments of all the mankind in this world are not equal to one moment in the eternal paradise, while all the sufferings of all the creatures in this world are not equal to one moment in the eternal agony of the Hell. Therefore I have to answer the eternal two questions: Why am I here? What should I do to pass the test of my life? To answer these two questions perfectly, I must have a good belief in the one God and in the Day of Judgment, and to maintain the righteousness, and/or to uphold the great values, by advocating the good and forbidding the bad. In my active life for high values, I have nothing to fear, except God. [3:175], while the tyrants and the criminals are humans like me, but they are scared of their bad deeds. Their victims haunt them in their nightmares, they expect the retaliation, and they have to commit more crimes to prevent it. While they are servants and victims of their ego, I am only servant of The Lord of the universe, to feel this strong relationship between me and my Lord I have to control my ego, or to have self-restraint. 3- Self-restraint: The highest degree of freedom is to be free of your self, to control yourself and not to be addicted to any vices. If you commit any sin you question yourself, and quickly repent forbidding your self from doing it again. The weakness inside your self makes you lose the high values, and your duty to be active in their cause. But if you control your self no one can control you, or defeat you. The highest degree of activity is to have self discipline; it enables you to direct your life towards the highest values, serving them in this short time of your life, to win the eternity in the kingdom of God or the paradise in the last day.[79:40-41][91:7-8-9-]. This self-restrain clarifies your freedom of choice, which is the fourth aspect of the Islamic democratic culture. 4- Freedom of choice It’s easy to disbelieve in God and the last day, and to be selfish, and inactive, but it’s difficult to be active in your belief, because it may need self sacrifice. However, it’s the only way to make our short life in this world respectable, and make this world better. Moreover; it gives you the salvation in the last day, when you win in the test of this life. To believe or to disbelieve, it’s your freedom of choice, which is exclusively belongs to you only, not to God. God only confirms your choice; if you choose the guidance He gives you more guidance, if you choose the misleading He misleads you more. [19:75-76][47:17][2:10][29: 69][35:8] It’s the same case in the political field. If the people recognize the dictator and submit themselves to his tyranny, God recognizes him as their ruler. That’s why God sent Moses to the pharaoh, and did not send him to the Egyptian people, who were owned by pharaohs. In another stories, the Quran recognized some ardent dictators as kings, because their people recognized them, and obeyed them, and did not revolt against them. [2:258][18:79]. God confirms justice as the main aim of all the divine messages. The mission of all the messengers of God was to guide people to maintain justice in their societies. As He descended the divine message of justice, He also descended the iron from the outer space to be a weapon in the struggle for justice, in the cause of God and His revelation, and He will see those who will struggle for him and his justice. [57:25] It’s your freedom of choice to believe in God and His revelation, or to disbelieve. If you disbelieve in God, you will enslave your self to another fabricated gods, and/or many idols and vices, and you may be enslaved by tyrants and dictators, who will subject you to their tyranny for nothing. But this is your choice, and you will be questioned by God in the last day in this regard. If you choose to believe in God, His holy messages, and His justice in the day after, you have to struggle to establish his justice in this life. This struggle begins with a peaceful ways, advocating the God’s high values, If you are persecuted to the degree of endangering your life, and your freedom of belief and speech, you must immigrate, if you are strong enough to defend your lives, and the freedom of belief and speech for all the people, then you have to fight by the iron to defend justice and freedom. It’s difficult to choose the struggle, because it needs sacrifice, which means persecution and the possibility of prison and killing. Most of people usually like the easy peaceful ways, which make them stay away of trouble, but the active believer has to change himself from inside to face the wrong and the tyranny to make the life better for all the people. When the man chooses to change himself from inside to the better, the will of God will bless him more, and increase his guidance and confirm his determination. Man has to make the first step, the choice, then, God confirms his choice, God says: “surely, God does not change what in the people, until they change what in their souls” [13:11] Here, the Quran talks about the society, not one single person, to make it a general call for all the people to change their weakness, passiveness, and cowardice to be active in His cause by their own choice. This is a must when the people are subjected by a dictatorship, because this dictatorship will destroy them sooner or later. First, he will destroy all the decent values inside them by his torturing and killing the innocent people and freedom fighters, and then he plunges his army into any nonsense war to rally the people backing him, sooner or later he will lose. It’s the same story of pharaoh of Moses, who destroyed himself, his kingdom, and his people. We still see the same story in the Muslim world, where the Quranic story of Moses and pharaoh is recited every day without direct reflection. However, it does not mean the people are ignorant or forgettable. They are just scared. We should not blame them. Instead, we should blame the terrorist regimes and the terrorist religious oppositions. The Unforgettable Struggle for the democratic culture: The call for the reform has its slow effects inside the people to change them from the case of the passiveness to the stage of activeness. In the stage of passiveness people acknowledge the struggle for reform which does not go in vain. This culture of democracy needs a lot of time and a lot of struggle against the dictator regime, but this peaceful call for reform is unforgettable, people keep it in their souls and minds, and let it change them step by step, and has a new partisans. Finally, it will have more brave freedom fighters who can defy the ardent tyrant. In the Quran God gives two parables about the good word or the good call for reform and the bad word or the bad call of corruption and tyranny said by the tyrant and his hypocrites. God said:” He sends water from the sky, causing valleys to overflow therewith, and the rapids carry abundant foam. Similarly, foam is formed when they melt metal in the fire to make jewelry or equipment. God thus cites the example of the truth and falsehood. The foam goes to nothing, while that which benefits people stays down to earth. God thus cites the parables.”[13:17].Also God said:” Do you not see how God cites the parable of a good word, as a tree whose roots are firm, and its branches high in the sky? It produces its crop every season, by the leave of its Lord. God cites the parables for the people, that they may take heed. And the parable of the bad word is that of a bad tree that was chopped above the soil; it has no stability.” [14:24-26] Here, the good word; the good call for reform, and upholding the great values are like gold and precious stones which lay in the bed of the land to serve the people in the right time. Also, it looks like, the fruitful, beautiful tree which serves the mankind every season. While the hypocrite words, and the bad calls that justify the corruption and tyranny, and please the tyrant seem like the foam, it may be bright for a moment, but it becomes nothing, just deceiving the people for a while. The human history confirms these Quranic parables. The intellectual freedom fighters that killed or persecuted by the dictators or by the terrorist are still alive in the human memory, while the criminals became forgettable. People do not forget Abraham Lincoln, Marten Luther King, and Gandhi, but they may forget their killers. In the Muslim modern history, there are a lot of freedom fighters victims, who are still alive in the historic memory, the same memory which forgets the ardent dictators and their hypocrites after they lost power and life. It will be difficult to remember the Muslim tyrants of our time after fifty years from now. But for the coming centuries, people will remember in a great respect the freedom fighters of our time like Farag Fouda, Saad El Deen Ebraheem and the Quranic people in Egypt, Al Mahdy Ben Barakah in Morocco, Al Marzouky of Tunisia, Mahmoud Taha in Sudan, Mansour Al Kikhia in Libya, Toujan Al Faisal in Jordon, and Nasser Al Saeed in the Saudi kingdom, if this kingdom survives for the another fifty years. After fifty years, the seeds of freedom will grow and flourish, and the culture of democracy will control and prevail. In that time, people of Egypt and other Arab countries, will appreciate the struggle of the freedom fighters, and curse the dictators who destroyed their home land many years ago, and may curse – also – their grandfathers who were passive and hypocrites. Culture of Democracy and two Categories of tyrants: The tyrants of our modern history are two different categories. The first were the freedom fighters who struggled to free their countries from the western colonialism, like Nasser in Egypt, Ben- Bella in Algeria, and Bor -kaibah in Tunisia. Those leaders used their charisma and their continuous struggle and modernization in monopolizing the power, claiming that they represented their people. In that time the culture of democracy had no roots. More over, the people were ready to sacrifice the democracy for their “beloved uncorrupted hero who struggles for them, facing the western enemy and its followers inside and outside the country”. Under the motto of facing the enemy and its conspiracy, and building our homeland, the culture of bondage were rooted more and more in the time of the 1950’s and 1960’s. This Arabic stage of fight, struggle, and modernization came to pieces by the severe defeat of 1967, which proved that democracy is the only way of progress and victory, and dictatorship is the way of defeat and chaos whatever the personality of the tyrant, and his sincerity. In spite of this clear fact, the democratic culture was not the favorite choice because the defeat of 1967 gave a great help to the religious fanatic political trend, which uses its influence in paving the soil to its religious dictatorship and its culture. This gives our second hand dictators of the second category, the chance to keep the martial laws under the motto of fighting the terrorism, where there are no more wars against Israel, and no more defying the US and the west, and no more progress as well. Because this war against the terrorism is only justification to curb the reformists, the only thing the dictator can do is the corruption. To defend themselves and their corrupted wealth, they have to keep the authority in their sons after them. It needs –of course- some amendments, not only in their fake democracy, but also, in their false democratic culture. They handle it by their media, and their intellectual servants. This shows the importance of the president in sponsoring or confiscating democracy and its culture. The Islamic Democratic Culture; When and where? The Islamic democratic culture may need few years to change the nation, if this culture is sponsored by the state itself, as it happened in the time of the prophet Mohammed, Where this direct democratic was weird in that time. However, it may need one decade to be recognized peacefully in the Muslim Arab world, if this culture is sponsored by some free Arabic TV Channels addressing the people directly, advocating the absent Islamic values of democracy, peace, justice ,tolerance and human rights. But it needs tens of years and a lot of suffering and struggle if it’s sponsored by some peaceful helpless leaders and their persecuted partisans. Actually, it’s more practical to hope that the Muslim world may enjoy the western democracy firstly after struggle of some tens of years. Understanding the Islamic democratic culture may help, but it does not mean that they will apply the Islamic direct democracy, even if they understand its culture which is easier to be understood- not applied -in the Muslim world, where there is a difference between understanding it and applying it. It seems it’s easier to apply the Islamic direct democracy in the west than in the Muslim world, because the west has its long life democracy, which could be developed to become direct democracy. But it’s impossible for the Muslim world to jump from the dictatorship to the direct Islamic democracy. More over, it may be become some kind of the total dictatorship, as what happened by AlKaddafy of Libya, and his Green book, and his third theory, about the rule of the people. This shows the bad need for the real democratic culture which makes the people practice democracy. Al Kaddafy gives his people in his green book the direct democracy, but practically, people are owned by him, and they advocate his changing contradicted policies by the same eagerness. However, Islam and its secular state, and its high values are nearer to the modern western civilization, than the Muslim people, who may understand the Islamic democratic culture, but it’s too difficult to them to move. But it’s very important to let them know this gap between the direct democracy of Islam and the total dictatorship of their regimes. It could be done by free Arabic TV channels. The necessity of free TV channels If you in the Saudi kingdom asking some one of its masses: who owns this street? He will answer: It belongs to the son of Saud. If you are in Egypt, the answer will be: It belongs to the government. But if you are in the US, the answer will be: It’s free country. This is the difference between the democratic culture here and the tyrant culture there. As we are talking about the masses there, they are brainwashed by the tyrant’s media, specially the TV channels which use the drama to control the masses that have no time or abilities to read or to attend the free intellectual conferences, if these free meetings are available there. These official channels have also their religious, social, and political programs that are rooting the culture of terrorism and bondage, and orienting the people’s rage toward the U.S and the west instead of criticism the corrupted tyrant regimes. Those masses are the real factor in the realm of democracy. The tyrant regimes are usually keen to keep them away, absent, and silent. When the great majority of the people is silent and absent, it becomes very easy to confine and tarnish the free democratic leaders, accusing them to be agents of the enemies, [U. S and the West of course]. To face this situation peacefully and perfectly, we need a free TV channels controlled by free democratic organizations, but addressing the Arab masses and intellectuals in Arabic language, and by their own culture and tradition. These free channels have its mission to free the people, enlighten them, and teach them not only by its honest and real newscasts and programs, but also by drama. More over, it must give them the chance by the live communication the feeling that they have finally their own channels that enable them to express their freedom of speech and belief, talking to the international community freely about their persecution and suffering. The most important end here is to encourage the people - after that - to move for their freedom, and make their new democratic culture a real democratic life. They will be no longer helpless and defenseless. They will be protected by the international society, and by their own strength, generated from their democratic culture. This is the change from inside the human soul which is mentioned in the Quran. Then the Islamic democracy which has its roots in the Islamic faith and ritual commandments, will no more be ignored by Muslims. The roots of democracy in the Islamic faith and in ritual commandments Democracy in Islamic faith Justice is basic to the Islamic faith. It’s not justice at all to make any creature an equal to the One God who is the Creator of the entire universe. So, God says in the Quran: “Surely, idol worship is a gross wrong”[31:13] God confirms in the Quran that He has no son, no wife, no parents, no partner, no copy, no similar and no one of His creatures has any of His qualities. That’s the meaning of the Islamic faith which says: “there is no God, but One God.” The oneness of God means all the prophets and the Angels are honored to be the servants of God, among His creatures, but no one of them has the right to claim to himself any of the divine characters of the One God. Directly or indirectly, the dictator claims the character of God. When he subjects the people to his will, forces them to submit to him, and orders them to treat him in a different way, he is higher than the other people. In fact, he is even higher than the prophets in their times, who were decent and modest in dealing with their people. In his life, the prophet Mohammed used to go to the market, to buy and to eat, just like any one, while his enemies used to mock him by saying: “Why does this Messenger eat food and walk about in the markets?”[25:7]. Mohammed was not only a prophet, but he was also a democratic ruler and unlike the Muslim tyrant rulers of our miserable time. Those tyrants rank themselves higher than the prophet Mohammed and attribute to themselves the highness of the God or attain to be gods beside the One God. This is against the faith of Islam, which is established on justice. Justice that deals with the One God [not to believe in any God but Him] and with people [to be equals as a human beings, created by the One God, and brothers and sisters from one father and one mother]. Coming from one father and one mother, God has created us equal and makes the best of us righteous. We will know who will be the righteous people in the Day of Judgment. In that day, it will be the pure, complete, absolute and the final justice.[21: 47][40: 17] No one will have the authority to intercede for any one, not even the prophets.[4 :128][39 :19][6 :52][39: 30-31][31: 33-34][2 :48-123-254][53: 26][21: 27-28-29][2 :255][20:108-109-110]. In that great day, every one will be responsible for his own sin, not any one’s sins. God says in the Quran: “No burdened soul can bear the burdens of another, and every human being is responsible for what he does.” [53:38-39], also: [35:18] [17: 13-14-15]. Since God wants us to maintain the same rules of justice in this life, He sent His prophets to apply and to confirm justice in this world. It’s against His justice that anyone monopolizes the power and the wealth for his own, instead of all the people. It is more outrageous to attribute this to the religion of God and deceive the masses by His name. But this is what is done by the name of Islam in our miserable time. So, if the secular, military dictatorship contradicts Islam in one way, the religious political dictatorship is defying God in every way. The tyrant refuses to be accountable before his people, because he simply arrogates himself the ownership of them. If he is a religious dictator, it will be a great religious disobedience to doubt in his infallibility. However, the One God is the only one who is not accountable before anyone of his creatures. Yet His creatures are accountable before each other in this life and will be accountable before Him in the last day.[21:23] Accordingly, any ruler who refuses to be questioned and accountable before his people is claiming himself a god beside the only One God, which is against the Islamic faith. The prophet Mohammed, leader of the Islamic state, was ordered to be democratic. [3:159] so, any Muslim ruler who refuses to rule in the same way is actually a rank higher than the prophet Mohammed. This means he claimed himself to be god beside the One God, which is also against the Islamic faith. Any tyrant is walking on the way of the Egyptian pharaoh of the prophet Moses, the tyrant that God made as an example for all mankind to reflect and to consider. This pharaoh claimed himself to be a god beside the One God. [28:38] [79: 24] All of these aspects confirm that democracy is a part of the Islamic faith and that dictatorship is against Islam’s justice and faith. Being an aspect of the Islamic faith, it must be –also- an aspect of the Islamic ritual commandments. Democracy in Islamic Ritual Commandments: The daily five prayers is the most famous commandment in Islam. The charity, fast of Ramadan, and finally, the pilgrimage to the sacred mosque are the other ritual commandments which are the well known commandments by Muslims. There are some forgotten commandments and ‘Al Shura’ or democracy is one of them. As apart of Islamic faith, Shura or democracy must be one of the Islamic commandments like prayers and alms. We can easily find it in a special Quranic chapter, or “sura” named “Al Shura” or democracy. God says in this “sura” or chapter describing the Islamic society: “Whatever you possess is temporary material of this life. What God possesses is far better and everlasting, for those who believe and trust in their Lord. They avoid gross, evil sins, and whenever they are provoked they forgive others. Those who respond to their Lord and observe the prayers and their affair is by consultation among them, and from our provisions to them they donate. And those who when an oppressive wrong is done to them, they defend themselves until victory. The recompense for an evil is an evil like thereof. But whoever forgives and conciliates receives a better reward from God. God does not like the oppressors. And indeed whoever takes revenge after he has suffered a wrong for such there is no way (of Blame) against them. The way (of blame) is only against those who oppress men and rebel in the earth without justice and they will receive painful retribution. [42: 38 to 42]. In these Quranic verses, God mentioned the descriptions of the Islamic society, which include faithful and ethical attributes [belief in the One God, trust in Him alone, respond to Him, avoid the sins, and forgive, and defend themselves when they are attacked.] They also include the ritual commandments, which are prayers, charity, and [Shura] “Consultation” or democracy. In the Quranic verses, it’s usually mentioned the prayers and alms together, without any commandment between them, except this verse, which mentions the commandment of Shura between the prayers and charity: “and observe the prayers and their affair is by consultation among them, and from our provision they donate” This confirms that Al Shura is an important ritual commandment and has the same influence of prayers and charity in Islam. This equality between Al Shura and prayers gives Al Shura the same aspects of the well known commandment of prayers. The five prayers in Islam are daily commandments, which is similar to Al Shura. Prayers are a commandment on every Muslim and so is Al Shura. Like prayers, Al Shura, is a commandments in every circumstance of travel, sickness, war, work, home, mosque, and in any place, and these two commandments[Al Shura and prayers] should be applied by any one, any group, any time, and at any place. But an important attribute of prayers and the Islamic democracy [Al Shura] and every Islamic ritual commandment is that it is a personal religious duty that every believer has to do by himself. It’s not acceptable for one to pray instead of another one, or fast on his behalf, or to give a charity or pilgrimage instead of him, which parallels the commandment of Al Shura or Islamic democracy. It’s in direct democracy that there are not representatives for the people, but all the people are members in their assembly to discuss their own affairs. As a believer keeping the commandments, he must also apply Al Shura in his home, work, among his family, and among his friends and colleagues and he must attend the general assembly to present himself in his society. Difficulties of applying democracy in the time of the prophet Mohammed Democracy under siege This direct complete democracy was not just from verses in the Quran, but it was applied in the time of the prophet Mohammed as a new order. That’s why we may expect some reactions from inside Muslims and difficulties from others. Those verses about Al Shura in the chapter named Al shura were revealed in Mecca, during the time of persecution, when the idea of the Islamic state was just a dream. But in that time, the early Muslims and the prophet were ordered to apply Al Shura. This means democracy is the successful way to face the difficulties. When the prophet and the early Muslims immigrated to Yathreb, which has become Al Madina, or the civilized city, the democratic way of life was a new and strange order. The difficulties became more intense, but all these circumstance were solved by Al Shura or democracy. Finally, the new vulnerable state, which was under siege, could defeat all its enemies by applying the religious commandment of democracy which could give us a lesson when we tried to sacrifice freedom for security. The fact is that freedom with justice is the real security. The early Muslims in Mecca were under siege and tortured, but they had a time to apply Al Shura secretly in a private home, which they named Al Arkam son of Al Arkam. When they established their Islamic state in Al Madina with its natives who became Al Ansar or the partisans, the democratic process faced many difficulties including that some of them came from Muslims themselves and some came from the others. Yathrib in that time was ruled by its tribal leaders. One of them was about to be the first leader, whose name was Abdullah son of obay. But the new development of converting to Islam changed all of this. Due to its commitment to height values, Islam had another enemy inside its new state. Those enemies were the richest people in Yathreb. [9:55-85] yet they were unable to face the majority of the Muslims, which were the partisans and the immigrants. And they were unable to leave Al Madina, which contained their wealth, because the new religion guaranteed their total freedom of belief and speech as long as they did not fight Muslims or force them in religion. They also found in this democratic state their chance to conspire against it, or to fight it in peaceful means. Those were the hypocrites whom the Quran mentions and explains how to deal with them as the opposition. Around Al Madina, there were Jewish tribes, with whom the prophet Mohammed had a pact or agreement to cooperate against any attack on Al Madina. However, they cooperated with the hypocrite and the outer enemies against the Muslims. Those outer enemies were mainly the elders of Quraysh, who were the Omawey family and their leader Abou Sofian son of Harb, and the Arab tribes who were the followers and the allies of the idol worshiping Quraysh. As a result, the Quaraysh hated Islam because its call to abandon idol worshiper. This means that early Islamic state was surrounded by its enemies and also had other enemies inside it, which were ‘the hypocrites’ and around it, which comprised of ‘the Jewish tribes.’ In this critical situation, democracy with justices and human rights were the only way to succeed and initiate a strong peaceful state. By these values, the early Muslims defeated their powerful aggressors, then God in the Quran said to them reminding them of that critical situation: “And remember when you were few and reckoned weak in the land, and were afraid that people might kidnap you, but He provided you a safe place, strengthened you with His victory, and provided you with good things so that you may be grateful.”[8:26]. By democracy they became one nation and everyone in the nation felt that he was the owner of that state, and his duty was to defend it as his own home and family. That feeling came and rooted inside their hearts by the meetings of Al Shura, [Al Majalis] where all Muslims used to assemble in the mosque around the prophet Mohammed. They discussed any affair together and could learn from him the culture of democracy and its roots in Islam. In that new culture they forgot their ex enmity and dispute before Islam, and under its name they became brothers. This was the miracle of the Islamic democracy. God also reminded them in the Quran saying: “You shall fast to the rope of God, all together and do not be divided. And remember God’s favor on you, for you were enemies one to another, but He joined your hearts together, so that, by His grace, you became brethren.”[3:103] It was a difficult way to bring from those uneducated desert tribes one civilized strong nation since it was surrounded by powerful ardent enemies. Let’s bring our attention to the facts of the Quran in order to explain the democratic transmission, which was established one thousand and four hundreds years ago, in the dark ages, and inside Al Madina during the time of the prophet Mohammed. [623-632] Inside Muslims, some people from Al Madina were passive, had no experience in the democratic life because the ex tribal leaders had subjected them, while the early Muslim of Mecca, had applied democracy before their immigration to Al Madina with the prophet for some years. The first Sura, or chapter, which was revealed in Al Madina was Al Noor, which means ‘light.’ This Sura or chapter has many rules that organize and explain the early Muslim society. Most of these rules and legislations revealed as reactions of some events happened in that time and needed new laws and guidance. One of these reactions was democracy. According to the religious commandment of Al Shura, all Muslims must attend the assembly on the mosque without any excuse. Yet some Muslims did not attend or attended it and then left it secretly, or left it by using some excuse. For these reasons, and because democracy is a real commandment in Islam and the real way that enables the state to become stronger, God revealed these verses in [Sura Al Noor], chapter of light. He said: “The true believers are those who believe in God and His messenger, and when they confer with him concerning a community matter they do not leave without his permission. Those who ask permission are the ones who believe in God and His messenger. Therefore, when they ask your permission to tend some of their affairs, you may grant permission to whomever you will, and pray God to forgive them, God is forgiver, merciful. Do not make the calling of the messenger among you as your calling one of another. God knows those of you who sneak out. Those who disregard his call shall beware; they may be afflicted, or suffer painful retribution. Certainly, to God belongs all that is in the heavens and in the earth. Surely, He knows your condition, and the day when they will be brought back to Him. Then He will inform them of what they did. And God is All- Knower of every thing.”[24:62-64] Those verses confirm Al Shura meetings as a very important religious commandment, belongs to the faith in God and His messenger, so it must be attended by all the Muslims, without any fake excuse, or they will be punished in this life and in the last day, by God who knows the secrets of the hearts. This strong warning was established on the culture of democracy in Islam and its aspect of the belief in the One God and the last day, so those believers were influenced by this strong warning, which was unique in two aspects: 1- It did not repeat in the Quran for any case else. Although Muslim in that time committed many sins mentioned in the Quran, but they were not warned in such a strong way. For example, they used to insult the prophet Mohammed himself in these meetings, but what God said to them was just a light blame. [O, You who believe! Do not be like those who insulted Moses, then God absolved him of every thing they said, he was honorable in the sight of God. O, you who believe beware of God and speak only righteousness.][33:69-70] 2-This unique warning was not repeated for the early Muslims in this particular case of democracy: Actually, they obeyed that commandment, although they used to forget many orders and the Quran used to remind them of these orders. For example, Muslims and the prophet with them used to attend the meetings of the disbelievers, where they mocked the Quran. God ordered them not to attend these meetings, [43:83]70:42] [6:68-70], the prophet responded, but they did not. So, the Quran warned them saying: “And it has revealed to you in this book that if you hear the revelation of God being rejected and ridiculed, you shall not sit with them, unless they change the subject. Otherwise you will be as guilty as they are. God will gather the hypocrites and the disbelievers together in hell.” [4:140]. It did not happen in that case of democracy, because Muslims kept attending the meetings with the prophet Mohammed. Moreover, some of them in these meetings exceeded his limits in dealing with the prophet himself by insulting him, [33:69-70] outmatching him, raising their voices over his voice, and speaking loudly in his face. [49:1-2] Also, they insulted him by entering his house without permission in any time, making no difference between his house and the mosque, where the meetings of the democracy used to be held. The prophet was too kind and decent to blame or to discipline them, so the Quran did. [33:53]. they were in need to that discipline unless democracy will be changed to be a kind of disorder. The Hypocrites as the opposition: The hypocrites had their role as an opposition inside the state, but they were the ardent opposition that aimed to destroy the state from inside by its democratic system. They were the leaders before Islam, so they did not accept its complete democracy that gave the masses the same equality in decision making by attending the meetings which became public meetings, must be attended by all the people. In the same time, they did not abandon these meetings, because they wanted to keep their power and influence in the new situation. From the Quran, we can recognize three periods of their situation: 1-In the first period, the hypocrites could handle the meetings for their own interests, because they were cleverer and more experienced in the political field than the other Muslim people, who used to be absent and/or silent and always obeyed what the elders said. By this way, the decisions of the meetings were an echo to what the hypocrites wanted and the prophet, as a democratic leader, had to apply their wishes. The hypocrites used this power to insult the prophet and to blackmail him out of these meetings. But God ordered the prophet not to obey them and to disregard their insult [33: 1-48] also: [2:8 to 15] [63:5 to 8] God also ordered the Muslims to attend the democratic meetings as a religious ritual commandment. Otherwise, they will be punished by God in this life and in the last day. 2-In the second period, the Muslim masses used to keep attending the meetings and learning from the prophet more and became active in their presence. As a result, the decisions reflected the new change for the majority interests. That made the hypocrites accused the prophet to be ‘all ear,’ which means he gave his ear to any one of the masses in these meetings. God defended the prophet in the Quran, saying, “And some of them used to hurt the prophet by saying” He is all ears.” Say: “’Being all ears is better for you.’”[9:61]. 3-In the third period, the hypocrites lost their power and influence because they refused to defend the state. At the same time, the Muslim masses were the soldiers in battles, and the activists in the democratic meetings, so they had all the power, because the democracy is assuming the power. In this period, the hypocrites were despised by the people and lost their respect because in the time of war they stayed in doors, with women and children, and when the Muslim army returned home, they asked their forgiveness. [9:87-93-94-56-57] their situation became worst by the revelation of the Quran, which used to expose them and their conspiracy against the state and their hatred and malice. [4:141][9:62 to 66; 74, 86 -87, 93 to 96,107 to 110][59:11 to 13]. Hundreds of verses talked about them in that way, and became a part of the Quran, which Muslims in the time of the prophet used to read as a ritual commandment and read it inside their five daily prayers. That means their bad deeds, which were recorded in the Quran, were repeatedly recited by the Muslims, destroying the previous prestige of the hypocrites. The traitors and the cowards should not have any prestige in any time, any place, and in any free state. But in the Tyranny State they are always the rulers. In our time, the hypocrites are very ready to serve any new president. They adorn tyranny to him, convincing him that he is the only one who knows better and who can keep the country safe with his wisdom and inspiration. He has to believe them because he wants to. After they create a tyrant out of that average person, the hypocrites are ready to abandon him when he falls and repeat the same process with a new president. Though most Muslims are unaware, the hypocrites’ mentality is explained in the Quran. Moreover, most of them are brainwashed by the hypocrites’ media. Democracy in war time: War was the real test of the hypocrites and the believers in the time of the prophet Mohammed. The Omawy family, the elders of Quraysh, led the continuous wars against the new state from the first year after Muslim immigration to Al Madina, when Muslims were prevented from defending themselves. Then, God allowed them to defend themselves in saying, “Permission to fight is given to those who are fought against, because they have been wronged, and surely, God is able to give them victory. Those who have been expelled from their home unjustly, only because they said Our Lord is God.” [22:39-40]. Quraysh confiscated the wealth and the assets of the Muslims in Mecca and their portion of stocks in the trades and caravans, Muslims had the right to get their own money, or some of it by attacking the caravan of Quraysh which used to pass not far from Al Madina. That was the reason of the famous battle of Badr, where a small army of 317 men defeated the army of Quraysh, which were more than one thousand men. The small Muslim army by the leader of the prophet was prepared to fight only the caravan and the guards. But Abou Sofian, the leader of the caravan, changed his route and sent for help from his people. The small Muslim army was shocked when he had to face that big army instead of the caravan and its guards. That critical situation was discussed between the prophet and all the fighters. According to the Quran, a party from among the believers disliked to fight such a strong army: “As your Lord caused you to go out from your home with the truth, and verily, a party among the believers dislikes it. Disputing with you concerning the truth after it was made manifest, as if they were driven to death, while they were looking.”[8:5-6] though they were the minority, they had the complete opportunity to oppose the prophet. However, the only way to do this was to fight because if they ran away, they would be killed. Finally, the minority responded to the decision of the majority as they were driven to death and looking at it. In the next year, with a strong army, Abou Sofian prepared Quraysh to retaliate and targeted Al Madina to destroy. The meeting of Al Shura was influenced by the youth who were eager to fight the enemy before his arrival to the city. But the leaders of the hypocrites, who had some influence in that period, demanded to wait until the enemy arrived. The decision was made by the majority, so the hypocrites withdrew from the army during its march to the mountain of ’Ohod’, where was the battle of ‘Ohod,’ in which Muslim had a quick victory. But during their focusing on gathering the spoil of war, the enemy attacked and defeated them. This defeat was discussed in detail in a democratic meeting, where the hypocrite had their chance to argue: “Have we any part in the affair”...”If we had anything to do with the affair, none of us would have been killed here” ..”If only they had obeyed us, they would not have been killed” {3:154-168]. The hypocrites refused to fight, but it did not confiscate their right in Al Shura, where they had the freedom of speech to blame those who fought and suffered of the defeat. Abou Sofian gathered the biggest army in that time from Quraysh and other tribes, to destroy the Muslim state; that was the army of “Al Ahzab” or ‘Allies.’ Quickly, the meeting was held where all the people with the prophet made a covenant by the name of God never to flee, and the meeting had another decision to dig a trench around the city of Al Madina to defend it. But in the time of siege, the hypocrites forgot their vow and fled the battle. Although, in the time of peace, they used to smite the believers with sharp tongues as the Quran said. {33:9 to 25] Moreover, they tried to ally with the outsider enemies.[59: 11-12][4 :141] Inside the state, they tried to make another meetings to confer far from the mosque, and spread among the Muslim a new way of the confidential meetings which spread the rumors and the plots in the society. The Quran exposed this conspiracy and warned the believers to make them discuss every affair in public. [58:5 to 18][4:114-115]. At last they built a mosque, which was to be a center to plot against the Islamic state. The prophet himself used to attend the prayers in that mosque and was unaware of what was going on it. God exposed this conspiracy and ordered the prophet not to go to that mosque. [9:107 to110]. Finally, they lost their influence and regard. They used democracy to destroy it, but the democracy gave them the total freedom of belief and speech to make them expose themselves by themselves. Democracy usually wins even in the time of war where there is no difference between freedom and security. But it needs free people to flourish. The process of democracy in Islam As we understand from the Quran, democracy is a religious ritual commandment on every Muslim and should be practiced by all the people. Adding to the common affairs, every Muslim, one must practice democracy in his home in his work, and in every aspect of his life. Also, we understand the decision is made by the majority and the minority has to respect the decision and apply it. Everyone in every trend has the total freedom of speech and belief but in a peaceful way. One has this freedom even if they are considered to be traitors or accused to have some relationship with the enemy in the time of war because the open society will expose everyone of every thing. It’s a fact, that whoever misuses the freedom will be exposed by the democracy. We understand also the accountability in Islam as an aspect of its faith. Accordingly, everyone is responsible and accountable before the people in that open society and its open meetings, as the people are the resources of the power. We understand also how the early Muslims and the hypocrites had the unlimited freedom to practice their democratic right, and some of them insulted the prophet himself, in that process of democracy, and how the Quran disciplined them to keep the democratic process in its decent way and to protect it from the disorder and chaos. There is only one aspect left. This society who rules himself by himself needs some rulers or executives to handle the affairs and apply the decisions of the meetings taken by the people. They should also have some authority to apply the decisions of the people, and they are responsible and accountable before the people concerning the authority they are given from the people. All the social and political orders in the Quran are given directly to the people and not to any ruler or king. However, in the time of the prophet Mohammed, the world‘s cultures were centered around the kings and their absolute authorities and among their assets were the peoples themselves. In the Quran, the people as believers in God and His Scriptures are ordered directly to create democracy among them [42: 38][ 24 :62 to 64][16: 90][4 :58] and to maintain justice inside the state[16: 90][4 :58] and in the international affairs[49: 9] God also ordered the people to prepare the strong army to defend their peaceful state[8: 60 to62] and ordered them in the ritual, economics and social fields,[4 :1 to36] [ 2: 168 to 242, and 254 to 256 and 261 to 283] and in every relationship with the other states and outer groups.[ 8: 72 to 75][5 :1-2-8] God usually orders the people, not the ruler or the king, or the president, even in the presence of the prophet Mohammed, the leader of the state that witnessed the divine revelation. However, even the direct democracy needs officials to run people affairs, chosen and supervised by the people. Those officials are mentioned in the Quran under the title of [Olo-Al Amr] or ‘the people of the affair.’ This Quranic term mentioned twice only in the Quran. God says to the believers: “God orders you to give back anything entrusted to you, and when you judge between people you shall judge equitably. Excellent indeed are God’s commandments to you. God is hearer, seer. O you who believe, you shall obey God, and you shall obey the messenger and those of affair among you. If you dispute in any matter, you shall refer it to God and His messenger, if you truly believe in God and that last day. This is better, and the best solution.” [4:58- 59]. Fanatic Muslims and the religious authority of the dictatorship believe that the Quranic idiom of [ Olo Al Amr] or “those of the affair” mean their tyrant ruler and people must obey him the same way they obey God and His messenger. However, these two verses here sound other meaning. The verse [58] orders Muslim people to maintain justice. Justice as the center of Islam is against the tyrant who violates justice and defies God and His messenger. The messenger means now the Holy message, the Quran, after Mohammed’s death. The prophet in his life and the message of the Quran, are confirming democracy not tyranny. The next verse [59] orders Muslims to obey God in His book, ’The Quran’ and to obey the messenger, means the Holy Message now, and accordingly, obey those who apply justice and all the great values which God orders us to uphold in His scripture. That means we must obey the Quran alone, which revealed by God to His messenger, and after the prophet we must obey the commandments of the Quran which are applied by those who are chosen by the people to do so. The obedience is limited to the Quran not to them as human beings. So, the people have the right to question them if there is any dispute in any matter. We must refer it to the book, the Quran; it’s the real authority which we must turn to if we really believe in God and the last day. [4:59] also: [42:10] But who are [those of the matter]? What are their attributes? Are they chosen because of their wealth, power or noble lineage? In the time of the prophet Mohammed, the hypocrites were the richest people, and the most honorable lineage inside the partisans; or Al Ansar, but they were not among the people of matter. We can identify [those of matter] in the verse [83] in chapter [4]: Regarding the conspiracy of the hypocrites in the time of war and fear, the Quran said: “When a matter of security or insecurity came to their way, they spread it. Had they first referred it to the messenger and those of affair among them, the knowledgeable among them would have analyzed it. [4:83] In that time, the city of Al Madina was surrounded by its enemies. Some of them used to come as believers and then they plotted against the state. The prophet had his people who were specialized in security, to protect the state from such an activities, but the hypocrites used to ignore that committee and spread rumors among the people. This verse proves that the people of affair are those who are professionals and experts in their fields and they are chosen because of their qualifications in their fields. They are chosen from inside the people, which is why the Quran used the words [among you] “Olo Al Amr Menkom:” “Those of the affair among you” It gives an equal opportunity to any one inside the people to have this job according to his qualification. People must obey his opinion, in the realm of the high values, which are the core of the religion. If there are some disputes, then the people will judge them according to the Holy book. Finally, “those of the affair” were in the time of the prophet, when he was the leader of the state. That means those people were not kings or rulers, but just experts in their fields. The prophet Mohammed was the leader and the ruler who taught the people how to rule themselves by themselves. That is the way to purify the people and make them a strong peaceful state of justice and freedom. That is also the difference between the democratic society and the other society. The mission of the prophet Mohammed was to purify the people as it is mentioned in the Quran. [2:129][3:164][62:2] the democracy as a Muslim ritual commandment was his way of education. [Al Majalis] or the democratic meeting were the school of that education. When he died [632] he left a strong nation which could rule itself by itself, that was why he did not appoint anyone to be his successor after his death. He left in his people a perfect process to his state to be ruled by the direct democracy which was destroyed by Quraysh, the mighty tribe of the prophet. But this unique democracy was not easily vanished. It was destroyed step by step through disputes then bloodshed among Muslims themselves. In these disputes Muslims did not apply the Quranic order saying:” If you differ in any thing amongst yourselves, refer it to God and the messenger, if you believe in God and in the Last Day. This is better and more suitable for final determination”. [4:59]. actually, most of them were after their own ego, that why the disputes were changed easily to be severe civil wars among Muslims. These civil wars have established the dictatorships in Muslim world until now, and made the violence, and wars the main aspect in Muslim history until our time. More over, these civil wars created many political and religious Muslim parties and many kinds of sacred traditions. The fanatics of our days are upholding the hardest line of these traditions. Due to their stance, Islam is accused to be the religion of terrorism, tyranny, intolerance, wrong, bondage, and bigotry. If a Muslim scholar tries to prove by turning to the Quran [4:59] that Islam is religion of peace, tolerance, justice, freedom of belief and speech and love, he will be persecuted by the Muslim regime and its religious opposition as well. But it’s still necessary to reform Muslims from inside Islam. CHAPTER TWO Arabs and Muslim in the field of Democracy In a Brief Historical Analysis A Brief History of Arab Tribes before and after Islam in ancient and Middle ages 1. Extinct Arabs The Quran mentions the powerful Arab tribe “Aad” and their ancient civilization after the prophet “Noah.” Aad disbelieved their prophet “Hood,” so God destroyed them and their civilization and rivers, which were buried under the sand of what is known as Al Raba Al Khaly in the Arab peninsula between Hejaz and Yemen. After them, the Arab tribe of “Thamoud” appeared very rich and more powerful. They also disbelieved their prophet “Saleh” so God destroyed them and their civilization. Some centuries after “Thamound” appeared a new Arab tribe named “Madyan” in the north of the Arab peninsula, south of Syra. They disbelieved their prophet “Shoaib,” so God destroyed them. (7:65 to 93)(11:50 to 68) (11:84 to 95) (26:123 to 189)(27:45 to 53) (41:13 to 18) (46:21 to 26) (54:18 to 31) (69:4 to 8) (89:6 to 14) (91:11 to 15) Those ancient Arab tribes are known in the Arabic history as “the extinct Arabs” or “Al Arab Al Ba’edah.” Two Lines of the Current Arab Tribes In the time of Islam the Arab tribes were two kinds. The northern Arabs belong to the prophet Abraham, through his son the prophet Ishmael, and the southern Arabs or the tribes of Yemen. 2. South Arabs of Kahtan The Southern Arab tribes established a civilized kingdom in Yemen, among them were the kingdom of “Maeen” “Hemyar” and “Sheba” which was mentioned in the Quran (27:23 to 44) (34:15 to 21) They were famous for their water dam of “Maareb.” After the collapse of that dam, many of their tribes immigrated to another places. For example: To Yathrib [tribes of “Aws” and “Khazraj”] who became the partisans of the prophet Mohammed, after his immigration to “Yathrib,” which has become “Al Madina,”, another tribe immigrated to Mecca around the sacred Mosque; it was the tribe “Jorhom.” To the south of Iraq, the tribe of “Al Manazerah” established the kingdom of “Al Hayrah” under the influence of the Persian Empire. To the south of Syria, the tribe of “Ghasasenah” established another kingdom under the influence of the Roman Empire. “Kalb” was the biggest southern tribe in southern Syria in Islam. They were allies of Quraysh, helped Quraysh in its northern trade to Syria before Islam, and helped the Omawy family in establishing their kingdom under the name of Islam. 3. The Northern Tribes All the northern tribes belong to Adnan, the grand son of the prophet Ishmael, son of the prophet Abraham. The Quran mentions how those two prophets rebuilt the sacred mosque in Mecca, prayed to God to create a nation from the children of Ishmael, and to send a messenger of God from among them (2:125 to 129) (22:26 to 27). This messenger was Mohammed, who belonged to Quraysh, the most famous Arabic tribe. From the time of Ishmael, Mecca which surrounds the Holy sacred mosque has become the center of the religion of Abraham. The Yemen tribe “Jorham” governed Mecca until 440 A.D., when the leader of “Quraysh”, “Kossay” son of “Kelab”, defeated “Jorham” and occupied Mecca, giving the glory to the northern Arab tribes, sons of Abraham and Ishmael. “Kossay” was the fourth grandfather of the prophet Mohammed. Under his leadership, “Quraysh” has become the most powerful tribe since then, and the religious and commercial leader of all the Arab tribes. In the time of Islam there were many famous northern Arab tribes in “Al Hejaz” and “Najd” and around the Gulf. There were tribes of “Asad”, “Jadilah”, “Bakr”, “Taghleb” and “Hanifa” from the line of “Rabe’ah, the grandson of “Adnan.” There were also tribes of “Hozail”, “Tameem”, “Mazina”, “Qurash” (from the line of “Ilias, son of “Modar”), “Bahela”, “Hawazen”, “Thakeef”, “Gatfan” and “Adwan” (from the line of “Quys Ailan”, son of “Modar”). “Modar” was the brother of “Rabeeah” and the grandson of “Adnan.” 4. Strong Families inside the Tribe of Quraysh Under the leadership of Quraysh, northern and southern Arab tribes changed the history of the world after the death of the prophet Mohammed. Quraysh had many families like the sons of “Taym”, to whom “Abu-Bakr” belonged, the first righteous khalifa after the prophet Mohammed, and the sons of “Adey”, to whom Omar belonged, the second righteous kahlifa. But the most powerful families inside Qurash were the sons of Hashim (the family of the prophet Mohammed) and the family of “Omayya.” The two families were cousins and grandsons of the leader of “Mecca” and “Quraysh” (“Kossy” son of “Kelab”). “Abd Manaf” was the son of Kossy and he had two sons, “Abd Shams” and “Hashim.”. “Omayya” son of Abd Shams established a new powerful family, while his uncle “Hashim” established another powerful family through his son “Abdel Mottalib” and had ten sons including Abdullah, the father of the prophet Mohammed. So, Mohammed was the son of Abdullah, son of Abdel Mottalib, son of Hashem, son of Abd Manaf, and son of Kossy (the founder of the glory of Quraysh). 5. The Two Powerful Families of Quraysh Ruled the Muslim Empire The cousin family (sons of Hashem and sons of Omayya) had reached an agreement after years of competition. The sons of Hashem were the religious leaders and the sponsors of the sacred mosque, while the sons of Omayya were the leaders of the commercial trade caravans that took two trips to Syria and Yemen each summer and winter. During the appearance of Islam the religious leader of Mecca was the prophet’s uncle Al Abbas (son of Abdel Mottalib) and the leader of Quraysh trade was Abu Sofiam (son of Harb and grandson of Omayya). Mo’aaweya, the son of Abu Sofian, was the first king of the Omawy dynasty. He ruled the Arabic Muslim Empire between 661 and 680 A.D. The Omawy dynasty ruled the Arabic Muslim Empire between 661 and 750 A.D. After the Omawy dynasty, the grandsons of Al Abbas ruled this Empire for five continuous centuries, between 750 and 1258 A.D. The four righteous rulers or [Al Kholafa’a Al Rashedeen.],were chosen by the majority of the people to rule in the time between the death of the prophet Mohammed, and the establishment of the Omawy Empire,[632-661]. They were: Abou Bakr [632-634], then Omar, [634-644], then Othman, [644-656] the last of them was: Ali, [656-661]. No one of them appointed his son to be his successor, and there were some aspects of democracy, which were destroyed by the Omawy family when they established their dictator kingdom. [661-750] Because of the contradiction between Omawy dynasty and the four rulers before them, the four rulers were called the righteous successors, or [Al Kholafa’a Al Rashedeen]. But all of them [righteous or not] were from Quraysh. It means that Quarysh ruled this empire for more than six centuries. The Arabic Muslim Empire extended from the border of China to the border of France. This mighty empire was firstly established by using the name of Islam under the leadership of Quarysh and by the swords of the northern and southern Arab tribe’s fighters. 6. The Prophet Mohammed The prophet Mohammed was born in Mecca in 571, after forty years was revealed by God to the people as the final prophet of all mankind to reform (Millat Ibraheem) or the religion of Abraham, and to confirm the truth in the previous holy divine messages. Because of the severe prosecution, the early Muslims had to immigrate twice to “Al Habasha” of Ethiopia. Then the prophet and most of his believers immigrated to Yathreb of Al Madina in 623. He became the leader of the new state until his death in 632. During those years (623-632 or 1-11) most of the Arab tribes became Muslims, including Quraysh. After many battles and differing political relations, all of the tribes centered on Quraysh and led Quraysh to be the leader of the Muslim Arab Empire. During his rule the prophet’s closest friends were his cousin Ali (son of Abu Taleb), his son-in-law, and his friends Abu Bakr, Omar and Othman; besides sa’ad son of Ibadah, the leader of the partisans (Al Ansar). In his first years in Al Madina, the prophet Mohammed united all the immigrants and partisans in one nation, inside a unique brotherhood, and by the democratic rule, he handled all the problems inside his new state and defended it against the continuous attack of Quraysh and its partisans from the other tribes. At last he defeated Quraysh itself. 7. Why did Quarysh Accepted Islam? To Brave Quraysh in many battles was a miracle which made the desert tribes around Quraysh reconsider their situation. For them, the new Islamic state was peaceful, and the new religion was a movement to reform their old religion of Abraham. At the same time, Quraysh made use of them in its commercial trade caravans, and when they came to the sacred mosque in their pilgrimage. In all cases, the new state of Islam and the new religion are the direct weapon of the other tribes to eliminate the homage, the power, and the hegemony of the mighty tribe of Quraysh. That is why the desert Arab tribes converted to Islam. Those tribes controlled the commercial desert routes north to Syria and south to Yemen, where Quraysh used to bring Indian merchandise from Yemen to Syria and the Roman merchandise to Yemen, then from Yemen by sea to India. This worldly trade by Quraysh was endangered by the new Muslim desert tribes who used to be allied to Quraysh, but they became their enemies and followers of the religion of Mohammed. Quraysh also lost its religious trade inside their home, Mecca, which depended on the statues of the idols around the sacred mosque after the tribes became Muslims. Finally, Quraysh had to accept Islam to keep its political and commercial interest. It was the same interest that made Quraysh persecute Muslims and fight them before. In that time, Abu Sofian, the head of the Omawy family was the leader of Quraysh in the political and commercial field, and Al Abbas, the Prophet’s uncle, was the religious leader of Quryash. The two leaders together had to accept Islam when Mohammed invaded Mecca peacefully and forgave its people. Abu Sofian and Al Abbas were the grandfathers of the two dynasties (Al Omaweyyeen and Al Abbaseyeen) who ruled the Muslim Empire between [661- 1258] 8. The Omawy Family Used Islam to Restore its Power. However, the Omawy family was the ardent enemy of the prophet Mohammed, except Othman, son of Affan, one of the early Muslims and closest friend of the prophet. The rest of the Omawy family became Muslim and tried to restore their influence under Islam step by step after the Prophet’s death. Quraysh in Mecca and Al Madina were united together under the name of Islam. This made the desert tribes revolt against the Muslim state after the death of the prophet Mohammed in the war of apostasy. In this critical situation, Abu Bakr was chosen by Quraysh to be the successor of the prophet, or Khalifa, after him. The new leader sent many armies under commandants of the new Quraysh Muslims. After defeating the apostasy movements, Quraysh wanted to get rid of their trouble, and to use their ardent strength in establishing a new empire under the name of Islam. The ex-apostates became the soldiers of the Muslim armies that invaded other countries, and established the new Arab empire under the commandants of Quraysh during the rule of the first righteous Khalifa, Abu Bakr (632-634), followed by Khalifa Omar (634-661), then Othman (644-656), and finally, Ali (656-661). In the time of Othman, son of the Omawy family, the family controlled him and his empire. For this reason, some Arab tribes revolted against him, killed him and appointed Ali, son of Abu Taleb, the cousin of the prophet Mohammed, as Khalifa. This was the beginning of the civil wars between Muslims. In these wars, most of the Arab desert tribes supported the fighting leaders of Quraysh against each other, but many clans of these tribes revolted against all the leaders of Quraysh, They were [AL Khawarej] who killed Ali, son of Abu Taleb, and tried to kill Mo’aweyah, the leader of the Omawy family. The civil wars between Quraysh ended with the victory of Mo’aweyah, who became founder of the Omawy Empire, which had much opposition. 9. The Opposition inside the Omawy Empire Among them was “Al Khawarej” or the revolutionists that were the ardent enemies of Quraysh, believing that Al Khalifa should be any righteous Muslim, even if he was a slave. Al Khawarej were the active armed oppositions against the Omawy Empire from the first Khalifa, Mo’awyah, son of Abu Sofian, who ruled between 661 and 680, until that last Khalifa, Marawan, son of Mohamed, who was killed by the Abbasy army in Egypt in 750. Al Khawarej was not the only opposition. There were also patriots of the occupied countries in Iran, Iraq, Egypt, and North Africa, who revolted against the severe rule of the Omaween. The Sheeah were the continuous opposition, believing in the right of Ali and his descendants, not only to rule but also to be the religious saints of Islam. Moawyah, the first Khalifa of Omawy family, appointed his son, Yazeed, to be his successor. It was the precedence in inheritance of the throne in Muslim history, and Yazeed, the first to inherit the throne. He was faced by continuous revolutions from inside Quraysh, Al Ansar (or the partisans), and the sheeah. In his short rule (680-683), he defeated all the revolutions, killed Al Husain, son of Ali, the grandson of the prophet Mohammed, many people of the family of the prophet, thousands of people of Quarysh, the partisans in Al Madina, and violated the sacred mosque in Mecca. As a result of his policy, the civil wars broke out inside Quraysh itself and another Khalifa appeared from inside Quraysh (Abdullah, son of Alzobayr), but the Omaween reestablished their kingdom under the leadership of Marwan, son of Al Hakam (who ruled between 683-685) and his son, Abdel Malek (685-705). Their grandsons ruled the Arab empire until 750, when the family of Abbas destroyed the kingdom of Omaween. 10. The Abbasy Dynasty The emperors of Omaween defeated all the revolutions in a cruel way that made Al Shee’ah chose the secret organization in resistance where the real leader from the prophet family was unknown, except for a few unknown people, under the title of “call for the chosen from the people of the prophet Mohammed.” In some development of that secret organization, the Omaween poisoned and killed the secret leader of that organization who belonged to the family of Ali, son of Abu Taleb. Before his death he revealed all his secrets to his cousin Mohammed, son of Ali, son of Abdullah, son of Al Abbas. Thus, the leadership of this secret sheeah movement transferred from the house of Ali, to the house of Al Abbas. The activists of Al sheeah did not know the new change until their army appeared suddenly and defeated the last Omawy Khalifa, Marwan, in the battle of Alzab in 749 and the release of the new Khalifa of the new dynasty, who was from the house of Al Abbas. In the new dynasty of the house of Al Abbas, the sheeah was divided into two branches; one with loyalty to the house of Ali, continuing his way of resistance against the new empire, the other shee’ah obeyed the new dynasty. The first khalifa of Abbaside dynasty was Abu Al Abbass, his surname was Al Saffah, or the shedder of blood, who ruled between 750 and 754. The second Khalifa, Abu Ja’afar Al Mansour (754-775) was the one who established and cemented the Abbaside Empire, which lasted until 1258, but the Abbasy Empire did not control all Muslim Arab’s world as the Omawy dynasty had. During the Abbaside Empire (750-1258), the shiites established their empire in Egypt and Syria between (909- 1171). Some members of the Omawy family escaped from the massacres held by the new Abbasy Empire, and reached the Muslim Spain where he established a new kingdom, which lasted from 756 to 1027. Other kingdoms in North Africa and Central Asia were established by sheeah, but all of them belonged to Quraysh. For this reason they believed in a saying attributed to the prophet which confirms that the ruler of any Muslim state should be from Quraysh. Under the rule of Quraysh, the real Islam of the prophet Mohammed and his state became absent. 11 -Quraysh; the most famous tribe in the world: This tribe used the religion of Abraham and the other Arab tribes for its benefits, and for its interests it persecuted The final prophet Mohammed and his followers, then it accepted Islam to keep its power and leadership, then used the name of Islam to establish its mighty Empire during the omawy dynasty [661-750], the Abbasy dynasty[750-1258], the Fatimy dynasty between north Africa and Syria [909-1171] and the Omawy dynasty in Spain[756-1031]. Before these dynasties, Quraysh ruled the Muslim state after the death of the prophet Mohammed, during the righteous successors, who belonged to Quraysh also. 11-Spiritual influence of Quraysh after destroying the Abbasy Empire: Ten years after destroying the Abbasy Empire by the Mogul, the Mameluk military regime who ruled Egypt and Syria defeated the Mogul armies, and then the new powerful Empire of the Mameluk revived the Abbasy dysteny in Cairo as the religious body that gave political legitimacy to the military Mameluk regime and its ex- slave rulers. The Abbasy Khalifa was a follower of the Mameluk Emperor to confirm and serve his legality during the Mameluk era until the Ottoman Emperor destroyed the Mameluk regime in 1715. 12-Quraysh was the present/absent factor of the Non - Arabic Muslim States: The Ottoman Emperor [Sultan Saleem; the first] after occupied Egypt, he returned home carrying with him the last Abbasy Khalifa; Al Motawkkel. After the death of Al Motawakkel, the Ottoman Emperor became the religious khalifa of the Muslim World, especially when the Ottoman Empire occupied most of the Muslim world, and continued Al Jihad against the west in the name of Islam as Quraysh used to do before. It was the first time that one ruler who was not Arabic, nor from Quraysh, became Al Khalifa, or the religious ruler, but the Ottoman Emperor had the religious legality to rule most of the Arabic and Muslim Nations in his Empire as long as he continued Al Jihad against the West. This confirmed the faith of [Al Khawarej] or the revolutionists who believe some centuries before the Ottoman Empire that Al Halifax or the Muslim religious ruler could be any righteous Muslim, Arabic or Non Arabic. The Mameluk Emperor was not Arabic, but he had the Muslims aspects of righteousness by keeping the spiritual Qurayshy Abbasy Khalifa among his servants and by Al Jihad against the west and its crusaders. The Ottoman Emperor himself became the Khalifa, and confirmed his legality by invading Europe in the name of Islam. We can see the same aspect in the two states which controlled North Africa then Spain and warred the west in the name of Islam. They were : the state of Al Morabeteen.[1056-1147] then after it, the state of Al Mowahhedeen.[1130-1269].The rulers of the two state were not from Quraysh nor from Arabs, but they substituted this “shortage” by Al Jihad against the west. In this Non - Qurayshy regimes, Quraysh was the present absent factor. Those regimes tried to apply the Qurayshy stile, and to overmatch it to substitute their UN - Qurayshy origin. 13-Al Khawarej [the revolutionists]; the pioneers of Anti - Quraysh:- These regimes were also inspired by Al Khawarej, the early revolutionists in the Muslim history. Al Khawarej were many clans from different Arab desert tribes, which used to live in Najd, south of Iraq and Syria, and around the Persian Arabic gulf, Their way of living was to invade the green villages south of Iraq and Syria. They converted to Islam to get rid of the leadership of Quraysh, but when Quraysh converted to Islam itself these tribes revolted under the name of apostasy and the leader of many false prophets, the most famous one of them was Mosailama, who said” To Quraysh the half of the earth but we have the another half.” After they were defeated they became soldiers under the leadership of Quraysh in the armies that invaded Iraq, Iran, Syria, Egypt, and North Africa, and establishing the Arab Muslim Empire. This empire was controlled by the Omawy family in the time of the third Righteous ruler; Othman son of Affan. In this time, the leaders of Quraysh monopolized the green lands south Iraq, claiming it ‘the garden of Quraysh.’ It was the land that these tribes used to invade and exploit before Islam. Therefore some of the clans of these tribes revolted again, and killed Othman, and appointed Aly, the cousin of the prophet instead of him. That was the reason of the civil wars between Muslims. These revolutionist clans, who became Al Khawarej, were with Ali against their enemy Moaweyah, the leader of the Omawy family, but they revolted again against Aly himself for some fake reasons. The real reason was their wish to get rid of any ruler of Quraish, so their main aspects were their zeal in the field of the religion, and in the field of battles to overmatch Quraysh. Because Quraysh was their real enemy, Al Khawarej made their Jihad against all Muslims, specially the Arabs and the Quraysh tribe. Their victims included children, women and old people. Al Khawarej continued their wars against the Omawy family in every part of the empire, until the collapse of the Omawy Empire in 750. Their wars against the Abbasy Empire were abated during the strength of the Abbasy Empire, but their wars appeared strongly under the name of the Al Zenj movement [869-883], then the movement of Al Karameta, [372-982] The two movements were against the Qurayshy abbasy dynasty, and its wrongs. The two movements used Al Jihad as a religious justification to invade Iraq and Syria, killing the civilians and the innocent people, men, women and children, and destroying every thing, including the caravans of the pilgrimage and the sacred stone of Muslims in the Sacred Mosque. Finally, the two movements could not establish a state, but instead they – along with their early pioneers [Al Khawarej] confirmed the new concept of Al Jihad, which includes killing the innocent people, men, women and children in the name of Islam. They could not kill the powerful image of Quraysh; therefore they killed the innocent people who were the victims and worshippers of Quraysh. It seems here as we are talking about the current religious terrorist movements of our time. Really, this is the religious historical roots of the terrorist movements of our time. Now, let’s talk about the Arab tribes in the modern history. Arab tribes in Modern History 1-Najd resumes its role In the dry arid desert of Najd, during Middle ages, the mighty wild Arab clans from many tribes used to attack the caravan of the pilgrimages, and any caravans passed by their desert which lies between Iraq, and Al Hejaz, where the sacred places of Muslims. This was their means of life, and they had no religious justification. However, they had such a justification under the motto of Al Khawarej, Al Zinj , and Al karameta movements where their [secular] war for loot became an [ Islamic Jihad] which gave them the permission to kill the innocent civilian people, and/or enslave them as well. During the Ottoman Empire, Al Hejaz and its sacred places was under the custody of the Ottoman Emperor himself, but its domestic governance was under the rule of Al Ashraf, means, people who belong to the family of Aly, the cousin of the prophet, and his wife Fatima, the daughter of the prophet. Under the Ottomans, the Arab- Muslim countries became so backward, and the wild tribes of Najd were more backward and savage. The situation became worst during the weakness of the Ottoman Empire from the eighteenth century, when the strong European states; England, France, and Russia, competed to inherit the [Sick demised man.]. The response of this situation came from two different places in the Muslim Arab world, Najd and Egypt. Najd was the most backward place in that time, and Egypt was the only place which still had some enlightenment and some contact with the civilized world. Each place had reacted according to its nature. Najd reacted by giving the Wahaby doctrine which revived the faith of Al Khawareg, Al Zinj, and Al Karameta. Under the name of Islam and Al Jihad the first Saudi state was established, according to the basic treaty between the fanatic zealot scholar [ imam] Mohammed son of Abdel Wahab, and the prince Mohammed son of Saud, in 1745, confirming the two words: Blood, blood and Destruction, destruction. By the wahaby Jihad, the small Saudi principality became a mighty terrorist state, threatened the weak vulnerable Ottomam Empire by its continuous attacks, and its bloodsheds and destructions in the Arabian Peninsula, Syria and Iraq. 2- Egypt Egypt reacted according to its peaceful nature and its historical, civilized, and geographical aspects under the rule of its ambitious leader; Mohammed Aly, who modernized Egypt by the help of Europe, specially France, as a first step to reform the Ottoman Empire itself. The helpless Ottoman Emperor was against his ambitious ruler in Egypt. To destroy him and to destroy the Saudi Wahaby notorious state in the same time, the Ottoman Sultan ordered Mohammed Aly of Egypt to eliminate the Saudi state. Mohammed Aly wanted to get rid of the backward quarrelsome Ottoman army in Egypt to initiate his own new strong modern Egyptian army which may enable him to reform the Ottoman Empire, or to establish a new Empire instead of it. The campaign against the Saudi state was the only way to get rid of the old Ottoman army and to establish a new one. After some years and some battles, Mohammed Aly destroyed the Saudi state, and its capital ’Al Dar’eiah’ in 1818. After two decades, the European countries helped the helpless Ottoman Sultan against Mohammed Aly, when he was about to eliminate the Ottoman Empire and establish a new strong one under his rule. By dismantle the Egyptian power in 1840; the next step was the occupation of the Arab countries one by one, including Egypt itself, which was occupied by England in 1882 3-Arab Tribes under the European colonialism: Religious and National states instead of Democratic states Between 1840- 1914, Great British, France, Germany, and finally Italy were the major players, while the demised Ottoman Empire and Arabs and Muslims were the victims of that play which was ended by the world war one. England occupied Egypt and Sudan, and had its influence in Iran, the Persian Gulf, and the Arabic coast, beside millions of Muslims in India. France occupied Algeria, Tunisia, and Morocco. Finally, Italy occupied Libya by 1911, while Germany tried to root its influence peacefully in Iraq, through its friendship with the helpless Ottoman Emperor, who still had Syria, Iraq and some parts of the Arabian Peninsula. This European colonialism had strong reaction inside Arab world and in the old demised Ottoman Empire as well. The Ottoman Sultan responded to Germany against England and France, giving Germany the free opportunity to threaten the British interests in India, Iraq, Iran and the Gulf. In the same time he declared the slogan of the “Islamic league” to evoke millions of Muslims against England in Egypt and India, and against France in Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco and other parts of Africa. This declaration of the Islamic league means the call for Al Jihad. Being unable to fight the mighty two empires of British and France, the available way of Jihad for Muslims was to massacre the Arab Christian minorities in Syria, and their population in Lebanon, where there were a lot of Western Christian missions. This declaration – also- confirmed the Wahaby faith of Najd, and gave it a publicity and acceptance, instead of the peaceful passive Muslim Sufi faith. To face the Mighty Christian European occupation, the Wahabi doctrine was the only way, and its people were freedom fighters, while its thousands of victims were just Arabs; Muslims and Christians. Najd became famous and no longer forgotten, The military campaign of Mohammed Aly destroyed the first Saudi state, but the Wahaby doctrine became more rooted inside Najd where its people found in this faith their own identity. The Wahaby faith found more followers outside Najd, not only because it was the available reaction against the Christian European colonialism, but also because the Sufi Muslim scholar were too ignorant to rebut the Wahaby arguments. In the last decades of the nineteenth century, the Saudi family rebuilt its state, but they destroyed it by their own domestic disputes and wars. This second Saudi state gave another revive to the Wahaby faith, and made it the controversial issue of Muslim world from Morocco to India, and during the time pilgrimage every year. The Wahaby doctrine had thousands of ardent followers and partisans in Syria and India, where there were a continuous bigotry and enmity between Muslims and Non - Muslims. The Wahaby Faith gave the religious justification to change this enmity to be bloodsheds. The Christian Arabs of Lebanon were the victims. They suffered many massacres in the late decades of the nineteenth century. This resulted in a big immigration to South and North America, and to the birth of the Arab Nationalism, which was upheld firstly by the Christian Arabs of Lebanon to defy the Islamic league of the Ottoman Sultan Abdel Hameed, the second, by replacing the Arab nation against the Turkish nation, and excluding the religion [of Islam] from the field of struggle. Sate’e Al Hosary, the Lebanon thinker was the pioneer of advocating this Arab Nationalism along with his colleges between Egypt and Syria. By the beginning of the twentieth century, the Arab soil was ready to give birth of the third Saudi state [1902-1932] and the ideology of the Arab Nationalism in Syria and Iraq. The two creeds helped in destroying the vulnerable liberal political life of Egypt which lasted between 1860 -1952. By eliminating the Egyptian young democracy and the European occupation, the Arab world had only two choices in the second half of the twentieth century: the National state [Nasser of Egypt, Kaddafy of Libya, Asad of Syria, and And Saddam of Iraq] or the religious fanatic state. [Saudi kingdom and Muslim Brothers]. This needs some details. 4- Arab tribes [1914-1952] Before world war one, the Ottoman Empire allied with Germany against British and France. To eliminate the danger of the Ottoman Islamic League, the British authorities promised the Egyptians to give them the independence if they helped the allies in war. They also allied with Al Shareef [the honorable] Husain; the ruler of Al Hijaz to revolt against the Ottoman Empire accusing them to be the enemy of Islam, and the British promised him to be the king of the Arabs after their victory. In that time, the prince Abdel Aziz, son of Saud used his army in occupying more provinces in Najd, Al Ahsa’a, and other territories in the Arabian Peninsula. By the end of the world war one, the Saudi state was the strongest state in the Arabian Peninsula, while Al Shareef Husain of Al Hijaz was deceived by his British friends, and his military efforts and his Arabic revolution was in Vain. Finally, he lost Al Hijaz after Abdel Aziz son of Saud defeated him in 1926. Abdel Aziz son of Saud became the [Sultan of Najd and it’s append ants and the prince of Al Hejaz] while Al Shareef Husain became homeless!! Al Shareef Husain was not the only loser, because the victorious allies plotted against their other Arab and Muslim followers. The British Empire refuse to give Egypt its independence, arrested the Egyptian leaders and exiled them. Before liberating Syria and Iraq from the Ottoman occupation, British and France had their own secret pact. Accordingly; British got Iraq and France got Syria and Lebanon, while Palestine was given to the Zionists to be a Jewish state, instead of its Arab owners. This was more than disappointment. It rooted the enmity inside the Arabs more and more towards the West, specially, during the Arab liberal movements against the Western colonialism between [1919- 1955.] which raised the slogan of the Arab Nationalism in Syria and Iraq, and the Egyptian freedom in Egypt. The religious Ottoman Empire was abrogated and replaced by fascists Turkish leaders in 1924.This made the Islamic world without its Muslim body of leadership [Al Khelafah], after thirteen centuries. This gave the Saudi prince Abdel Aziz more credit to be the promising leader of the Islamic world instead of the former Ottoman Islamic leadership, specially, when he added Al Hijaz to his possession or custody by 1926. To face the new situation, and to confine the new promising Wahaby leader inside his desert, the British had to revive the house of their disappointed former ally; Al Shareef Husain through his two sons; Abdollah and Faisal. The British created the kingdom of Jordon to help the promising state of Israel, and to stand as a barrier between the Saudi state and its hope to advance north to Syria. They also gave Iraq to Faisal to stop the advance of Ibn Saud towards Iraq; the historical vital space of the tribes of Najd, and the first Saudi state. By the advice of his Egyptian counselor Hafiz Wahbah, the tough nomadic Wahaby Saudi leader Abdel Aziz had a clever political agenda to make the third Saudi state survive more time than the second and the first states. The third Saudi state was surrounded by enemies: north, in Syria, and Iraq, where the two sons of his enemy Al Shareef Husain, and in East by the Sheeah in Gulf and in Iran, and in south, by the Sheeah of Yemen. Inside his new state he had another enemies, the Sheeah and Al Ashraf or” honorable ones” in Al Hijaz, and the other tribes and clans whom were terrified and defeated by the tough Saudi state and its wild fanatic soldiers; Al Ikhwan, or “the brothers.” Those Al Ikhwan; the brothers, were savage Arab clans who were taught the Wahaby teachings as an Islamic commandments. They found inside the Wahaby doctrine the religious justification to rout, rob and kill the other people as a Jihad. By their swords Abdel Aziz built his Saudi state step by step, but when he wanted to modernize his backward state by the help of Egypt and the West, Al Ikhwan - who were taught by Abdel Aziz and his scholars that Non Wahaby people should be fought or killed - revolted against him. That was an additional problem inside the Wahaby doctrine and the Saudi state as well. The state and its Middle aged doctrine were in bad need to be adjusted to accord the modern world of the twentieth century. Egypt and the Muslims of India were the solution for the Saudi state. By Egypt and Muslims of India, Abdel Aziz could find allies who might help him in facing Iran in east and Syria an Iraq in north. Moreover, in the two civilized peoples of Egypt and India he could find Muslim scholars who might reform or adjust the Wahaby doctrine. The Wahaby faith in that time had millions of followers among Muslims of India, where they found in it their satisfaction in the religious bigotry against the Non -Muslim Indians. The Wahaby doctrine was the real inspiration of creating Pakistan and dividing India as one of the greatest mistakes of the twentieth century. For this mistake, there were hundreds thousands of victims in India and Pakistan in the twentieth century, and there will be another victims in our present century. Egypt was more important to Abdel Aziz, than India and its Non - Arab far away Muslims and their problems. His Egyptian counselor Hafiz Wahbah, was keen to orient the Saudi prince towards Egypt; the civilized leader of the Arab Muslim world, the oldest state of the world, the nearest and the biggest Arab Muslim population, the state that destroyed the first Saudi state in the nineteenth century, and might help the third Saudi state to survive if the Wahaby doctrine had its trend inside Egypt. In that time [1900-1926] Egypt had only one problem; its practical religious faith was the suphy peaceful Muslim faith which confirmed the nature of its peaceful people. So, the only solution was to change the Suphy Egyptian faith to be Wahaby under the favorite Muslim slogan of Sunna; or the teachings attributed to the prophet Mohammed. It was easy to a scholar like Hafiz Wahbah to think that way, not only because he disliked the western colonialism in Egypt and the Arab Muslim world, but also he believed that the Suphy faith was no longer suitable in the time of struggle for freedom. As he was one of the students of the Egyptian religious reformist Imam Mohammed Abdu, who criticized the Suphy faith and the Wahabi as well, Hafiz Wahba had a hope to reform the Wahaby from inside, by the help of its leader, Abdel Aziz, who had the same hope. By the efforts of the Saudi prince and his Egyptian counselor and by the help of the Egyptian intellectuals- many of them were friends and colleges of Hafiz Wahbah, the Wahaby doctrine had- suddenly- many foundations inside Egypt in few years. Between 1926- 1928, the largest body of the suphy faith named ‘Al Jam’eiah Al Share’iah”, means the Jurisdiction Association, was changed to be ardent enemy of the Suphy faith. “Al Shobban Al Muslemeen,”means the Muslim youth, was established to recruit the Egyptian youth, trained and indoctrinate them the Wahaby faith, they initiated “Ansar Al Sunna” or The Partisans of Sunna, to advocate the Wahaby faith among the Egyptian masses. Finally, an ambitious young man from the Muslim youth established Al “Ikhwan Al Muslemeen”, or Muslim Brothers in 1928, he was Hasan Al Banna [1902-1948] In only twenty years [1928-1948] Hasan Al Banna could establish fifty thousand branches of Muslim Brothers all over Egypt, from Alexandria to Aswan. More over he established the international organization of the Muslim Brothers, which helped Abdel Aziz against the ruler of Yemen, by creating a revolution inside Yemen, killing the ruler, frightening his son, and making him responded to Abdel Aziz and his claims of the borders between them. Muslim Brothers and its public and secret organizations inside and outside Egypt urged the Egyptian regime to assassinate Hasan Al Banna and persecute his followers between 1948- 1952. This distinguish achievement of Hasan Al Banna was not only because of his cleverness, and/or the Saudi help, but basically because the Egyptian soil was paved for one century 1840- 1940 to accept the Wahaby faith. After they dismantled the Egyptian military power in 1840, Egypt still had some of its real human power, through its intellectual inside Al Azhar, the new modern schools and the experts and the scholars who were sent to Europe. This human intellectual power was the birth of the new educated middle class which changed the Egyptian history in the twentieth century. Poor Egyptians came from villages to Cairo and Al Azhar seeking to improve their social status by the religious education which was free and available in that time. It was the only way for any helpless young farmer to be distinguished among the society which was ruled by foreign minority used to despise the Egyptian farmers in particular. Some of those poor students of Al Azhar were sent to Europe, some of them had official ranks inside the Egyptian administration in time of modernization and development, others were still scholars inside Al Azhar and the religious body of Egypt which controlled many aspects of life in that time. Some of them had a high rank in the Egyptian society which was –officially- consisted of different ranks, the lowest of them was the farmers and the masses, and the highest were the minority foreign class and its leadership; the dynasty of Mohammed Aly. Although the Egyptian merchants and businessmen were the core of the middle class, but they were –generally- servants of the high class which controlled the Egyptian cultivated lands and the political field as well. The new educated class knew the suffering of the poor Egyptians and had the hope for reform. Beside Al Azhar Mohammed Aly- reluctantly-had to recruit the Egyptian farmers in his new army, but under the leadership of the foreign officers, lest they might revolt against him. During some decades, some of the educated Egyptians became officers, and revolted against the corrupted regime and its wrongs in the Orabi Movements which belonged to the Egyptian Officer Ahmed Oraby. The British Empire used this revolution to occupy Egypt in 1882. Here we can say the educated middle class in Egypt produced its first revolution in 1882 after about forty years of dismantling the Egyptian power in 1840 In that time [1840- 1882] there were some aspects of democracy, in the early Egyptian parliament, newspapers, and some parties. These aspects beside the enlightened class paved the way to the great Egyptian revolution against the British occupation in 1919 after about forty years from the British colonialism in 1882. This great Egyptian revolution of 1919 paved the way to the famous Egyptian revolution in 1952, after about thirty years, the revolution which changed the history of the Arab world and the colonialism as well. During 1923 to 1952 democracy in Egypt had more positive aspects, through the new constitution, the strong parliament, free media, and free parties. But the whole picture was not promising. The Egyptian power and wealth were controlled by the royal dynasty and the minority, and they together were controlled by the British influence, while the new educated generations of the low class and the middle class were deprived and frustrated. Because the freedom needs Justice, and justice was confiscated in Egypt in that time, the new educated generations of young men denied that democracy which – in their opinion – gave justification to the continuous rule of the British colonialism and the foreign royal dynasty and the corrupted parties and leaders. These new generations were aware of their rights and had their own expertise in struggle against the British occupation in 1919 and had another expertise in demonstrations and other social and political activities. They also were influenced by the new political and religious ideologies came from the West [Communism and Fascism] and from the Islamic world, [Wahaby]. Accordingly; Ahmed Husain established his new party “Egypt; the Girl” as a copy of the Italian style, and there were many secret communist organizations, but the biggest organization was the Muslim Brothers, in its secret organization and secret militia, and in its propaganda, and in its influence inside the masses. These protesting movements were the soil that produced the “free officers” who made the Egyptian military revolution in 1952, by the leadership of Gamal Abdel Nasser, and by the help of the Muslim Brothers. 5- Arab tribes between 1952- 2001: Abdel Aziz son of Saud, gave the mission of advocating the Wahaby doctrine to his followers in Egypt and India, and concentrated in modernizing his new state by the help of the west and allying with the new power; the U.S. A. He gave his new state his family name [Saudi] in 1932, and waited patiently the Wahaby seeds to give its fruits for the benefits of his kingdom and family. The discovery of oil in his kingdom and the reaction of the Egyptian revolution hastened his dreams to come true after his death. In few years Nasser ‘s regime in Egypt had its features; the Arab nationalism instead of the Wahaby doctrine of his enemies “Muslim Brothers”, allying with the Soviet Union against the west imperialism, and finally, sacrificing democracy for social justice and the struggle against Israel and imperialism and its satellites, means Saudi kingdom, Jordon, and others . In 1950’s and 1960’s, Nasser inspired the Arab, Muslim, and the third world as freedom fighters against the imperialism, and helped many nations to free themselves and to get their independence. By his charisma and the status of Egypt; the leader state, Nasser had the hope to unite the Arab nation in one state under his leadership. Being overloaded of all this struggle and hopes, Nasser as one person was unable to achieve his dreams. Being a dictator, who had an endorsement and support of the majority of the people, Nasser did not realize the urgent need of democracy to activate all the people with him, and to protect his regime. By the hard defeat in 1967, and the Israeli occupation in Egyptian and Arabic lands, Nasser’s dreams was gone, and his practical aim was to free the occupied lands, as another excuse to confiscate democracy. Actually, his real death was in the defeat of 1967, and his official death in 1970, was the end of the Arab nationalism and its dreams, but its nightmares continued by others who tried to play the role of Egypt and Nasser. The defeat of Nasser, Egypt and the Arab nationalism, gave a great victory to the Saudi state and its Wahaby doctrine. In 1954 the Muslim Brothers who helped Nasser in his revolution, tried to assassinate him, but they were convicted and tortured, and many of them escaped to the Saudi state, which had rapid positive changes in its wealth by oil, and in its development by the West and the Egyptian scholars of the Muslim Brothers. However, the greatest victory came to the Saudi state in the time of Sadat [1970-1981] In the time of Nasser, Sadat was a friend of the Saudi regime, and the representative of Nasser in the Islamic organizations, which were influenced by the Saudi’s and their Wahaby faith. After Nasser Sadat had the chance to change all the policy of Egypt, Allied to the West and the Saudi state, fought Israel and had a peaceful pact with it, changed the social justice of Nasser, giving instead of it free market which made the poor masses starving, but he gave some aspects of democracy under his control, and according to his wishes. When the hungry masses revolted against him in January 18-19, 1977, his few democratic aspects gone step by step, finally, he lost his life by the religious fanatic trend which was revived by him. From 1987 until now, Egypt was given free to the Saudi state and its Wahaby traditions and scholars who controlled most of the Egyptian administrations. For example; the Sheeah in Egypt are persecuted in Egypt to satisfy the fanatic Wahaby, and the Quranic intellectual trend who believe in Islam as the religion of peace, freedom and Justice, is also persecuted because its belief contradicts the Wahaby dogmas. By their money, the Saudi elders corrupt the Egyptian officials inside the regimes, its high class, and even the low class through the false marriages and the cheap employments. Saudi kingdom became richer by the increasing price of oil, because of the Egyptian half victory of October 1973. Instead of having a fare portion in this millions came easily to the Saudi and other states, Egypt was punished by these states when Sadat chose the peaceful way in the Arab Israeli conflict, to solve the economical problem of Egypt after its half victory of 1973. These states allied with Sadam of Iraq against Egypt, and made him their leader to continue the war against Israel. Sadam continued his policy in threatened the oil states, blackmailing them. Finally, he took their money to fight Iran instead of Israel. After having nothing of this war, Sadam invaded Kuwait n 1990 ending the dream of the Arab Nationalism, changing it to a horrible nightmare. In the one geographic region of Syria and Iraq, the creed of Arab Nationalism was confirmed by many historical, political and social reasons, but in the new states created in the region by the British and French after the world war one, it was impossible to unite the region in one state. The powerful party of “Al Ba’ath”; means resurrection, came to the power in Syria and in Iraq, during the life of its leader Michael Aflak. But his students who ruled the two Nationalist regimes in Syria and Iraq were ardent enemies. More over, the nationalists in Syria conspired against the United Arab Republic, the new state which united Egypt and Syria in the time of Nasser [1958-1962]. Why it was impossible to unite them according to their Arab Nationalism? The strong reason was the Wahabi faith and its reactions in this region of Syria and Iraq. These nationalists in the Arab world - including Nasser himself- had their own reasons to use the Arab Nationalism. This slogan was used firstly in Syria to face the Wahaby faith and it’s “Mojahedeen”. In early as the middle of the nineteenth century, the followers of the Wahaby used to kill the Arab; Christians and Sheeah. The two peoples were persecuted also by the Ottoman Empire in some degrees. In spite of the enmity between the Ottomans and the Wahaby, each of them had a Muslim religious motto which should be faced by another motto; the Arab Nationalism. The Arab Christians were the pioneers of advocating the Arab Nationalism and Michael Aflak; the Christian, was the thinker and the founder of the biggest nationalist party in Syria and Iraq. In Syria, the minority of Sheea understood the lesson, and after some coups the minority of Al Sheeah Al Nasereyah, Al Alaweyah, has taken over Syria under the slogan of Arab Nationalism, and by the leadership of Hafiz Al Asad. It was their opportunity to revenge against the majority of Al Sunna, who are Wahaby by the faith, and Muslim Brothers by the political trend. In Iraq, The danger of the Wahaby was intense in 1920’s. The Arab Nationalism was the available solution to face the Wahaby faith, but it produced different military bloody coups, from Abdel Kareem Kasim to the two brothers Abdel Salam and Abdel Rahman Aarif, to Ahmed Hasan Al Bakr. Finally, the assassin of the different coups becomes himself the leader. It’s Sadam Husain, the problem of the world for two decades. There is another funny example of the Arab nationalism. It’s the colonel Mo’ammar Al Kaddafy of Libya. He was a Zealot of Nasser and wanted to be a copy of him. But he is from Libya, not from Egypt. Libya is not the country that may enable him to be the leader of the Arab after Nasser, and after the disappearance of the Egyptian leadership in the Arab world. He tried to buy off Sadat, but Sadat who belonged to the same category of Kaddafy; the Military group who take over their countries, was not interested in the ambitious young Libyan leader. Besides, Sadat had already chosen his way with the U.S.A. and the Saudi kingdom. The misunderstanding between the two men became a war between Egypt and Libya, after many plots against Egypt by Al Kaddafi. Al Kaddafi appointed himself ‘The Faithful of the Arab Nationalism’ and continued in making noise here and there, but no one pays him attention. Finally, he declared his disbelief in the Arab nationalism, and has Africa instead of it, to try another play, spending the rest of the oil wealth of his country. In 1980’s , 1990’s the Saudi Wahaby influence reached the top, not only because of the disappearance of the Egypt and its leadership, and sun sit of the Arab Nationalism, but also because of the influence of the U.S.A, which recruited the Wahaby faith in its war against the communists in Muslim world. The American doors were widely opened to welcome the Saudi Wahaby preachers who had one aim; converting America to Islam in twenty years, meaning - of course - converting them to their Wahaby faith. They used the American freedom of belief - which is banned inside the Saudi kingdom- to establish their Islamic centers and schools and other secret and public organizations as they usually do in Egypt, Pakistan and other African and Asian countries. It is the same policy which was planned by their father Abdel Aziz, but was applied cleverly by his two sons; Faisal and Fahd in a proper time. Afghanistan was the last night of this honey moon of the American Saudi relationships. In Afghanistan’s field, the different Arab regimes were united in one mission, to encourage their religious oppositions to move to there, where they involved in hard wars against the communist regime. After some years from the collapse of that regime, the hardest line of the religious trends took over the country. It was the Taleban who were the students of the Wahaby schools in Pakistan and Afghanistan, the same copy of Al Ikhwan or the Brothers in the time of Abdel Aziz. Those students inside and outside the U.S are the promising Wahaby generation according to the Saudi plan. This current generation in Algeria and Egypt is trying to take over the regimes there through its continuous bloodsheds. But in Afghanistan, this generation took over the country under its real name; The Taleban. Those Taleban allied with their colleges from other countries under the Saudi leader Osama Ibn Laden and his secret terrorist network of Al Qa’eda. Because they failed in converting America to their faith, the other choice was ready. It was the attack of September 11, 2001. Now, the Arab world is facing a new situation, it may remind us of their situation in the world war one, and the ‘new order’ of that time. However, it’s the coming history which we can try to predict, depending on the Quran. Arabs tribes in this century in general 1- Quraysh and its enemy are still here Do you still remember Quraysh and its historical enemy Al Khawarej ? Many Arab families claimed the lineage of the prophet Mohammed through his cousin Aly son of Abou Taleb and his wife Fatima the daughter of the prophet Mohammed. So, these families have the title of Al Ashraf, means the Honorable people. Some of these families utilized this claim in religious way by claiming to be saints, and inheriting this sainthood inside their descendants. This still happens in the Suphy field. Some of the famous honorable saints used this claim in the political field and became the ruler of their countries, as it happened in Libya by the Sanousy family before the coup of Al Kaddafy. Some have a better luck, as they still in power until now, like the royal dynasties in Jordon and Morocco. In Iran, the president Mohammed Khatamy claims the honorable lineage of the prophet, and he is keen to keep the sign of Al Ashraf on his head. Al Ashraf belongs to Quraysh, and they represent its style of using the religion in the political field, and the religious political dictatorship. even in the modern current time. The historical enemies of Quraysh were the revolutionists [Al Khawarej] who were extremists and fanatic in their religious way to substitute the lack of the Qurayshy lineage and its fame. Those are represented in our time by the Saudi regime and its Wahaby faith, and the different religious fanatic political organizations around the world. The wars between the Saudi state and Al Ashraf of Al Hejaz was intense and continuous from the first Saudi state in the eighteenth century until 1926, but the Saudi regime still persecuting the Sheeah, the Muslim who believe in Aly and his descendants[ Al Ashraf]. The enmity is intense between the two religious regimes of Saudi and Iran in spite of their belonging to one religion. Now, we are dealing with the alive history which may enable us to understand the current Arab policy if we simply understand its historical background. But the most important is that we can predict some aspects of their future if we understand the Quran and its discourse about Arabs in the time of the prophet Mohammed, and the ancient Arabs and nations. Can you get some facts about the future of Arab tribes from inside the Quran? 2-The Quran and Arabs today To get these facts easily from the Quran you have to believe in the Quran; the only written Holy revelation the prophet Mohammed had, and his life and deeds were total obedience of the Quran, which is the Godly preserved and guarded message to all the humanity from the time of Mohammed to the end of this world. According to the Quran itself, it’s your freedom of choice to believe in it or not, but according to free objective reading in the Quran, it’s impossible to ignore or to deny its scientific and historical facts. The historical facts include some aspects of the unknown ancient history, from the time of Adam, Noah, until the history of the children of Israel, to the time of Jesus. These facts are open call to all scientists of this century to read the Quran and understand it in an objective way to discover the unknown history of the mankind. Another kind of the Quranic stories were reaction to what happened in the time of the prophet Mohammed, but its details give us an historic account of some aspects of the life in that time. I say [some aspects] because the Quran is not a book in history or in science. It’s simply a book in guidance, but to guide people God used many ways which include some ancient historic facts and some scientific facts in human body, in earth and universe to call the mankind to reflect and consider. The Unseen facts are the real miracles in the Quran. They include the unknown historical events in past, and even in the time of the prophet Mohammed when the Quran used to tell him some news before its occurrence, then they came true after that.[30: 2 to 6][3 :12][8:36][9:95][2 :142][17: 50- 51][33: 27] . In our time, we can touch this unseen future when we study the Quranic verse about the creation of the world and destroying it, the signs of the Hour, and the Quranic rules of the destruction or punishment of the nations in this world. Quraysh and Arabs have a great portion in these Quranic rules, not only because Quraysh is mentioned in the Quran by name and indirectly [Chapter 106][ 16 :112- 113] [28: 57][29: 67] But also because God knows that those who were the first witness of the Godly revelation would be the first in misusing it in their political interests. Therefore, they will be an evidence for the coming generations of humanity. It means we can read “some aspects’ of Arab history in the past, and in the future. Let’s try. 3-Arabs and the Quranic rules of the divine punishment It should be known that these rules is for the all human, not for the Arabs in particular, but because Arabs were the people who misused the Quran, the Arabic final scripture of God to all the mankind, they should be the first people whom warned and addressed by its verses, which include the rules of the Godly punishment in the details of the Quranic stories. In these stories we can find how God repeated the warning to Arabs, reminding them of the destruction which had happened to the ancient nations when they disobeyed and refused the divine revelation,[6: 6][10: 13][17: 17][19 :74-98] [36: 31][38: 3][43: 8][46: 27][50 :36][54: 51][7 :4]. God asked them also to roam the earth to find out the remains of those cursed nations.[3:137][16:36][30 : 9-42][12 :109][35 :44][40:21-82][47:10]. Some of these ruins of the cursed nations were known by the Arabs, as they used to pass by them in their trade trips, north to Syria and south to Yemen[20 128][32 26]. But the ruins of Aad and Thamoud between Al Hijaz, and Yemen and the remains of Sodom and Gomorra; the people of the prophet Lot, south of Syria were the most famous in this regard. [29 38][37 137-138][15 76] Beside this practical lesson, God explained the rules and the reasons of His punishment to admonish and warn the mankind. Generally; God said:”And how many generations have we annihilated after Noah! And Sufficient is your Lord as an All- Knower and All- Beholder of the sins of His creatures. [17:17].This means the crimes and disobedience of God are the reasons of this punishment. As the sin is a continuous human habit, it will be a continuous punishment in this world from the time of Noah to the end of this world. This is a Godly Rule, as God said:”There is not a community that we will not annihilate before the day of resurrection, or afflict it with severe retribution. This is already predetermined in the scripture.”{17:58] But before the punishment, God warned the people by His revelation and prophets, and also the reformists; God said: “And we never destroy any community but it has its warners to remind [them], and we have never been unjust” [26:208-209]. Those warners were rejected and insulted and persecuted by the minority which monopolized the wealth and the power of the society, because the call for just and truth was against their unjust political and social power. As they were criminals who had all the power, the only solution was the Godly punishment. This is the meaning of God’s saying:” And when we decided to destroy a community, we ordered its luxurious ones, [to obey, but] they disobeyed, and thus the word [of curse] is justified against it. Then we destroy it with complete destruction.”[17:16] Any society who has a minority of luxurious ones in front of the majority of starving people is unjust doomed cursed society. This luxurious minority usually uses the false religious teachings to deceive and numb the hungry masses. Therefore that kind of religion is just opium of the people as the communists said. Because they have their religious body which justifies their corruption, they usually refuse the real religious truth of justice and freedom saying to the warners:” We found our fathers on this [belief] and we are following their footsteps.” This was said to the prophet Mohammed by Quraysh, and said before him, [43:22-23], and is still said by the corrupted luxurious minorities and their religious scholars in the Arab Muslim world. Their owned religious scholars argue that as they are the richest and the most powerful people, they will not be punished by God. They can buy His forgiveness and paradise by some of their illicit money giving to this religious body and its foundations and organizations. Accordingly they usually say to the warners and reformists as God mentioned in the Quran: “We are more in wealth and in children [power] and we are not going to be punished”[34:34-35] By this religious body, those luxurious ones become real criminals, but they believe that they are better than the warners, consequently, they reserve the Godly punishment.[6:123-124] After destruction, their palaces become empty as sign for people who know. [27:-52]. God gave significant picture of this accursed ruined community in this verse;” And many communities did we destroy while it was unjust. So, it lies in ruins; and an inoperative well and lofty castle” [22:45] this is the brief story of that doomed society. the well which serves the majority of the poor people is inoperative, but the palace or the castle of one person is luxuriously built. Because of this extreme unjust, all the community was destroyed. This used to happen before the Quran. God repeated the stories of those doomed nations to remind and warn the Arabs and mankind of that unknown history. In the time of the revelation of the Quran, Quraysh had the same descriptions of those cursed societies [14:45]. The Quran said that Mecca, because of sacred mosque, is the center of the earth; or “the mother of the townships”. This is a Quranic fact waiting some one to discove or to deny it. However, the final Holy message of God was revealed to the final prophet in that city, for all mankind. [42:7][6:92]. The people of Mecca [Quraysh] acted the same of the doomed people before them; disbelieving the Quran, and be unjust and unappreciative. [28:57 to 59] but they were not destroyed completely like the people of Noah, Aad, Thamoud, Lot, and Pharaoh. Moreover, some of Quraysh – in their disbelief in the Quran – asked God to destroy them if the Quran is the real revelation of Him. Actually, the complete punishment is replaced by special retribution which inflicts the wicked people alone as a result of their sins and to warn and remind them. [8: 32-34][9:55, 85][32:21-22] [4:123]. Before the Quran, the prophets and the Godly messages were local in time and place, and were supported by material tangible miracles. When the ancient nations disbelieved they were destroyed. It happened in different times and different places before the final continuous intellectual Godly message. Therefore, the complete destruction is no more suitable after the Quran, which is not for Quraysh and Arab alone, but for all the mankind and all generations until the end of the world. Most of Quraysh disbelieved in it, but some of them became real true Muslims after that, and other converted to Islam to use it for their interests after the death of the prophet Mohammed. While their ardent disbelief, all of them were around the Holy Sacred Mosque which is made by God as:” A place of resort for mankind and a place of safety.”[2:125]. so, the complete destruction of Quraysh in that time should not be the answer. We can understand the new order by reading these Quranic verses:” Say: ’He is the able to pour upon you retribution from above you, and from beneath your feet. Or He divides you into sects, and let you suffer the tyranny of one another’. Note how we explain the revelation that they may comprehend. [But] Your people have rejected this [the Quran], although it’s true! Say’ I am not your protector. Everything will be known, and you will surely find out.”[6:65 to 67] Those early Quranic verses were revealed in Mecca during the severe persecution of the early Muslims, and the hard tyranny of Quraysh, but they give an outline of the Arab history from year 632’ the death of the prophet Mohammed’ until now. Those verses give the kinds of punishment, its cause and its time. The kind of punishment is clear in this verse:” Say:’ He is the able to pour upon you retribution from above you, and from beneath your feet. Or He divides you into sects, and let you suffer the tyranny of one another.” This is exactly what happened in Muslim history which is a continuous sins and mistakes. The first sin was appointing a prince or ruler; ’Abou Bakr, which is against the Islamic direct democracy. This sin was responded by the first birth of Al Sheeah, the early Arab Muslims who believed in Aly, instead of Abou Bakr, to be the successor of the prophet because he was his cousin and his son-in-law. This was the first sect in Muslim history, but it was peaceful political sect. The second sin was attacking –wrongly- the other nations; occupying their countries, routing their wealth and enslaving their peoples. This is against the rules of peaceful Islamic state, and against the rule of war in the Quran which is to fight only to defend The consequence of this gross sin was the civil wars among the early Muslims, and they It becomes a continuous Arabic Muslim habit. Moreover, it changed the political peaceful partied to be a different religious sects and cults in faith and jurisprudence. In sight of God, and according to His Quran, the real Muslim people must be united and never be divided in their religion, while the transgressors and disbelievers are the people who are divided and their religion becomes different sects and cults.[3:103][6: 153,159][23: 52,53][30: 31,32] That verse:” Say’ He is the able to pour you retribution from above you, and from beneath your feet. Or He may divide you into sects, and let you suffer the tyranny of one another.’ Note how we explain the revelation that they may comprehend.” [6:65] predicts the kind of torture which was Quraysh the first people who suffered it. The second verse “Your people have rejected this, although it is the truth! Say: ’I am not your protector” [6:66]: gives the reason of the punishment. It’s their continuous disbelief in the Quran from the time of the prophet until the Day of Judgment. God said in the Quran about the prophet Mohammed in the last day:” And the prophet will say’ O my Lord, verily, my people have deserted this Quran.”[25:30]. on that day, the prophet will deny them because of their continuous disbelief. If they were real believers after converting to Islam, there would not be wars, religious sects, and the prophet would not deny then after this world. They were the enemies of the prophet in his time and after his death until the Day of Judgment. This is the meaning of the next verse; God said” Thus have we made for every prophet an enemy among the criminals. But Sufficient is your Lord as a Guide and protector”. [25:31]. He will deny those who abandon the Quran in and after his life. They are his enemies. They have abandoned the Quran in dealing with God; the Only God - by adding another gods to Him and another sacred scriptures to His Quran - and in dealing with the people by destroying their human rights unjustly. Quraysh had two periods in its disbelief in the Quran. Firstly, they rejected the Quran clearly and boldly, when they had the power and used it in persecuting the early Muslims. Then they accepted Islam to keep their power, but they ignored and abandoned its teachings and commandments by establishing their empires. The victims were not only the peoples of Syria, Iraq, Iran, India, Egypt, North Africa and Spain, but Islam and the Quran as well. In using Islam in their political aims they had to justify their deeds. This justification was also against the Quran. They had to invent new resources and ascribe them to God and the prophet Mohammed, which they called Sunna. In the same time they deny the Quranic verses under the title of the Arabic word [Al Nashk] which means in Arabic language: to write or to record, but they gave it an opposite meaning; to abrogate. This is background and the backbone of the different Muslim sects and cults. Now, we have two kinds of their disbelief in the Quran: the old bold disbelief, then the cunning disbelief by abandoning the Quran for these false sayings. As a result of this disbelief, most of Muslims believe in Mohammed as a god beside the One God. Actually they do not say it clearly, but they add to him all the Holy divine qualities of God. They believe in him as ‘their protector, the infallible one, the one who owns the Day of Judgment and the intercession, the one who knows the unseen and the future, and the master of all previous prophets and the lord of all the creatures, who is still alive in his tomb, feels and listens to the worshippers who pilgrimage to his sacred tomb’. This false image of the prophet Mohammed contradicts his real personality in the Quran. He was just a prophet after the previous prophets,[3:144] he did not know the unseen, or what might happen to him or to the others [10:48,49] [7:187,188] [6:50][46:9], he was not infallible, and he has no authority in the Day of Judgment[3:128][6:51 to 56,68 70][39: 19,30,31][43:44][45:18,19], more over, he will deny those who abandon the Quran.[25:30] In his life in Mecca, the disbelievers of Quraysh used to mock at the prophet Mohammed saying:” Why does this messenger eat food, and walk about in the markets. Why is not an angle sent down to him to be a Warner with him, or [why] has not a treasure been granted to him, or why he has not a garden whereof he may eat. And the wicked also said’ you follow none but a man bewitched.”[25: 7, 8]. Also God said: “and when they see you, they treat you only in mockery [saying]:’Is this the one whom the God sent as a Messenger’?”[25:41]. “and when those who disbelievers see you, they take you not except for mockery [saying]:’ is this the one who talks about your gods.” [21:36]. This was the kind of disbelief in that time; despising the prophet Mohammed as a human being. This kind of hard enmity was changed after that when they did the opposite, made him god, not human being. This is an extreme disbelief in Islam and its faith of the oneness of God, and it will be a critical situation for the prophet Mohammed in the Day of Judgment. So, he will deny them for their different continuous enmity. [25:30-31] The other nations under the Qurayshy Empires had their old cultures, and colored their new [Islam] by their religious background. They added other gods, other sacred scriptures to the Quran, and thousands of the sacred tombs where they pilgrimage and worship, as they do in the Sacred Mosque of Mecca. The Wahaby doctrine is against the sacred tombs of Suphy and Sheeah, but the Wahaby are –actually- idolizing not only the prophet Mohammed, but also their Sunni scholars and their books, from Al Shafe’ey, Ibn Hanbal and Al Bukharay in the ninth century, to Ibn Taymeya and Ibn Al Kayem in the fourteenth century, then they include their Imam Mohammed Ibn Abdel Wahab and the kings of the Saudi family, where it’s prohibited to discuss any one of them. In Islam every human being is infallible, including the prophets of God. They are the best people, but God mentioned their sins and mistakes in the Quran to prove that He, God alone is the infallible. This is the disbelief which most of Muslim inherit from Quraysh until now. This is what the verse said;” And your people disbelieve in This [Quran], although it is the truth! Say:’I am not your protector’.”[6:66]. the next verse predicts what will happen in the future saying;”Every thing will be known, and you will surely find out’ [6:67]. The history of Arab tribes is the real prove. The disbelief in God includes also rejecting His teachings and commandments in dealing with the people unjustly. In this term, Islam is the religion of peace, justice, freedom and tolerance. For many centuries, and for purpose of power and wealth, Quraysh and its rivals have confiscated these values under the name of Islam, in a gross defy to God and His Quran. Now, it’s very hard to convince people of the west that Islamic great values of freedom and justice, are nearer to the modern western culture than Muslims. Whatever proves you present from the Quran, it’s impossible, because these Quranic verses – in the pragmatic practical western perspectives - are just useless teachings, which were abandoned by Muslims themselves, in their historical and current life. In this regard, the West is blameless. The Muslim tyrants and the leaders of fanatics are the blameworthy people. Simply they banned the peaceful Quranic trend and persecute its reformists inside the countries which claim the belief in the Quran! As the same history is repeated, the same torture and punishment will be also repeated. We will see bloodsheds, civil wars and another kind of sufferings inside these regimes. Actually, it’s the same continuous suffering from the middle ages to the current time. The modern history of Arabs is the real prove. They have the richest land, the high rate population of young men, the oil, the fine weather, the strategic middle region, and the guidance of the Quran. But they have also, backward, weakness, hard poverty and hunger, persecuted intellectuals and deprived frustrated young generations, a very bad reputation, and a few individuals of rulers who monopolize the power and the wealth, who are tyrants and giants in dealing with their people, but helpless, humble, low ,and cringing in dealing with their masters in the West. This is one aspect of the phenomena of contradiction in the Arab Muslim world. The contradiction between Islam and Muslims is the roots of this tree, while the other aspects are the branches. You find the luxurious states in Gulf and the starving peoples in Sudan and Somalia. Sudan is the widest richest lands in the Arab Muslim world, but it’s the poorest people. Inside the Arab states you find a big contradiction between the luxurious minority of rulers and the starving masses. No difference here between wealthy states and poor states; the rulers of Egypt, Sudan and Yemen, for example, are doing their best to be as rich as the rulers of the Gulf. Inside every state you find the contradiction between the luxurious minority and the starving deprived majority. In Cairo; the biggest village in the world, thousands of families live in the old tombs and another thousands families live in a primitive random neighborhoods, while the government built the splendid towns around Cairo and along the two coasts of the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. Those splendid towns are empty because they were set aside for the luxurious minority which has already thousands of palaces in and out of Egypt. It’s not the only bad news, because millions of young men and young women are unable to marry because it’s impossible to any of them to find one bedroom apartment. In the Saudi kingdom poor people still live in uncivilized awnings under the fierce sun of desert, but the Saudi family owns the most luxurious palaces in the world inside and outside the kingdom. The people’s wealth which is monopolized and manipulated by these minorities come by easy way ‘oil’, or by the hard work of the peoples and the foreign aids. Generally, the corruption is important factor here, not only in investing the wealth but also in investing the power. The elders of the regime are allowed to be corrupted but under the scrutiny of the government which keep a file [or ‘resume’!] for every corrupted one to control him and imprison him any time, if he does not give the regime his total sincere loyalty. This process is seriously undertaken to give numbers of the victims every time to the court, and to give also to the media some news to distract the people, and to prove to them that the regime is seriously after the corruption. Some of the accused people fall in the political competitive field inside the ruler circle, some of them - in the time of democratic transmission - have some relationship with the oppositions, and some of them are innocent victims but the ardent regime fabricates such an accusation to jail them. This corrupted policy is usually applied under the title of “fighting the corruption” to give another aspect of the contradiction, and to prove the strong relationship between corruption and tyranny. This tyranny itself is full of contradictions. Some of Arab dictators have some fabricated aspects of democracy, and talking a lot about the democracy and its benefits to deceive their peoples,” while only deceive themselves, and perceive not!” as the Quran said:[2:9]. There is a clear difference between the republic regime and the royal dynasty, but in the Arab world, there is no difference where the president rules until his death or his assassination. The new development in our second hand tyrants is inheriting the presidency of the republic state to the son of the president. It happened in Syria, and is seriously planned to be happened in Egypt, Libya, Iraq, and Yemen. Those tyrants are so clever in utilized every details to serve their dictatorship. The creation of Israel as a democratic state inside this ocean of tyranny, is supposed to produce some democratic reaction, particularly after the young surrounded tiny democratic state defeated all the Arab dictators in wars and in the economical cultural fields, giving a clear prove about the necessity of democracy. But the cunning tyrants of Arabs have taken Israel as a justification to prolong their dictatorship, not to learn from it how to reform and develop their countries. They also changed the Arab Nationalism to be a domestic wars, plots and conspiracies, not to unite the Arab but to make them more divided. Finally, the dictatorships produce their religious fanatic oppositions to add another aspect of contradictions. Simply under the name of Islam and the slogan of”Islam is the solution” they kill the innocent people while their leaders reciting the Quranic verse”: And We did not send you, except out of mercy towards the whole world.”[21:107]. Prophet Mohammed was sent by God, to be a mercy for all mankind. After his death the Quran which is totally preserved by God is the continuous mercy for the human if they follow it, but the fanatic Muslims make this Holy message a justification to kill the humans. It’s not the only contradiction in the realm of fanatic hypocrite field. Simply under the title of the grave purification they are addicted of homosexuality, lesbian and all kind of debauchery. It become so clear to think that way in any Arabic, even he is not from the Arabian Peninsula, because of the bad reputation they have rooted in the West and the East, between Thailand, Hong Kong to Europe and the U.S. Inside the Saudi Kingdom, you may find the appearance of purification in the veils, mantles, religious words, and the crowded mosques, but inside homes and in the dark roads, something else. Actually, Satan usually hides behinds the turbans and the beards. In the last century, Arabs were severely punished by the western colonialism, the creation of Israel, civil wars and their fanatic organizations and tyrant rulers. The only active response they have is the same poison, the fanatic religious culture which produces the attack of September 11, 2001. This is a new international order of the beginning of this century. Accordingly, the victims of this order will be the Arabs and Muslims all over the world. This is exactly what the fanatics want because it is their only way to declare Al Jihad against the world in a new kind of war, where you do not fight an army, but invisible enemy. This new invisible enemy uses a new weapons of the suicide bombers, and chooses his targets; the civilians. Because they are invisible, most of the victims will be another people in and out of the Muslim Arab world. This is the expecting Godly punishment in this century. In this international war against terrorism, the real winner will be the terrorists themselves, because they will be freedom fighters against the “imperialist of America, the Biggest Satan of this world’. In the last century, the war against the US was under the leadership of the Soviet Union and the communist faith. Actually it had some justification inside the countries which were in a continuous struggle to gain their freedom and independence. Now Islam becomes the title of this new strange war where it’s too difficult to define whom is the enemy and whom is the innocent. The real enemy here is not a state or people, but it’s the culture which is using the name of Islam to recruit the victims even inside your own home and may be in your family. It’s too difficult in the West to understand this fact, because the Western culture does not make distinction between Islam and Muslims. It’s rooted in the European culture through the long history of religious wars between Muslims and Christian European peoples in middle ages to the current time. It’s also the same conception of Jihad, the fanatic Muslims have, and it’s their own perfect way to declare the total Jihad against all the “infidels” around the world. This simply will make the punishment bigger. The military tyrant regimes and other tribal dynasties become useless and helpless in the beginning of this new war. It’s expected that the coming regimes will be the fanatics who will destroy their peoples in random wars against Israel and the U.S. This will be another reason of the expecting Godly punishment. In the second half of the twentieth century, the most famous Arabic Poet was the Syrian diplomat ”Naza Qabbany” who devoted his poems - in his exile in London-to the Arab woman and the Arab Nationalism. After the defeat of 1967 he criticized the Arab leaders beginning with Nasser himself, but his hard attack was against the rulers of Gulf. In one of his poem he said about the Arab world [Wa Al Aalam Al Arabyo na’ajaton mazbohaton WA hakemon kassabo- Wa Aa lamo Al Arabeyo yakhzeno neftaho Fe khisyatayhe WA rabboka Al Wahhabo]. It means”: The Arab world is a slaughtered ewe and a butcher ruler, and the Arab world is storing his oil in his two testicles and your God is the Granter.” After the war of gulf he became so frustrated that before his death in the lately 1990’s his famous poem was under this question: When they declare the death of Arabs? The answer may be different in this century; means the new resurrection of Arabs in a peaceful civilized world. This century should be the era of democracy, justice and human rights. This is the only way to solve the problems of this global village. Arab tribes in this century must be real modern democratic states. This is the promising culture of this century which is the old real teachings of Islam. Arab tribes and democracy today Al Akra’a son of Habis, the leader of Tameem tribe in the time of the prophet Mohammed was famous of his nick name” the obeyed stupid one”. This was because”if he became angry, one hundred thousand angry swordsmen supported him in his anger without asking him why he was angry”. Al Akra’a means the baldheaded man, but that man was not ashamed of his name, or his nick name, because he enjoyed the loyalty of his famous tribe “Tameem” in spite of being stupid and baldheaded. In such a loyalty, the individual is melted in his tribe, means in the leader of his tribe. If the leader is angry all the individuals become angry without asking him why. In this case, please do not talk about democracy, because you will be a traitor and enemy of your people. Al Akra’a son of Habis is the model of the Arab leaders of our miserable time, from Nasser to Saddam and Kaddafy. They are the angry leaders who are supported by angry armies and masses in their aimless and useless wars, but no one dares to ask them why. The Arab Muslim world are still tribes because they have nothing to do with the real concept of Islamic and modern state; the state of freedom, democracy, justice and human rights. This concept becomes the master piece of the world after the world war two, and the successful prescription for any nation seeking the happiness for its people. The democracy state is the state of every individual, but the tribal state is one person state; the leader. This leader may be one like Al Akra’a son of Habis, or any tyrant of our time, but as you find dictatorship you recognize the concept of the tribal regime. The tribal regime is different kind of semi- states, but its power regime may be found in Egypt, the oldest dictator state in human history. Egypt has its unique situation that made dictatorship the only solution. Its geographic position in the midst of the world, it agriculture wealth, and its fine weather made it target of many invaders from East and West. So, it needed a strong ruler, this strong ruler used to be a dictator, even he was not strong. It’s enough to him to show his power to the peaceful Egyptian farmers to obey him, and may worship him. Its Nile gave it the rich soil and ability to be one nation, but it also made it in need to central government to keep the river and its canals, and to distribute the water in irrigation and in drainage. This situation made Egypt the oldest central dictatorship of one nation, which is owned by one man and his elders. But this becomes outmoded in our time and its new culture and its new modern inventions. Egypt should be owned by its people, not by one pharaoh. Amr son of Al Aas, the Arabic Muslim leader who invaded Egypt and was its first Muslim governor, described Egypt in two significant sentences; He said “Egypt is a mount for any rider” means it obeys any ruler. Also he said:” Egypt looks like the house of the whore, people come to it from every direction.” Actually he outlined the Egyptian history in his two painful statements, but it needs an Egyptian struggle to change these two facts. Democracy is the only way to change this Egyptian style. The second kind of tribal regimes, actually, the lowest of it, is the one family which controls the biggest tribes under the name of religion; like the Saudi family, or by the Arab Nationalism as the family of Kaddafy and the Takreet family of Saddam. The third kind is the democratic tribal regime where the leaders of the different tribes and sects reach a political compromise to share the power and authority, as it happens in Lebanon, and may happen in Iraq after Saddam. However, it’s still a dictatorship, because the individual is milted –also- inside his tribal domestic leader, and the democracy is limited inside the circle of the tribal leaders only, who owns their tribes or sects. It’s a beautiful dictatorship of this third kind, if there is a beauty in tyranny. We can tolerate this kind of tyranny if it becomes a step in the democratic transmission. This means we have to get rid of these tyrant leaders to let the people elect new democratic leaders. But the problem is inside the people who are divided into sects and tribes and every one is devoting his loyalty not to the state as whole, but to the leader of his tribe or sect. Because of them the civil war in Lebanon was to destroy this beautiful country, its leaders and its beautiful dictatorship. If this a problem in Lebanon which has a kind of limited democracy which you can not find in Egypt, what about the other countries like people of Arab Peninsula and north Africa ? What about the Arab tribes inside Kuwait, whose nick name is “Bedoon”, means:”Without”, because they are until now without citizenship as the authority of Kuwait refuses to recognize them, but they are satisfied in this situation according to their local culture. Is it enough to safe them from these dictators? Or should we change their culture? We can find the answer in this Quranic story: “Recall that Moses said to his people,’ O my people, you shall appreciate God’s favors upon you. He appointed for you prophets, and made you kings. He endowed you as He never endowed any one else. O my people, you shall enter the holy land that God has designated for you, and do not turn back, lest you become losers. They said,’ O Moses, there are powerful people therein, and we will not enter it unless they get out from there. If they get out, we will enter. Two men whom God had blessed with reverence said,’ If you just enter the gate, you will be victorious. You shall trust in God, if you are really believers’. They said,’ O Moses, we will not enter it, so long as they are therein, so go with your Lord and fight; we are sitting right here.’ He said’ My Lord, I can only control myself and my brother. Therefore, separate us from the wicked people. He [God] said,’ then it is prohibited for them; forty years, they will wander in the land. Do not grieve over the wicked people.”[5: 20 to 26]. Before this story, God had saved them from the Egyptian pharaoh, and drowned him with his soldiers. So they became kings of the lands after the destruction of the Egyptian kingdom, its unknown Quranic historic fact [7:129, 137] [26:59] [44: 25-28] needs investigation. God also gave them several blessings and miracles, but they refused to enter the holy land which was designated to them. Those people suffered the hardest persecution that killed their souls. It’s the result of any dictatorship. You can find it in this story of the children of Israel, and in any people in the same region in our time. The tyrant may be killed, but its culture still control the people making them in a continuous fear, ready to welcome any tyrant after him. This is why tyranny is continuous in the countries whose people are raised in the culture of fear and persecution. The solution in this Quranic story was the forty years wandering aimlessly in the land. It was the peaceful way to get rid of this helpless hopeless generation. May be the next generation will be brave and capable to struggle for his rights The current generation of Arabs and Muslims will suffer as usual, but they are not hopeless case, because the situation here is different from that Israeli generation mentioned in this Quranic story. But the Arab Muslim case is still difficult and needs a peaceful quick reform. In this kind of reform; the free independent T.V channels will save a lot of money and bloodsheds. It’s the same way the Saudi Wahaby brainwashes the so- called Islamic world. FINALLY [A] Just to remember [B] Can Muslims apply Democracy Now? [A] Just to remember It is hard to brief the Political History of Muslims in a few pages, this history that circles around the Right Guided Caliphs and the other caliphs, is so much harder to make this brief study to cover other deep religious and political matters. But we would still have to stop at a certain conclusive moments in the Islamic history that we would give an indicated address. We will start with the state of the prophet Mohamed. (1) The prophet’s state: Consultation “Al-Shura” = The direct Democracy: The main feature here is that Consultation “shura” was an obligatory duty for every Muslim. It came from the basic belief in Islam which is “There is no God except Allah” and the Muslim individuals were practicing it in mosques “Just like performing the five Prayers.” And this feature is divided into certain meanings, in the following Quranic verses: The Democracy is a part of the Islamic belief, because it is only Allah who is unquestionable. (21:23) and the Prophet Mohamed was ordered to practice Democracy (3:159). And this means that everyone that disdains to practice Al Shura would be rising himself over the prophet, which will make a god of himself … and the repeating of the Pharaoh’s despotism that lead him to reclaim Godhood and destruction of himself and his people. So Despotism is a big disbelief with Allah, and the Democracy is one of the main Islamic beliefs. Because democracy is a part of the Islamic belief, it is to become an obligatory duty like praying. And we here point to the fact that the order to practice Democracy took place at Micca -before even the Muslims established their democratic state in Al Madina. Meantime the order of Democracy was put between the most two fundamental Islamic Duties in the Islamic commandments, which are Praying and alms. So it takes some terms of the praying in sense that it is obligatory to practice democracy in Mosque and Home, and it is not permissible for anyone to act as a representative of any other individual in its practice. So it is a religious duty for every Muslim individual to attend the “Open General Democracy Meetings “[Al Majalis] to be decision maker. This is what the holy Quran told us, but the historical reference that was recorded during the Abbasy Caliphate purposely ignored it along with the prophet’s Friday’s sermons. And both Democracy Meetings and Friday sermons were mainly responsible for educating and cultivating the Muslim individuals to enable them to establish their first Civilized State in Medina. We will be content with the Quranic speech about the Democracy Meetings [Al Majalis] that was mentioned in the last three verses of [ Sura Al-Nour] or “Chapter: Light’ [24]. These three verses talked about some of the Madina’s people who didn’t attend these meetings in the past. Some of them made false excuses to leave and some sneaked out without permission. The holy Quran warned them hardly to confirm the obligatory of this direct democracy which depends on the attendance for these meetings by all individuals of the society; otherwise they will be a sleeping inactive majority- ruled by active minority and apply the representative administration. This will lead to the monocracy. That already what happened after the death of the prophet Mohammed. Now, we reach for a subsidiary features, which are the political factors, clarified as: A- The nation is the source of all authorities even when the prophet Mohamed was its ruler, because he received the order of consultation from God [3:159] According to this verse, God supplied his prophet with mercy and he didn’t make him harsh because if he was rough they would leave him alone. If that happened he would lose his power and his state. So what gave him the sultan and the state was their gathering and union around him. Before them he was persecuted in Mecca, but because of them he had a power and state. That means he got his authority from them, not from God. So God made him kind with them and ordered him to forgive them, and consult them because they were the source of his power and state. B- On the basis of previous principle the Islamic state doesn’t recognize the concept of the king or the president who rules the state by some of his people and elders, because the Quran demands the Society to directly rule itself by itself. So when Allah [God] talks about any political matter in Quran, the speech always addresses directly all Muslims [4:58- ] [16:90- ] [6:151- ]. Even the Word (yahkom - Rules) always comes in the Quran meaning of judging not ruling. (Review the word and its derivatives in the holy Quran) The mechanism of the Islamic rule is based on Al Shura, or the direct democracy which guarantees the collective rule of all Muslim individuals. The people in this kind of democracy need some executives and governors and rulers, whom are chosen by the people to be” those of affair” or “Oli Al-Amr” who are recognized in Quran as the people of expertise ( 4: 59-83). Any one could be one of them according to his qualifications and cleverness. This is not a utopian dream, but it is a realistic, successful system that enables Muslims to establish their strong state in the dark middle ages. In our time, this system is very near to the modern system in Swiss state and some European countries, where the president is just a regular employee to serve the people who have the authority to assign fire and question him. Leaving his job he becomes a regular citizen, doing as the prophet Mohammed used to do in his usual life” eating food and walking in the streets” [25 :7] This Islamic democratic system depends on the Islamic great values of freedom of speech and belief, justice, and peace. These values control the daily life of the society. This society monopolizes the wealth and the power for all its individuals in equal rights. (2) Quraysh’s state during the righteous successions: According to the direct Democracy that took place during the rule of the Prophet Mohamed we can answer the confusing question: why didn’t the Prophet Mohamed assign a successor after him? The answer is simply that the society was able to rule itself according to its ruling mechanism. But there was an outsider evolution, which was the apostasy war. The apostates tried to attack Al Madina and its people. This war witnessed the alliance of the military forces of Quraysh in Micca and the military forces of Quraysh in Al Madina. In this critical time there were victims of this alliance. The first victim was the Al-Ansar, or the partisans, the native people of Al Madina who defended the prophet Mohammed for ten years against Quraysh ; his ardent powerful tribe. But the most prominent victim was Democracy (the direct Democracy). Before we explain the details we affirm a pure fact that the political rule in these dark ages was full of despotism in many levels. So it is a matter of time that the prophet’s state would be beaten by this Era’s tools from outside (the apostasy war) and from inside. (Qoraysh in Micca and Al Medina, specially the Omawy family) So, it is normal that the direct Democracy of the prophet’s time was changed to be a political despotism in the Omawy Caliphate and to a religious despotism in the Abbasy Caliphate. This gradual change costed the Muslims a lot of civil wars, assassinations and sectarian separations that began with politics and ends with separation in intellect and religion from Al Khawarej to Al Sheaa. And we still live the same history since then. The next step in this road of pain was the dictatorship of the two dynasties of Qurayshy Empires who followed the four righteous successors of the prophet, who were also from Quraysh. The righteous judicious Caliphate had certain new attitudes which contradict Islam and the time of the prophet Mohammed and become until now the main aspects of the Muslim political life. This began with “Alsakifa homage”, directly after the death of the prophet Mohammed, and before they buried his body. In this homage Al-Ansar were moved away from the leadership under the motto of “Arabs will submit only for Quraysh “. Abou Bakr, the nearest companion of the prophet Mohammed, was chosen to be his successor Abou Bak belonged to the weak family of Taim, which would anger the two powerful cousin’s families of Omaya and Hashem. Aly the cousin of the prophet and his son –in- law, and one of the few early Muslims - was supposed to be the successor of the his cousin ; prophet Mohammed. Al Abbas the prophet’s uncle was alive, but he was recently converted to Islam with his friend Abou Sofian the leader of Quraish and the head of the Omawy family. Abou Sofian believed it was the right of the family of Hashim to rule because they were the family of the prophet, and they were his cousins in spite of the competition between them. So, he protested against this homage, asking Aly or Abbas to revolt against the new ruler who belonged to the humble family of Taim. The new ruler and his dearest friend Omer –Quickly- handled the situation. Abou Sofian was appeased by appointing his son Yazeed as military leader of one of the armies in the war of apostasy, while Aly and his friends were threatened until they recognized the new ruler. Quraysh managed to end the apostasy wars. To prevent those wild savage tough Arab tribes from re attacking Al Madina and its new regime – considering the fact that they used to earn their living from steal and rubbery- they exported their military forces out of the Arabian Peninsula as soldiers under their command in the name of Islam. The Islamic peaceful states was vanished and changed to be an Empire of Quraysh, just few years after the death of the prophet Mohammed. To justify the invasion and occupying other countries and peoples in the time of the righteous successors, they claimed the motto of spreading Islam. Accordingly, the Muslim army before attacking the country gave three choice to this country – or force it to chose one of three options: becoming Muslim, paying the tribute, or war. And this how the gap between the Prophets State and the Qurayshy state began to widen from this early time of the righteous successors of the prophet Mohammed. In Omar’s Caliphate the gap increased to widen when he adds to Al-Ansar the people of the conquered countries who didn’t make anything wrong to Arabs or Islam, but they were conquered, rubbed, made slaves, paid tax and they finally became a low class citizen in this new Empire. The military leaders were the rulers for the conquered countries. Although Omar was very fair during his rule, but this was limited to Arabs only. So he forbids any non-Arab people to enter his Capital ( Al Madina) fearing assassination. But he was finally assassinated by one of them who called Abo Lo’aLo’a, the Persian. After Othman took over he differed Omar in his just and strictness, so his Omowy family controlled wealth and power during his caliphate. And they made a lot of monopolization from the monies of the conquered countries and lifting a little piece for the rest of the Arabs who were the ordinary soldiers of these armies. And that was the main reason of the civil war that is known as “the great sedition”. This great sedition began with rebellion against Othman, which lead to his murder and ended up separating Muslims into several fighting political parties. It established a despotic rule based on power, inheritance, revolutions and the use of the tribalism to reach and to keep authority. (3) The Qurayshy state during the Omawy caliphate: The main features of this state were “Exclusion, Despotism and Enthrallment.” The Omawy dynasty invented a new policy based on Exclusion on different levels. They prejudiced for Arabs against Non-Arabs who were given the name of “Almawaly” as a near status of slaves. Inside the Arab field they prejudiced for Quraysh against the other tribes, and for political reasons, they prejudiced for some tribes against another to keep their state alive. They realized the importance of tribal competitions and they used it to strengthen their state. Inside Qurayshy tribe, the Omawy dynasty prejudiced for their cousins Hashem family, but in the social affairs out of the political competitions, where the two families were ardent enemies. Inside the Omawy dynasty the caliphate prejudiced for his son against his brother, and he appoints his sons for caliphate one after another. But after his death the new Empire deposed his brother, and appointed his sons in the same way. Then, the elder son took over he appointed his sons and deposed his younger brothers, and the cycle continued. So, the excluded people from the Political participation weren’t just Al-Ansar (at Abou -Bakr’s Era) or the people of the conquered countries (at Omar’s Era) or the rest of Arabs (at Othman’s Era) or the rest of the Koraysh. (In the time of Moawya’ the first emperor in the Omawy dynasty) But it included the caliphate’s brothers and cousins. The rest of the Arab tribes were contented by submitting to these rulers who ruled over them by force, intimidation and by controlling the wealth. So the Consulates groups were gradually shrunk to become a punch of tribes and army leaders and servants who were looking for the satisfaction of the caliphate. The Omawy Policy of Exclusion, Despotism and enthrallment was correlated with the severity against the Non-Arabs and the Arabian rebels against the state. So they made three unprecedented actions in the first three years of Yazeed’s Rule. In the first year they killed the grandson of the prophet Mohammed; Al-Hussien and most of the member of his family in Karbola’a. In the Second year they broke into Medina and killed its people and captured its women. In the third year they blockaded and bombarded the Sacred Mosque in Mecca during the revolution of Abdul Allah Ibn Al-Zobayr. So we don’t wonder the speech of Abdel Malik Ibn Marawan’ the fifth one in the Omawy dynasty, who reestablished it by his extreme policy. In his speech in Al Madina, he said “I am not the weekend caliphate (means Othman) and I am not the flatterer caliphate (means Moawya) ... So if anyone ordered me to fear God, I will break his neck.” That indicated it was a despotic military rule based of pure force and intimidation and using every means to survive including religion, war, tribalism and money. Finally those means contended together against the Omawy dynasty and destroyed it. (4) The Qurayshy Empire during the Abbasy caliphate: The Omawy family was specialized in trade, and that was the way they earn their position. So they stand against Islam in Micca then they supported it afterwards. But Al-Abbas Ibn Al Mottalib the prophet’s uncle stayed in his disbelief working on keeping the proprieties of Hashimy family and their missions inside the Sacred Mosque and in the time of pilgrimage. He fought against Muslims in the battle of Badr and was captured by Muslims, then he was released and returns to Micca to continue his religious trade while his friend Abou -Sofian practices his “Secular” trade. Before the Prophet Mohammed’s army entered Micca victoriously, Al-Abbas interceded for his friend Abo-Sofian to the Prophet asking him to give some prestige to the defeated leader of Quraysh to encourage his people to surrender without bloodshed. Therefore Muslim declared that “whoever stays in his home, he is secured, whoever stays at the Sacred Mosque is secured, and whoever enters the house of Abou Sofian is also secured.” But Al-Abbas stayed in Micca along with his son Abdullah although the prophet returned to Madina. Abdullah son of Al-Abbas’s joined his cousin Ali Ibn Abou-Talib during his short caliphate as a governor of Al Basra, and when the helpless caliphate Aly was in a critical situation, his cousin Abdollah Ibn Al Abbas ran away with all the money ignoring his cousin’s cry. The two despotic Empires belonged to Omawy family (Abou-Sofian,] and to Al Abbas) who were mainly concerned with getting money in any way. And that was the policy of the military rule of Omawy dynasty (the secular rule) or they were the Abbasy dynasty, belonged to (Abollah Ibn Abbas) who were experts in using religion in the business. So, the Abbasy dynasty was a religious dictatorship, ruling the people by religion. Because Islam is against that kind of tyranny, the Abbasy Empire was the time of inventing Sunna, or the sayings which they attributed to the prophet Mohammed, some centuries after his death. Most of these sayings were attributed to the prophet through his cousin Abdollah Ibn Abbas, the grand father of the Abbasy dynasty, although this person was so young when he met the prophet Mohammed in the time of invading Mecca, He met the prophet with his father Al Abbas, then they left the prophet returned to Al Madina, while they stayed in Mecca until the last sickness of the prophet. We can see this difference in the two states’ policies. The Omawy caliphate was Arabic prejudiced despotic Empire. But the Abbasy caliphate was a despotic religious Empire with a prejudiced religion doctrine. The history tells us that (Al-Akhtal) the Arabic Christian poet in the Omawy Era was able to freely enter the Caliphate’s castle with his cross around his nick and he was respectable because he was Arabic in spite of his religion. But the Egyptians, even if they become Muslim, had to pay a tribute to the state because they were not Arabs. The other races were also persecuted the same way because they were non Arabs. In the Abbasy caliphate, the caliphate was able to break the neck of any man who disagreed with him politically or intellectuality by accusing the individual of atheism or “Al-Zandaka.” Meantime there were a lot of real atheists who were honored and living in the caliphate’s castle because they politically supported the State against Al-Sheeah. The Omawy caliphate wasn’t established on a religious propaganda. It only used the law of force. So it didn’t have to religiously justify its crimes against the prophet’s family and Medina and Micca. But the Abbasy caliphate was established on a religious propaganda of (The chosen one from Mohammed’s family to be the caliphate for the Islamic State) but after they established their state they persecuted all others including Ali’s Grandchildren with a slight difference. The caliphate had to get a religious justification from his jurists. So it seemed a religious law. But it was fabricated law, made by his religious scholars to justify his wrongs. This was the Abbasy religious jurisprudence which were ascribed and attributed to the prophet Mohammed under the title of Sunna. It’s the ocean that supplies the fanatic sect of Wahaby in our miserable time. Shortly, the Abbasy caliphate was an obvious classical model for the religious state. Then the Fatimy Sheeah caliphate came afterwards with a more fanatic religious policy. Then the Ottoman State followed their steps. Once, the caliphate Abo-Ga'afar Almansor made a speech at Arafa day in the Sacred Mosque. He said “O, you people I am the God’s sultan in his land. I rule you with his guidance and he made me the keeper of his money, I give or prevent according to his will” so this Abbasy Emperor ruled with the logic of the middle Ages where the principle of “the divine right of Kings” was a common fact. (5) Finally: The despotism’s culture was against the holly Quran’s legislation that established the Islamic state in the time of the prophet Mohammed. But this culture was written during the despotic religious States in a way that ignored the Quranic Values of freedom, justice, peace and human rights, and in the same time it justified the practical political actions of the tyrant state and its rulers by inventing sayings and ascribing them to the prophet Mohammed and to God. In that way they established a new fabricated religion which is against the real Islam but it has its name. As an example, they changed the concept of “Al-Bay’aa” -which means in the Quran: paying homage to hold on with right and defend it- to mean the total submission, politically, religiously and economically to the new sultan; means to be owned or enslaved by him. Meantime they ignored the concept of “Al-Malaa” in the holy Quran. “Al-Malaa” means the elders around the tyrant ruler and the luxurious minority which monopolizes the wealth and the power. It was changed to “Ahl Al-Hall Wal-Akd” (the trusty people around the ruler), this is not only against the Quran, but it’s also against their history itself, which is full of plots and conspiracies inside the royal castles. Actually, the center of influence and power was supposed to be concentrated on the emperor, but he was under the influence of some women; his mother, his sister or his beautiful beloved women. All the Abbasy caliphates were sons of odalisques except one person, Al Ameen son of Al Rasheed. Those odalisques and other women ruled the caliphates from behind the curtains in the Omawy Empire (Hobaba] and Abbasy Empire, (like Khayrazanah and Kabeha and Shaghab) Fatimya, (like Sit Al molk) and Ottomany caliphate (like Roxelana). Islamic State is a civil state based on the absolute right of freedom of speech and belief, justice and security for every peaceful individual, while the society has an absolute right in power and authority, in wealth and security. That includes direct Democracy which contradicted the middle Ages concepts but it is convenient with our age. What are mentioned here are a true Quranic facts and historic facts from within the Muslim history? It’s an outline of numerous of my books, researches and articles in the last two decades of the twentieth century, but these facts are denied by the fanatics and the regimes. [Please look at the attachments of this book]. Not only because these facts are against their belief and interests, but also because of their way in dealing with the facts of the Qumran and history. In their own history they concentrate on the bright side only, ignoring the dark ugly one. If this ugly side is too clear to be ignored, then they try to justify it, or they simply change it to be a great value. For example; they are proud of the Arab Muslim colonialism which happened some years after the death of the prophet Mohammed, and they call it great victory of Muslims, ignoring the severe persecution which is mentioned in the early Muslim history itself. In the same time they attack the European colonialism in the same countries, although the western imperialism was not as harsh as the Arab Omawy Empire. This is a real historic fact, but no one can say that. The Arabic reader will be angry on reading this book, because he has to deal with a new facts he used to ignore, or they make them absent facts for him. If some one discusses these facts, he will be persecuted and insulted in his dignity and his belief. It’s a simple real fact, that the human history of any people is a mixture of good and bad, right and wrong, and the only way to reform and learn from the history is to discuss the dark side to avoid the mistakes of your grandfathers, and not to repeat their sin again and again. Arabs and Muslims have the same history of domestic continuous wars from its beginning - after the assassination of the third Caliphate Othman son of Affan 656 - until now. But no one of the fanatic scholar discusses it in an objective way, because they believe in the infallibility of all the companions of the prophet Mohammed even if those companions fought each other. This is in the Sunna field, but in the Sheeah realm, they idolize Aly and his family while despising and accusing the other leaders of the prophet’s companions. In this situation the different narrations of the civil war between the early Arabs Muslims still alive until now, moreover, they are still the religious controversial subject in the continuous Sunni- Sheeah argument, but without a neutral analytic approach. Therefore they still enemies, and have together the same history of the domestic bigotry and bloodsheds. The reform’s field is mainly the dark side, not the bright one, because the doctor does not go to the healthy people. Sometimes the sick people become so hopeless case that they refuse to recognize their sickness, deceiving themselves by themselves, accusing the sincere doctor in his dignity instead of considering his prescription, which is from inside their own field. In dealing with the Quran, they – generally- believe that they are alone the allies of God, and the owners of His paradise. They believe that they are the true believers while others are disbelievers [Kafereen= infidels] should be killed or mistreated, and in every case they are not equal to the Muslims in the Muslim World and in the Day of Judgment. Because the Quran is against this, they distort its meaning both in their Arabic interpretations and in the foreign translations. They have many ways in distorting the Quranic meaning; sometime they choose one part from the verse and ignore- intentionally – the rest of the verse. For example, they usually argue by this verse:” And My Mercy encompasses all things” to justify their sins, and ignoring the other parts of the verse which said: “He [God] said’: My retribution afflicts whomever I will, and My Mercy encompasses all things. However I will designate it for those who work righteousness, and give to charity, and believe in our revelations” [7:156]. In this regard of Democracy and the great values, there is another example: Their favorite Quranic quotation is:”You are the best congregation ever established for the mankind.” They celebrate this verse in their mosques and meetings, as prove from God that they are the chosen people whatever wrong deeds they commit. But the whole verse says: “You are the best congregation ever established for the mankind, [as] you advocate the righteousness, forbid evil, and believe in [one] God. “[3:110]. It’s not absolute rule, but it’s a conditional term, means you will be the best if you uphold the great values and the real belief in God, other wise you will suffer as the rest of the verses explained.[3: 102 -115]. In this way the new generations are brainwashed to be fanatics and victims in the same time. But they are not the only victims, because this culture is threatening the world by the name of Islam, which is really the religion of peace, freedom, justice and human rights. Therefore the whole civilized world is invited to solve this problem of this century. [B] Can Muslims Apply Democracy Now? Just a Dream It’s easy to say applying democracy in the Muslim world requires complex reform. This reform begins with the amendment of the constitution and legislation to pave the way to establish a new state of justice, human rights, and local administration for the provinces. The end or the reform includes political, economic, social, cultural, and religious fields to create the environment of democracy to be the life style of the society and the state. The current revolution of communication and information may help in democratic transmission, but it is still some kind of dream which is denied by the actual political life in that region. The Aspects of Actual Life A. Dictatorship The actual political and social life is terrible. Inside the regimes, dictatorships control all the aspects of life, terrorizing the people under the name of hegemony and awe of the state. The troops of army and security are used to ensure the security of the dictator and his elders along with the legislation, judicial system, media, education, economics, and the official religious and cultural authorities. B. The fanatic trend Those dictatorships need the religious terrorist opposition in some degree to use it politically to scare the people, to prolong martial law, and to make their potential substitute worse than them. Their rationale is “Ok. We are bad, but they are the worst, so who is better?” Actually, the religious fanatic opposition is the worst. The current dictatorships may kill or imprison the active oppositions for political reasons, but the religious dictatorship kills, stones, and amputates all its enemies and dooms them to be the enemies of God who should be sent to hell. The dangerousness of this trend is not in its secret or public organizations, but in its religious culture which claims the name of Islam. This culture is sponsored by the regimes and their official religious leaders and foundations. Between the dictatorships and their religious opposition, there is a weak, vulnerable secular opposition, adopting the western discourse which alienates this trend more beside the continuous disputes among them, even inside every party or center. Outside these dictatorships there is the international community represented mainly by the US, and the UN. C. The UN policy The UN represents the regimes, not the peoples, so every dictator has his seat in the UN as the representative of his state and his people, even when he may be the real enemy of his people. That makes the UN and its foundations unable to support democracy in the third world unless the US pressure directs the UN to act against some dictators who are enemies of the US. D. The US policy endangers the US itself The US and its foreign policy are responsible for the turmoil in the Middle East. Under the motto of fighting the communists in the Islamic world, and specifically in Afghanistan, the US sponsored the fanatic Wahaby culture, which produced Osama Ibn Laden and terrorist organizations all over the world. Under the name of stability, the US helps its allied dictators who use US aid in subjugating their peoples and direct public anger toward the US instead of their own corruption and tyranny. Their political culture is the “complex of the American conspiracy” against Islam and the Arabs. All the crises are explained as the American conspiracy against the peoples. This culture of conspiracy prevents any hope of reform from the inside, at the same time tarnishing the US image and making it the first enemy which should be fought. As it is impossible to defeat the US in the usual war, it’s possible to kill the civilian American by terrorist operations. This is their reaction to the complexity of conspiracy. The collapse of the peace process between Israel and the Palestinians adds another rage against America, which is accused by Arabs as being the ally of the Israeli occupation of Arab lands. Finally it makes the US the battlefield of the third world war that began after 9-11. Positive Aspects This is the sad reality of political life in the Middle East and North Africa, but the picture as a whole has some positive aspects. A. Weakness inside the fanatic trend The fanatic religious trend is active and effective, but its mighty power covers these objective reasons for weakness: He is a reaction of dictatorship and corruption, now action in itself that means when the reform is established; he will lose his motives and power. He belongs to the Middle Age’s tradition and culture, meaning he is out of our time, and will be dismissed by the up-to-date, mighty culture sooner or later. He generates his power from the name of Islam, while faith, culture, and manner contradict Islam. He needs authorities to protect his ideology and to confiscate the other Islamic ideologies. In any free society he will be exposed and lose his connection with Islam and its leaders will be just criminals. B. The majority are ready for reform The majority of the populations are under 40 years old. Most of them are educated, deprived, confused, and eager to know the right thing. They believe in Islam as the religion of the peace, freedom, and justice. They are acquainted with their corrupt regimes and they become in touch with the modern world by modern systems of communication and information. They are ready to understand, or even move, but the terrorist regimes are curbing them. C. Dictators now lose absolute control Those terrorist regimes have not the same control of the dictators of the 20th century. The modern revolution of communication and information has deleted the ardent iron wall which the old dictator used to build around their people to control them and keep them away from the free world outside their country. D. The help of western NGO’s Western and American organizations of human rights, democracy and freedom are making an effort to help and sponsor the culture of high values in the third world, and the NED is at the front of these organizations. E. The dictators are out of our up-to-date culture The 21st century will be the century of human rights and the NGO’s, meaning sooner or later those dictatorships will disappear because they do not belong to our time. How to Reform? The question is when and how? Dictatorships may disappear after some decades and bloodshed. They may disappear quickly and peacefully. It depends on the US policy and the UN’s attitude. A. the role of the UN The United Nations has changed its attitude in some parts of the world due to the influence of the US, but it needs to change its policy and principles to match the 21st century culture. The rules of not interfering in other state’s interior affairs, and/or the principle of the sovereignty of states have to be changed. In the past, they have served the independence of weak states against the powerful states and the influence of hegemony. Now it serves the hegemony of the dictators who enslave their people. It’s now the sovereignty of the state of the people, but the sovereignty of individuals who subject their peoples and nations. As a result of their tyranny, their oppositions endanger the world security in the global village of our time. Accordingly, the UN’s charter should be more effective in protection of the high values of the UN itself and its covenant and principles of human rights. Precisely, the UN must sponsor the peaceful democratic transition of the third world by a new international legislation to: Enforce the dictators in applying the human rights and means of transparency enable the UN to supervise the election inside these regimes Protect the activists of human rights, democracy, and civil society. Create an international court to judge any dictator and his elders who commit torture, persecution, election rigging, and ruling his people by continuous emergency and martial laws. All of this could be tackled by the UN with the help of the US. But there is an urgent peaceful role should be done by the U.N and U.S together; it’s the independent free TV Arabic Channels. Free independent Arabic TV channels: To hasten the peaceful democratic transition, to face the culture of terrorism, and bigotry, and to save bloodsheds, it’s a necessary to enlighten the Arabic Muslim mentality from inside by the absent Islamic discourse which upholds peace, justice, freedom, tolerance and human rights. This absent Islamic discourse could be easily understood by Arabs and Muslims, and could be easily prove the contradiction between Islam and the culture of terrorism and dictatorship, this culture which is sponsored by the tyrants and the fanatics as well. The tyrants use their own media to brainwash the masses and to confine the free leaders and to glorify their images. This kind of media may help the dictator who is in the power now, but in the future it will create an ardent fanatic generation, which may destroy itself and the world together. This coming menace could be easily deleted by the free independent Arabic Muslim Channels. The U.N and The U.S can sponsor these channels for the world’s fair. It’s a necessity for democracy and its culture as it mentioned before in this book, but the details of this project need another book. The role of the US: The US has the basic role in this mission which is no longer an international problem, the problem of terrorism which is the result of the corrupt dictatorial regimes. The US has to play the main part in this mission, not only because it is the super power of this world, but also because of its own war against terrorism after 9-11. The US has to uphold justice in its foreign policy in the Arab-Israeli conflict, applying the UN’s solutions in establishing a Palestinian state direct its aid to the social and political NGO’s in the fields of development and reform under its continuous supervision compromise with its dictator friends to handle a peaceful democratic transition that guarantees the life and some fortune of those ex-rulers in a secure exile allowing interim regimes to handle the reform. This is the only way to save millions of lives inside and outside the United States in this century.

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