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Section 1: The Seven Principle of the real Islamic Sharia

Section 1: The Seven Principle of the real Islamic Sharia                  

 

We have written that , the seven principles of the Islamic sharia are as follows: 1) equality, 2) direct democracy that include rule by people, political freedom, and prohibition of tyranny, 3) absolute religious freedom, 4) justice, 5) peace, 6) the right to live, and 7) facilitation and removing of difficulties and complications within Islamic legislation. And in this chapter, we explain these principles in detail.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

Chapter 1: The first principle of the Islamic sharia: equality           

 

Firstly: the equality among human beings is a principle stemming from the basic tenet of Islam: the testimony: There is no God but Allah. "…Is there a Creator other than God…" (35:3).

1- Among all believers, no one denies the fact that God is the Sole Creator of the universe, and consequently, Our Omnipotent God has no partners or associates in His realm. "…His is the creation, and His is the command…" (7:54). Hence, there is no God except for that Creator: "God is the Creator of all things…" (39:62), "Such is God, your Lord, Creator of all things. There is no God except Him…" (40:62), "Such is God, your Lord. There is no God except He, the Creator of all things…" (6:102), and "…God is the Creator of all things, and He is The One, the Irresistible" (13:16).

2- Such well-known facts to all believers are mentioned here to say the following fact which is based on them; no mortal creature among the humankind should place himself/herself high above the rest of human beings. Hence, the equality principle is derived from the testimony: There is no God but Allah.

Secondly: absolute equality among prophets and the rest of human beings in creation, death, responsibility, and judgment.

1- It is wrong to say that prophets and messengers of God are the best human beings, apart from the rest of humankind. Of course, God has chosen those who are more ready for bearing the responsibility of conveying the divine message. Yet, the divine revelation of the Quran asserts that all messengers and prophets are equal with all human beings in creation, death, responsibility, and judgment.

2- Prophets and messengers of God are human souls, and all rules of creation apply to them like the rest of human beings, and the potential tendency to wickedness and righteousness: "And the soul and He who proportioned it. And inspired it with its wickedness and its righteousness. Successful is he who purifies it. Failing is he who corrupts it." (91:7-10). Prophets and messengers of God are among the human souls whose piety is demanded by God: "O people! Fear your Lord, who created you from a single soul…" (4:1). God says to Muhammad: "O Prophet! Fear God…" (33:1). Hence, they are among all the human souls in the Day of Judgment described in the following verse: "On the Day when every soul will come pleading for itself, and every soul will be paid in full for what it has done, and they will not be wronged." (16:111).

3- God's judgment in the Day of Judgment will be individual, i.e., including all human being one by one, with no distinction between a messenger and a criminal: "There is none in the heavens and the earth but will come to the Most Merciful as a servant. He has enumerated them, and counted them one by one. And each one of them will come to Him on the Day of Resurrection alone." (19:93-95). This is absolute equality linked to absolute justice in the Last Day: "We will set up the scales of justice for the Day of Resurrection, so that no soul will suffer the least injustice. And even if it be the weight of a mustard-seed, We will bring it up. Sufficient are We as Reckoners." (21:47).

4- Yet, the responsibility of messengers and prophets is heavier in comparison to that of ordinary individuals, and hence, this verse shows that judgment of messengers and prophets is juxtaposed with that of ordinary persons, as their responsibility is heavier and bigger: "We will question those to whom messengers were sent, and We will question the messengers." (7:6).

5- Hence, we conclude then that divine revelation descended to some human beings making them messengers/prophets does NOT place them above the level of all human beings; rather, they are the same and equal in judgment and duties toward God, but with heavier responsibility over their shoulders.  

Thirdly: equality between Muhammad and his people in creation, death, responsibility, and judgment

1- The vast majority of the Muhammadans, including Wahabis (chiefly, Salafists and the terrorist MB), assume that Muhammad is the best of all prophets before him and they raise him to a stature above all humanity; they deify and sanctify him in their claims of infallibility and intercession ascribed to him. We have proven that these notions are mere falsehoods in our five books we have written to teach to Al-Azhar University students in 1985, among them the one titled "Prophets in the Quran". Our writings caused us to be tried and persecuted for two years at Al-Azhar University, ending in tendering our resignation as a teacher there and in our imprisonment later on in 1987. Such falsehoods in their tenets of faith that deify Muhammad are derived from their lack of belief in equality among all human beings. Even imams and leaders of the terrorist MB, Salafists, and all Sunnite Wahabis of any type worldwide feel inwardly that they are above all the rest of 'believers'. The Quran includes over 150 verses that refute the assumed intercession of Muhammad and over other 150 verses that refute his assumed infallibility. Muhammad is absolutely right ONLY in what is related to the divine revelation of the Quran: "Say, "If I err, I err only to my own loss; but if I am guided, it is by what my Lord inspires me…" (34:50). Hence, the divine revelation in the Quran sometimes reproaches, rebukes, and reproves Muhammad and corrects his behavior. There are more than 30 Quranic verses that deny the assumption that Muhammad is the best of messengers and prophets and that preference among prophets is a right reserved to God in the Last Day. There is no room for more detail here in that respect, but we aim to show the contradiction between the Quran, and its salient message of testimony (There is no God but Allah), and the faith tenets of the terrorist MB and Salafists who are both Wahabis. Such tenets of the Muhammadans are the root of the lack of equality among people in the Muhammadan creeds. The divine message of the Quran asserts this equality, but it is refused by the terrorist MB and the Salafists.

2- Muhammad was ordered to assert to his people that he was a human being like them, but he received revelation from God: "Say, "I am only a human being like you, being inspired that your god is One God. Whoever hopes to meet his Lord, let him work righteously, and never associate anyone with the service of his Lord."" (18:110). Usually, polytheists imagined that any prophet or messenger of God is above the rest of human beings, and they mocked Muhammad for being merely a mortal like them; see 21:36, 25:7-8, and 25:41. If Muhammad were to be resurrected now in Cairo to preach the Quran, Azharite clergymen, Wahabis, Salafists, and the terrorist MB group members would accuse him of contempt of the Sunnite creed. The polytheistic mentality refuses to admit the fact that Muhammad was a mortal human being; polytheists imagined prophets to be like angels. Arabs in Arabia in the 7th century wondered how come that Muhammad who was equally a mortal like them became a prophet of God: "Is it a wonder to the people that We inspired a man from among them…" (10:2), "It is He who sent among the gentiles a messenger from themselves…" (62:2). Both verses assert that Muhammad was a man like them, equal to them.

3- That a man was a messenger and a prophet of God does not give him preference in the Last Day; he is to be judged like all human beings for which he was sent. The haughty arrogant groups among the Qorayish tribe used to bewail the fact that they would be equal with the poor and the weak if they convert to Islam, and they used to attend meetings with Muhammad if such poor and weak ones were sitting with him. When Muhammad ordered the weak and the poor away from him to appeal to the haughty arrogant ones among the Qorayish tribe to convey to them the Quranic message, the Quran rebukes and reproaches him as a result: "And do not drive away those who call upon their Lord, morning and evening, seeking His attention. You are not accountable for them in any way, nor are they accountable for you in any way. If you drive them away, you would be one of the unjust." (6:52). This verse asserts the fact that in the Last Day,  Muhammad will not be judged concerning others around him (disbelievers and believers); this is the best image of equality among Muhammad and the weak, poor ones among his people. Hence, whether people believed or not, this has nothing to do with judging Muhammad in the Day of Judgment. Muhammad himself is ordered in the Quran to follow and obey the sharia of the Quran, not the whims of others whom they did not know that they will not be of any use to him in the Last Day: "Then We set you upon a pathway of faith, so follow it, and do not follow the inclinations of those who do not know. They will not help you against God in any way. The wrongdoers are allies of one another, while God is the Protector of the righteous." (45:18-19). Of course, historically, inclinations and whims of the wrongdoers emerged with a vengeance after Muhammad's death. Their falsehoods formed oral traditions and hadiths (sayings) attributed to Muhammad falsely after his death during the Umayyad Era for two centuries and were written down in the Abbasid Era in the third century A.H. Such lies and fabrications are the base of the creeds of Wahabi Salafists and the terrorist MB.                     

4- God says about the Quran: "It is a message for you, and for your people; and you will be questioned." (43:44). This indicates that both Muhammad and his people share equally the responsibility and questioning in the Last Day, and of course, since Muhammad is mentioned here in this verse alone and apart, his responsibility is heavier. About Muhammad's death and that of his foe and enemies, God says to Muhammad: "You will die, and they will die. Then, on the Day of Resurrection, you will be quarrelling before your Lord." (39:30-31). Hence, all of them are mortal human beings, equal in mortality. Death means that both Muhammad and any other human beings among his people would be decomposed as a cadaver that would later on turn to dust and ashes. Equality is stressed here; all corpses undergo decomposition; corpses of Muhammad and his enemies are no exception to this rule. They are equal also in quarreling before God and debating their cause in the Last Day. We believe that the responsibility of Muhammad is heaver because he is juxtaposed with others within the Quranic context: he is on one hand, and on the other hand the thousands of his foes.

5- We conclude from the above that equality among all human beings is derived from the testimony of the Islamic faith: (There is no God But Allah). This equality includes all prophets and messengers of God: "…God knows best where to place His message…" (6:124). This equality is in being created, in submission to God, in religious duties, and in judgment in the Last Day.

Fourthly: between equality and equal opportunity in this world and the Hereafter

1- Equality is lined to equal opportunity; God says in the Quran: "O people! We created you from a male and a female, and made you races and tribes, that you may know one another. The best among you in the sight of God is the most righteous. God is All-Knowing, Well-Experienced." (49:13). Hence, all human beings are equal as they are born of the same parents: Adam and Eve. God created us different in races, colors, and culture so as to get to know one another, not to fight one another. We are all equal in the choice between obeying of disobeying God, but the disobedience sinner is NOT to be equal with the pious believer, and persons of both types will be determined by God the Omniscient in the Day of Judgment. The righteous pious ones will be the winners in the Last Day based on their deeds and belief.

2- In accordance with equality in religious duties and questioning concerning them in the Hereafter, reward or punishment is given to each individual as per good or evil deeds done. "Whoever acts righteously does so for himself; and whoever works evil does so against himself. Your Lord is not unjust to the servants." (41:46). "Whoever does a good deed, it is for his soul; and whoever commits evil, it is against it; then to your Lord you will be returned." (45:15).

3- As per equal opportunity rule, no evil person is to be equal to a good one. "Shall We treat the submitters to God like the villains? What is the matter with you? How do you judge?" (68:35-36). "Or are We to treat those who believe and do righteous deeds like those who make trouble on earth? Or are We to treat the pious like the shameless?" (38:28). "Do those who perpetrate the evil deeds assume that We will regard them as equal to those who believe and do righteous deeds, whether in their life or their death? Evil is their judgment!" (45:21). "Not equal are the inhabitants of the Fire and the inhabitants of Paradise. It is the inhabitants of Paradise who are the winners." (59:20).

4- Even among believers, there are various degrees as per their deeds, such as spending for God's cause and in self-defensive fighting: "And why is it that you do not spend in the cause of God, when to God belongs the inheritance of the heavens and the earth? Not equal among you are those who contributed before the conquest, and fought. Those are higher in rank than those who contributed afterwards, and fought. But God promises both a good reward. God is Well Experienced in what you do." (57:10). "Not equal are the inactive among the believers-except the disabled-and the strivers in the cause of God with their possessions and their persons. God prefers the strivers with their possessions and their persons above the inactive, by a degree. But God has promised goodness to both. Yet God favors the strivers, over the inactive, with a great reward." (4:95).

Fifthly: Between equality and justice within sharia laws in relation to women

1- Equality of both genders is manifest within Islam (the Quran alone) in several examples: the term ''spouse'' in the Quranic text equates both men and women, even when the Quranic contexts shows clearly that the intended meaning is the male or female spouse or when the discourse is addressed to both. Other Quranic terms that assert gender equality are ''parents'' and ''ancestors'', as they include both male and female. Women are included in the Quranic discourse within other expressions and terms like ''soul(s)'' ''people'', ''progeny of Adam'', and ''those who believe''. The Quranic discourse, orders, and commands include women in fasting, prayers, zakat, and jihad when addressed to those who believe: the command here is sure to include both genders. Even excuses that prevent believers from performing any religious duties include both sexes: like in cases of illness, traveling, being blind, lame, or crippled. The meaning intended here is complete equality within religious duties for men and women.

2- We quote here Quranic verses that assert equal opportunity for both genders within Islam. "Whoever commits a sin will be repaid only with its like. But whoever works righteousness, whether male or female, and is a believer-these will enter Paradise, where they will be provided for without account." (40:40). "But whoever works righteousness, whether male or female, and is a believer-those will enter Paradise, and will not be wronged a whit." (4:124). "Whoever works righteousness, whether male or female, while being a believer, We will grant him a good life-and We will reward them according to the best of what they used to do." (16:97).

3- The principle of equality is related to that of justice. Let us suppose that a sum of money is distributed equally within poor and rich students in a school; this equality is deemed injustice. Justice should accompany equality and the equal opportunity concept. Hence, since husbands within Islam pay a dowry and undertake the responsibility of and care for their wives and children, meaning to maintain and protect them, they are granted trusteeship over their wives, provided that husbands must live with their wives in kindness; see 4:19 and 4:34. Otherwise, husbands lose the trusteeship. Wives within Islam may claim trusteeship and the right of divorce for themselves to be within their command, as the marriage contract may include any type of conditions mutually agreed upon by both husband and wife, and contracts in general must be fulfilled and respected by all parties involved; see 5:1. Even as husbands have the right to divorce, wives can repudiate themselves; see 2:229. Males have double shares in inheritance in cases of brothers and sons only; because females are not supposed to pay dowry for marriage and pensions for divorce. But mothers receive equal shares like fathers       of inheritance left by dead progeny; see 4:7-12. We should not forget the will written before inheritance to give shares to parents and relatives even if they are not among inheritors, to verify justice; see 2:180. As for 2:282, the oral testimony of two women within markets to be equal to that of one man is asserted to confirm a higher sharia legislative purpose: i.e., to verify accurate testimony and witnessing. If such accurateness is achieved within the testimony of one woman, there is no need then for that sharia command.

4- Eventually, all Quranic sharia commands submit in their application within higher values and purposes of legislation: justice and prevention of injustice as well as facilitation and removing of difficulties and complications within Islamic legislation in the Quran. Hence, we conclude that all the seven principles of the Islamic sharia in the Quran are interrelated and overlapping.

 

 

 

 


 

Chapter 2: The second principle of the Islamic sharia: People self-rule within direct democracy and prohibition of tyranny:

 

Firstly: Islam is against superiority in earth; i.e., against tyranny

Equality contradicts with superiority in earth/tyranny:

 We have written before equality is the very first principle of the Islamic sharia, in the Quran, and that it is derived from the testimony of Islam (There is no God but Allah). To politically apply this equality means that all people should be equal in affairs of ruling; no one of them is to rise above the others to rule over them tyrannically: to kill, to steal, to rape, and to commit injustices.

Superiority in earth is linked always to corruption (in terms of ideology and behavior):

 The political superiority, or tyranny in the terms of our age, is linked to moral and ideological corruption, related to the establishment of states. Tyrants justify their tyranny, or superiority over others, within an ideology fashioned to serve their purposes. This false ideology to deceive others might be secular; i.e., non-related to any creed, but linked to any overt and apparent mottoes like nationalism, social justices, and rights of the poor. The false ideology might link itself to any religion; and in that case, it is more dangerous, as the tyrant ruler might assume he was chosen by God to rule people! The secular ideologies have created nationalistic countries in Europe, like Fascism in Italy, Nazism in Germany, and the Pan-Arabism ideology in some Arab countries. Secular ideologies helped create the communist regimes under the motto of workers' rights. As for religious ideologies, they are always based on earthly, man-made creeds, especially doctrines linking itself forcibly to a celestial religion. Examples of this are the Abbasid caliphate in the Middle Ages and the Wahabi Sunnite theocracies in the KSA, Sudan, the Taliban regime, and the terrorist MB regime that lasted for one year in Egypt. The Shiite creed was the basis of certain caliphates in the Middle Ages like the Fatimid caliphate and now in Iran as a Shiite theocracy. To enable such states or countries to go on, foes had to be oppressed and accused of high treason against the tyrants, who identify themselves with the country or the nation, or accused of being apostates/renegades who showed contempt of religion (i.e. the earthly, fabricated creed), because foes and oppositional figures do not believe in the deified tyrant ruler who think of himself as representative of religion or God! To establish such countries stably and firmly, civil strife or external wars might break out a well as inquisition plus economic collapse and ruin. Hence, corruption becomes the mot d'ordre and the currency used by tyrants in all internal and external affairs. Corruption might reach the lowest levels by deifying the tyrants directly and frankly, or covertly and implicitly. Hence, the Quran says that Moses' Pharaoh is the imam/leader of all consequent self-deified tyrants; in our opinion, this applies within theocracies of Middle Ages and until our modern times. Thus, tyranny, or superiority on earth, is contrary to Islamic faith tenets and principles of Islamic sharia in the Quran.

Superiority is confined to God alone:

 Believers in God repeat that He is Superior, Exalted, and Glorified. God denies in the Quran the human traits or features that some people ascribe to Him, for He transcends them all: "Yet they attributed to God partners-the sprites-although He created them. And they invented for Him sons and daughters, without any knowledge. Glory be to Him. He is exalted, beyond what they describe." (6:100). Thus, superiority and exaltation are divine epithets of Our Creator, Almighty God, and are not to be used for human beings. God is One, with no partners or associates of gods/deities, as we know from the Quranic text: "God has never begotten a son, nor is there any god besides Him. Otherwise, each god would have taken away what it has created, and some of them would have gained supremacy over others. Glory be to God, far beyond what they describe." (23:91), "Say, "If there were other gods with Him, as they say, they would have sought a way to the Lord of the Throne." Be He glorified. He is exalted, far above what they say." (17:42-43).

"Pharaoh exalted himself in the land…" (28:4):

 This means that Moses' Pharaoh made himself superior above others among his people in arrogance and hubris, as a basic feature in all tyrants. He deified himself, as we know from the Quran. The original status is that all people are equal in duties and rights. This is God's Quranic sharia, based on justice. Tyrants ruin and smash this justice once they claim themselves superior and high above the rest of his people, distinguishing themselves tyrannically. This feature of Moses' Pharaoh is linked to all tyrants in all eras and localities. That is why tyrants/pharaohs in all eras refuse guidance of God via His messengers; as this guidance will make them equal in rank and status with all the rest by losing their high stature and superior rank. As usual, the truth is very clear to all people's hearts, even Moses' Pharaoh, but he, along with his retinue, people, and family, denied the truth felt within their hearts and refused to admit it with their words and deeds that contradicted the truth. They did so to maintain their abhorrent superior status. That is why God tells us the following about their stance against the call of Moses: "And they rejected them, although their souls were certain of them, out of wickedness and pride. So see how the outcome was for the mischief-makers." (27:14).

Pharaonic superiority in earth and self-deification:

 This false feeling of superiority led the self-deified arrogant Pharaoh to reject Moses and his call; Moses' Pharaoh gathered his people in a conference to assert to them his assumed divinity, defying Almighty God: "And gathered and proclaimed. He said, "I am your Lord, the most high."" (79:23-24). That was why when Pharaoh set himself above God, Moses told him and his retinue: "Do not exalt yourselves above God…" (44:19).

Pharaonic superiority and excess of terrorism:

 Moses' Pharaoh' superiority, tyranny, and self-deification led him to commit excesses and reach the extremes of sins, in terms of faith and in terms of aggressive behavior; he terrorized the Israelites with torture so s to coerce them to move away from Moses who was sent to save and liberate them from Pharaonic oppression, suppression, and injustice. Due to Pharaonic torture and persecution via Pharaoh's agents, most Israelites turned away from Moses; let us see how God comments in the Quran about Pharaoh: "But none believed to Moses except few of his people, while they feared that Pharaoh and his chiefs would persecute them. Pharaoh was high and mighty in the land. He was a tyrant." (10:83). Here, Moses' Pharaoh is described by being a tyrant and being superior in earth. And both items are linked together. Tyranny here, in Quranic terminology, is associated to extremism and transgression, in our modern parlance. This is asserted by describing Moses' Pharaoh with the same two terms in another verse about his torturing the Israelites: "And We delivered the Children of Israel from the humiliating torture and persecution.From Pharaoh, for he was a transgressing tyrant." (44:30-31). Hence, superiority and tyranny (as forms of excess, extremism, and transgression) are linked to torturing the weak ones. Hence, to coerce people to submit to the Pharaonic tyranny, they had to be terrorized with torture and persecution. That is why all those tyrants who followed the footsteps of Pharaoh are known for their use of torture since the times of the so-called caliphate until Mubarak and Saddam Hussein and their likes in the Middle East in our modern times. It is strange that the ones defending the victims here are the West human rights organization; despite their being mostly non-believers, they assume the Islamic role/value of preaching for doing good deeds and avoiding bad ones. Such noble organizations are contrasted with those pigs in the KSA Wahabi Sunnite group members of Committee for the Promotion of virtue the Prevention of Vice. Such members terrorize passers-by and secure ones in their homes; they use terror and persecution for the sake of the affluent, profligate, immoral tyrants in their palaces, under the motto of applying Islamic sharia by force! It is strange that tyrants/pharaohs who commit extremist excesses accuse their foes and oppositional figures of being extremists! Indeed, tyrants are more extremist ones in compassion to anyone. Hence, tyranny in the Quran is linked to excess, extremism, violation of rights, and transgression in the terms of our modern times. In one Quranic Chapter 40, Moses Pharaoh is described three times with such terms: "…God does not guide the extremist imposter." (40:28), "…Thus God leads astray the transgressing skeptic." (40:34), and "… And the transgressors are the inmates of the Hell-Fire" (40:43). We notice here that tyrannical violation is linked to telling lies and to doubts. Hence, all tyrants/pharaohs are inveterate liars and are filled with grave doubts against everyone around them. Because tyrants deceive and lie to others, they feel others are bent to deceive and lie to them in their turn.

Pharaonic tyranny is linked to corruption:

 Concluding from the above, we discern now why Moses' Pharaoh and his retinue, people, and rule/regime are associated in the Quran with corruption: "Pharaoh exalted himself in the land, and divided its people into factions. He persecuted a group of them, slaughtering their sons, while sparing their daughters. He was truly a corrupter." (28:4); see also verses 27:14, 10:81 and 10:91 that link this corruption to their denial of the truth and how repentance of Pharaoh was not accepted when he was on the verge of death. God warns the coming generations against the fate allotted to Pharaoh and his unjust people: "…We sent Moses with Our miracles to Pharaoh and his retinue, but they denounced them. So consider the end of the evildoers." (7:103). "And they rejected them, although their souls were certain of them, out of wickedness and pride. So see how the outcome was for the mischief-makers." (27:14).

The terrorist MB and the Salafists/Wahabis are following the footsteps of Moses' Pharaoh who was superior tyrant in earth:

 Moses' Pharaoh held a conference to proclaim and declare his being the sole owner of Egypt and all things and persons on it, and he mocked Moses and belittled his people who obeyed him because they were corrupt sinners like him. They ended in being drowned, as examples for the coming generations to avoid and take heed of their fate; see 43:51-55. "Thus We made them a precedent and an example for the others." (43:56). Following the example of Moses' Pharaoh in his tyrannical rule, the deities and leaders of the earthly, man-made, fabricated creeds established their theocracies falsely under the name of Christianity and Islam. The terrorist MB and the Salafists are two types of Wahabis who follow the footsteps of Moses' Pharaoh. The term ''salaf '' occurs one time in the Quranic text as miraculously predicting about those who follow the footsteps of Moses' Pharaoh in 56:43. The term is the root for Salafists (literally; the terms means those who follow the ancestors or forefathers). Hence, we can say that the Wahabi terrorist MB and Salafists are the followers of Moses' Pharaoh, and the same applies to the self-deified caliphs in the Middle Ages.

Secondly: the faith tenet origin of people self-rule, or direct democracy, within Islam:

Real believers never place themselves superior in earth:

As tyrant rulers place themselves high and above others in the land to tyrannize, oppress, and control people, we discern that direct democracy is derived from the Islamic faith tenet that there is no superiority to any human beings; it is confined to God Almighty. Hence, rulers should be in service of people, as their civil servant, not superior above them. The pious and the righteous ones are described in the Quran as those who do not seek superiority and corruption in life, and they are rewarded in the Hereafter: "That Home of the Hereafter, We assign it for those who seek no superiority in earth or corruption, and the outcome is for the pious." (28:83). We admonish and warn the terrorist MB members who claim to be 'Muslims' (literally, those who submit to God) and claim that the Quran is their constitution and Muhammad as their leader and example. In fact, Muhammad is ordered in the Quran to resort to shura (consultation of people) to gain his power and authority over them through people themselves, and not via God. "It is by of grace from God that you were gentle with them. Had you been harsh, hardhearted, they would have dispersed from around you. So pardon them, and ask forgiveness for them, and consult them in the conduct of affairs…" (3:159). Thus, those who reject the Islamic concept of shura in the Quran that asserts that the citizens/people/nation are the source of all power and authority are setting themselves as above Muhammad and believe in the exact opposite: despotic and tyrannical theocracy hat claim falsely to be inspired by God! Hence, such type of tyrants deifies themselves when they assert falsely and wrongly that their power over people is derived from the Almighty Himself. This is an insult to God. Hence, such tyrants place themselves as superior to all people to control, manipulate, and own them along with their possessions and fates! This is what we mean by self-deification. This is not only against justice and freedom as Quranic concepts in Islam, but also against the basic tenet of Islam that confines deification, divinity, and sanctification to God alone, so that no mortal has the right to assume superiority above the rest of human beings. This leads us to assert that direct democracy – i.e. the Islamic shura concept – is part of the Islamic basic faith tenet of (There is No God but Allah). Details are found below.

(Islamic direct democracy) ( Shura ) as the basis of the Islamic faith tenet:

1- God alone is the One not to be asked about what He does by His creatures who will be asked and questioned in the Last Day by God: "He will not be questioned about what He does, but they will be questioned." (21:23). Accordingly, rulers who reject being questioned by their people are self-deified mortals who deny Islam by setting themselves above God.

2- Muhammad is ordered in the Quran to use shura; i.e., to consult people, despite his being a prophet inspired by God. Accordingly, any rulers who claim to be Muslims and refuse to apply shura (direct democracy) are setting themselves above the seal of prophets, Muhammad, and commit the sin of self-deification, and thus deny and reject Islam.                      

3- The Quran repeats the story of Moses' Pharaoh several times, and it makes it a model, to be avoided NOT imitated, to warn against tyrant rulers whose tyranny lead them to self-deification and corruption that eventually end in self-destruction and ruin of people, retinue, soldiers, and countries. Contemplating and reflecting on the Quranic stories concerning Moses' Pharaoh, we discern the features and traits of the tyrannical mentality as reflected in the retinue and cronies of the tyrants/pharaohs who repeat words tyrants like to hear. Even tyrants of modern times repeat the same words and phrases and live within the same mentality.

4- Justice is the reason behind revealing divine messages and books via messengers and prophets; see 57:25. That is why the unjust are foes to God and His religion and sharia. Hence, the Islamic democracy of shura is the basic tenet in politics advocated within Islam, whereas injustice of all types is the basis of tyranny that goes against Islam, when one person, tribe, party, family, etc. confiscates and monopolizes power, authority, and wealth apart from the rest of the citizens. Thus, tyranny is linked to disbelief and injustice, and democracy within Islamic shura concept is derived from the monotheistic tenet in Islam.

Shura, like prayers, is considered one of the sharia duties in Islam:

 We can say that shura is an Islamic religious duty which is absent today. It was applied once in the city-state of Yathreb led by Muhammad. It has been absented gradually, because it has been ignored on purpose, since Muhammad's death. Tyranny supplanted shura within the so-called caliphates. It is noteworthy that shura is imposed as a religious duty or obligation within verses revealed in Mecca, in Chapter 42, titled "Al-Shura". Among the features of the society within a country or a state deemed Islamic, God says in the Quran: "And those who respond to their Lord, pray regularly, conduct their affairs by mutual consultation, and give of what We have provided them." (42:38). Thus, shura (i.e. mutual consultation) is mentioned linked to zakat (or alms/charity) and to regular prayers. Since no one can pray instead of another person, the same applies to shura councils, committees, or assemblies in all cities and villages; such committees should include all citizens of the same location. Hence, shura in the Quran is direct democracy, not within elected representatives or parliament members. Hence, Islamic shura exceeds parliamentary democracies in the West. Since prayers are duty of every person in all times, in sickness and in health, in residence and while traveling or even when being at war, likewise, shura is to be practiced in by all citizens, and even in houses and at workplaces by everyone who is peaceful, regardless of the faith or creed of the citizen within a given country. The verse 42:38 was revealed in Mecca, as a religious duty ordained by God and applied by early Muslims at the time when they were a persecuted, weak minority. In the city-state of Yathreb, shura was applied in public in mosques that housed such gatherings or councils including all Muslims of both sexes. The Quran has rebuked those who lagged behind and did not attend such councils of shura, as it is a religious duty, warning absentees against punishment: "The believers are those who believe in God and His Messenger, and when they are with him for a matter of common interest, they do not leave until they have asked him for permission. Those who ask your permission are those who believe in God and His Messenger. So when they ask your permission to attend to some affair of theirs, give permission to any of them you wish, and ask God's forgiveness for them. God is Forgiving and Merciful. Do not address the Messenger in the same manner you address one another. God knows those of you who slip away using flimsy excuses. So let those who oppose his orders beware, lest an ordeal strikes them, or a painful punishment befalls them." (24:62-63). Some other verses tell us about what used to happen in such shura councils and gatherings; see 58:7-13.

The basics of applying the religious duty of the Islamic shura:

 The Islamic shura cannot be applied in isolation from the other basic rules of the Islamic country or state; among them are the following.

1- Peace:

 Islam in terms of demeanor means peaceful behavior and dealings. A  Muslim in terms of behavior is the one whom people feel safe and protected from any aggression of violation on his/her part. Hence, any peaceful person is deemed a Muslim, regardless of that person's creed or faith or lack of it. whereas Islam in terms of faith or belief is to submit one's heart to God and obey His commands in the Quran; this belief will be judged by God in the Hereafter. No person is allowed to assume the role of God in that respect by questioning people's faith or lack of it. This inquisition is deemed self-deification, and sinners who commit this grave sin are no longer Muslims; rather, they are enemies of Islam who have sinned against God. Disbelief and polytheism in terms of faith means to deify mortals beside God or instead of Him. This is deemed a violation against God's right of divinity as the Sole Worshipped Being with no partners and associates ascribed to Him. Disbelief and polytheism in terms of behavior or demeanor is aggression and transgressions committed against the peaceful people by oppression, persecution, or killing them, or in our modern parlance, terrorism. Accordingly, we human beings can determine disbelievers and polytheists by their terrorist aggressive behavior, regardless of their faiths, or lack of it, as God is the Only Judge in this respect in the Day of Resurrection. As far as the shura concept is concerned, all peaceful citizens living in a given country that applies sharia should participate in shura councils, regardless of the citizens' faith, doctrine, or belief or lack of them. All citizens are to participate actively, being Sunnites, Shiites, Jewish, Christians, atheists, believers of any other creeds, etc. and faith choice is not related to shura at all; this type of responsibility is questioned only by God in the Last Day. People on earth are to be concerned only with peaceful behavior of citizens within a given society. Thus, if citizens commit crimes like murder, stealing and robbing possession, and other violations against human rights, they are to be punished within laws applied in a given country. Thus, terrorists who murder innocent peaceful people are criminals who violate laws of any state or society; they are not to be part of the Islamic shura system.

2- Absolute freedom of religion, thought, and expression of both:

 Here, we define the mission of the State: it should provide internal security and safety to all citizens in society, plus the external security of the country/nation, as well as establishing justice among all citizens, along with providing absolute freedom for individuals and groups in performing acts of worship, faith and creed, thought and opinion, and expression of all this. This is understandable and lawful of course. The mission of the State does NOT include guiding citizens spiritually; this is an individual responsibility based on free choice of persons; see 17:15. No one can possibly coerce or force someone to be 'guided' spiritually; God guides whoever He likes among people. No one, and no country or regime, should come between such a relation between God and people.

3- Justice:

 The major mission of any Islamic country or state is to establish justice in dealing with individuals and groups and in its dealing with other countries in the international community. Economic justice should be applied by ensuring the rights of the poor, the needy, the impecunious, the impoverished, the underprivileged, the orphans, and poor travelers. Political justice is provided when all citizens participate in political self-rule. Injustice in wealth distribution leads to injustice in the distribution of power and authority, leading eventually to tyrannical rule. If power and authority are monopolized within one category that controls wealth, tyranny results for certain. Wealth and power and authority seek one another; hence, social justice needs to be established to apply and assert political justice of the Islamic shura. Thus, all values should be interrelated and linked to establish democracy of Islam by shura. Islamic shura cannot be applied within the absence of social justice, existence of unjust distribution of wealth, discrimination against citizens based on race, color, creed, or gender, and restriction of freedom of thought and religion.

4- The balance between justice and freedom:

 Democracy – or shura in Quranic terms – combines justice and freedom within a balanced equation. Direct Islamic democracy means absolute justice via political participation of all citizens; society is the sole owner of the absolute right of full political power and authority; the nation is the source of all types of authority. Such right is distributed equally among all citizens with no discrimination. The ruler here is deemed to be an expert in certain field (i.e. management) who can direct affairs of a given country; such ruler is rendered responsible before the citizens, in service of them all as a civil servant, along with others to help him within obedience of God and the Quranic message as long as such ruler performs his job/task within laws abided by and applied to all citizens with no exceptions. Hence, this direct democracy considers all citizens as equal to one another, regardless of financial status, gender, creed or lack of it, race, tongue, color, social classes, etc. and that is why we say that direct democracy constitutes absolute justice. Such regime must assert the absolute freedom of religion and creed; every citizen has the right to believe or not to believe in any freely chosen creed and the right to convert to whatever creed, bearing the responsibility of that before God alone in the Last Day. Another freedom that should be available within direct democracy is absolute political freedom within peaceful means equally among all citizens. This is absolute justice in citizenship. Tampering with such criteria leads to the loss of justice and paves the way for any group to confiscate power and authority and wealth. Corruption and tyranny ensue along with marginalization of the majority of citizens, resulting in their losing their rights.

The nation is the only source of power and authority within the Islamic concept of shura:

1- Within Islamic democracy, a given nation, not a ruler, is the only source of power and authority. Muhammad fled, for the sake of his life and religion, the persecution of the Qorayish tribe, and early believers in Yathreb (its dwellers and its immigrants) established a city-state for Muhammad in it. This was the very first and last state deemed to be Islamic/Quranic, in our opinion. God says to Muhammad as a ruler of this city-state: "It is by of grace from God that you were gentle with them…" (3:159), and this shows that the mercy of God led Muhammad to be merciful and lenient with them. If he was the exact opposite of this, what would have happened? "…Had you been harsh, hardhearted, they would have dispersed from around you …" (3:159). If they had dispersed from around him, he would have had lost his power and authority, and consequently his being protected by them, to suffer persecution once more. We conclude then that Muhammad, as a ruler of Yathreb, acquired power and authority by virtue of the citizens/dwellers of Yathreb being gathered around him. These citizens were the only source of power and authority in the city-state established for his sake; in other words, Muhammad as a ruler did not acquire power and authority from God, but from the nation in the city-state of Yathreb, and Muhammad had to be lenient and pleasing to them so as not to disperse from around him, resulting in losing legitimate power as a ruler. What would Muhammad do in such conditions? The same verse explains to him, as a ruler, the political legislation to him and to all democratic rulers later on: "…So pardon them, and ask forgiveness for them, and consult them in the conduct of affairs…" (3:159). This means that God tells Muhammad to forgive them if they offended him and to consult him in all affairs – as they are theirs, not his. The divine command of shura here made Muhammad consult all dwellers of Yathreb – men and women – regardless of their being poor or rich, with no discrimination of any type. This is direct democracy, with no room for parliamentary representatives typical of indirect democracy. In contrast, tyrant rulers restrict power of citizens and confine it the themselves, and hence, they do not have to be lenient and gentle with them; on the contrary, such despots terrorize them, via police forces to protect the so-called 'prestige of the State/regime', to silence them so as not to call for their confiscated rights. That is why tyranny is associated with torture and persecution since Moses' Pharaoh to caliph Othman Ibn Affan when denying teachings of Islam, along with its transparency, democracy, and justice, began once Muhammad died. This caliph was the first to use torture to terrorize oppositional figures; he tortured with varying degrees historical figures among the so-called companions of the Prophet, like Ammar Ibn Yasser, Ibn Massoud, Abou Zar, and Abou Al-Dardaa. Torture has become then a tradition followed by rulers within atmosphere of injustice, corruption, and tyranny from the Umayyad Era until modern times now. Accordingly, the religious duty of shura in Islam had to be ignored and confiscated for the sake of tyrants.

Islamic states should have no rulers: the nation is the ruler:

1- Legislative Quranic discourse is addressed to all believers. For instance, let us reflect on the following verses. "O you who believe! Retaliation for the murdered is ordained upon you…" (2:178). "And fight in the cause of God those who fight you, but do not commit aggression; God does not love the aggressors." (2:190). "God instructs you to give back things entrusted to you to their owners. And when you judge between people, judge with justice…" (4:58). "Mobilize, light or heavy, and strive with your possessions and your lives in the cause of God. That is better for you, if you only knew." (9:41). Even with the existence of Muhammad amongst them, Quranic discourse is addressed to believers concerning what to do in self-rule. For instance, God tells them here what to do with hypocrites who oppose Islam: "They will swear to you by God, when you return to them, that you may leave them alone. So leave them alone. They are a disgrace, and their destiny is Hell; a reward for what they used to earn." (9:95). Quranic legislation discourse never addresses any ruler individually at all; rather, it addresses the general believers, telling them legislative orders, faith tenets, moralistic values, and political and military rules and principles. This shows that believers in Yathreb city-state were self-ruled and self-governed. This is contrasted to the message of Moses, as a messenger of God, addressed to one person, Pharaoh, as representative of all Egyptians. We understand why Aaron and Moses went to Pharaoh, and never addressed Egyptians themselves to let go of the Israelites; Pharaoh owned Egypt: land, possessions, and persons. Following the footsteps of Pharaoh were the so-called caliphs in the Middle Ages, and the Wahabi terrorist MB group members and Salafists, as part of their erroneous notions the concept that a ruler rules as the sole source of power and authority in the name of, and on behalf of, God Himself. For them, rulers are not responsible before citizens, but only before God alone. They claim that rulers are shepherds and caretakers, while citizens are 'subjects' or cattle owned and manipulated by rulers in productions, and can be killed anytime. Rulers for them are infallible and their deeds can never be questioned. They deify rulers and claim they represent God and rule in His name! This is utter blasphemy. Shura in the Quran is part of Islamic faith, and it confined divinity and infallibility to God, with no deified or sanctified partners/associates/rulers alongside with Him. Thus we understand the Quranic discourse that is addressed to all believers alike, not addressed to rulers. Islamic states should have no rulers; people rule themselves within themselves via direct democracy mentioned above, and that was why Muhammad never appointed a successor to him (caliph in Arabic); because simply, there is no room for rulers in Islamic states as known in regimes of today, be then republics or monarchies.

2- The term ''rulers'' (hukam in Arabic) comes only one time in the Quran within context of prohibiting corruption and bribery: "And do not consume one another's wealth by unjust means, nor offer it as bribes to the rulers in order to consume part of other people's wealth illicitly, while you know." (2:188). Yet, the Quran never used the term ''ruler'' (hakim in Arabic) in singular form in any verses that contain legislations; ''rulers'' in this verse means arbiters, governors, judges, or officials, not  presidents or monarchs per se. Even the words in the Quran derived from the Arabic root (h/k/m) do not indicate rule, ruling, or rulers in the political sense; rather, they denote judging, litigation, and arbiters. We quote this verse as an example: "…And when you judge between people, judge with justice…" (4:58). This has nothing to do with rule over people in the political sense of the term or with the divine judgment in Last Day. "Say, "Our God, Initiator of the heavens and the earth, Knower of all secrets and declarations. You will judge between your servants regarding what they had differed about."" (39:46). In a nutshell, the Arabic verb ''to judge'' in the Quran refers to litigation and arbitration, as it does not denote ''to rule'' as in political rule at all. And we understand now the Quranic command to judge via God's sharia in the Quran, not with sharia (laws) of others in matters of religion, and we see that this has nothing to do with "rule" in the political sense: "…Those who do not judge according to what God revealed are the unbelievers." (5:44), "…Those who do not judge according to what God revealed are the evildoers." (5:45), and "…Those who do not judge according to what God revealed are the sinners." (5:47). The Wahabi terrorist MB and Salafists use the three verses above to indicate political rule; they intentionally misinterpret these verses to use them to serve their evil political purposes and to appear as oppositional figure against military or party rule tyranny in any Arab country. In fact, the three verses above apply to and condemn Salafists and the terrorist MB members as evildoers, sinners, and unbelievers. The reason: because they call for the application of the Wahabi Sunnite sharia, which is the exact opposite of the Quranic sharia tenets and principles in terms of legislation and faith. We have proven this contradiction between Sunnite/Wahabi fiqh (jurisprudence) and Quranic sharia in several articles and books published online in aspects of notions, concepts, precepts, principles, rules, basics, legislations edicts, views, among other sharia details. Examples are countless; not only in deifying Muhammad, the so-called companions, saints, imams, sepulchers, tombs, mausoleums, as well as tomes, volumes, and books of forefathers, but also in denying religious duties like shura democracy and replacing it with tyranny and theocratic despotism that allows bloodshed, prohibited by God in the Quran. In the devilish sharia of Wahabi Sunnite creed, clergymen allow the murder of any dissidents who hold different opinions or religious views than theirs, accusing them of apostasy and rejection of faith. Sunnite clergymen decree the stoning of adulterers and fornicators as well as those who do not pray and those who oppose theocratic ruler. They even grant caliphs or theocratic rulers the right to kill one third of the subjects to reform the conditions of the reaming two thirds!

The Quranic term ''those in authority among people'' does not refer to rulers but to experts:

The Quranic term above is mentioned two times; see 4:59 and 4:83. It indicates experts; those with expertise in special fields. This term does not refer to rulers at all, as presumed by Wahabis and ancient scholars. Obeying such experts is confined to their fields of specialization and in fear of God and obeying His commands in the divine message: the Quran. The ancient scholars of the First Abbasid Era were the first ones to force the meaning of ''rulers'' on this Quranic term to make obedience to rulers/caliphs blind and absolute. This is the reason behind their deliberate misinterpretation of the Quran and meanings of its verses. It is noteworthy that the Quranic sharia is covered ONLY in less than 200 verses in the Quran (the complete number of all Quranic verses within all chapters together is 6236 verses), mostly about protecting family, women, and society; hence, this leaves huge room for human legislation that covers all needs and requirements of society within norms, virtues, and higher values; i.e., the principles of Islamic sharia we talk about here within Quranism we advocate. Any legislation agreed upon by society within the framework of all higher values should be deemed Islamic legislation. Accordingly, any country applying human rights, justice, and freedom of thought and religion is an Islamic one.

 

 

 

 


 

Chapter 3: The third principle of the Islamic sharia: absolute freedom of religion                                                                                                       

 

Firstly: suffice it for disbelievers the eternal suffering in Hell waiting for them in the Hereafter:

1- We have received this question in fatwas section on our website, and we have decided to quote it here along with our reply, as it suits our research here: (…I like your way of interpreting and contemplating upon Quranic verses that differs from what we have learned in school… please explain to me some verses of Chapter, as I feel terrified of God's way of tormenting sinners in Hell, despite His being Merciful, I can hardly understand this…).

2- This is our reply; in return for the absolute religious freedom, there are two consequences that one will have either of them: absolute eternal torment or absolute eternal bliss. Within our relative transient life on earth, people get punished in case they violate the law, or rewarded when they do good acts, based on the fact that freedom entails responsibility. The same we find in the Quranic assertion that the free human soul is responsible for its actions: "…Whoever works evil will pay for it, and will not find for himself, besides God, any protector or savior. But whoever works righteousness, whether male or female, and is a believer-those will enter Paradise, and will not be wronged a whit." (4:123-124).

3- About 1000 Quranic verses assert absolute religious freedom of people and individual responsibility for religious choices/stances: (dis)belief and (dis)obedience. God is the Sole Judge of these choices in the Last Day. The number of verses is equal that describe torment and bliss that will occur as a consequence to absolute religious freedom granted by God to people in fields of creed: belief, acts of worship, preaching, etc.

4- Quranic verses usually assert absolute religious freedom linked to the reward or punishment eternally in the Hereafter. "And say, "The truth is from your Lord. Whoever wills-let him believe. And whoever wills-let him disbelieve". We have prepared for the unjust a Fire, whose curtains will hem them in. And when they cry for relief, they will be relieved with water like molten brass, which scalds the faces. What a miserable drink, and what a terrible place. As for those who believe and lead a righteous life-We will not waste the reward of those who work righteousness. These will have the Gardens of Eden, beneath which rivers flow. Reclining on comfortable furnishings, they will be adorned with bracelets of gold, and will wear green garments of silk and brocade. What a wonderful reward, and what an excellent resting-place." (18:29-31).

5- Prophet Muhammad's sole responsibility was confined to preaching and reminding, and the Quran asserts after this fact another fact: those who disbelieve and deny freely will be punished eternally by God in the Hereafter: "So remind. You are only a reminder. You have no control over them. But whoever turns away and disbelieves. God will punish him with the greatest punishment. To Us is their return. Then upon Us rests their reckoning." (88:21-26).

6- Hence, in the Day of Resurrection, there will be two types of adversaries in creed; one party is believers in God with no other partners, deities, or associates, as the Only God deserving sanctification, the Only Holy One and the Sole Owner of the Last Day, Whom true believers invoke, fear, and implore for mercy and aid. The other party is those who associate mortal deities and partners with God in worship and divinity and sanctity by deifying mortals (messengers, prophets, and the so-called imams, saints, and scholars), tombs/shines, and buildings. Such polytheists assume that mortals sanctified by them intercede on their behalf to God in the Last Day, a blatant lie. It is as if such mortals could control fates of persons in this life and the next! Worship, sanctification, and glorification due to God alone are lessened to add and make room for deified mortals. This is polytheism. Both parties presume being on the right side; yet, such religious differences never allow adversaries to be judges over one another. Justice entails that God alone is the Sole Judge in these matters in the Hereafter, and hence, people are not to judge one another in these matters within this transient existence. About this absolute freedom of religion and its consequences, we read the following verses: "Here are two adversaries feuding regarding their Lord. As for those who disbelieve, garments of fire will be tailored for them, and scalding water will be poured over their heads.  Melting their insides and their skins. And they will have maces of iron.  Whenever they try to escape the gloom, they will be driven back to it: "Taste the suffering of burning." But God will admit those who believe and do good deeds into Gardens beneath which rivers flow. They will be decorated therein with bracelets of gold and pearls, and their garments therein will be of silk." (22:19-23).

7- That is why one is free in misinterpreting, denying, mocking, and distorting meanings of verses of the Quran, bearing responsibility of this before the Almighty in the Day of Resurrection; no one has the right to punish such sinners in this world, suffice it for them the eternal suffering in Hell: "Those who despise Our revelations are not hidden from Us. Is he who is hurled into the Fire better? Or he who arrives safely on the Day of Resurrection? Do as you please; He is Seeing of everything you do." (41:40).

8- Eternal suffering in Hell will never be escaped, evaded, or mitigated by dwellers of Hell; that is why preachers who call for Islam should forgive his adversaries in creed, suffice it for them Hell for eternity. "…The Hour is coming, so forgive with gracious forgiveness." (15:85). "Pardon them, and say, "Peace." They will come to know." (43:89). "Tell those who believe to forgive those who do not hope for the Days of God. He will fully recompense people for whatever they have earned. Whoever does a good deed, it is for his soul; and whoever commits evil, it is against it; then to your Lord you will be returned." (45:14-15).  

9- What we have written above is included in true Islam (the Quran alone), as for earthly, man-made creeds, especially the terrorist Wahabi Sunnite one, we find coercion in matters of religion, the urge to kill whom are deemed apostates or renegades who deny faith, and other irreligious notions, within fabricated hadiths, discussed and refuted by us in our book published in 1993 (following the assassination of the reformer Dr. Farag Fouda in Cairo, Egypt) titled: "Punishment for Apostasy", published here on our website in Arabic and in English. Such falsehoods are the bases of inquisition-like laws in Egypt about the-so called laws against 'contempt' of religion. Such worldly punishments defend earthly, man-made, fabricated dominant creed of the Wahabi Sunnites who are politically overambitious to rule and control people and gain material possessions and wealth. Such laws aim at preventing intellectual discussions/refutations of such fabricated creeds and notions and imposing them on people. This inquisition makes such clergy who impose their notions deny the Last Day of Judgment by making their own judgment courts on earth! Thus, they usurp God's right and role of judgment in the Hereafter by judging and persecuting their adversaries in creed and doctrine within inquisitions foreign to true Islam, within a war waged against God and His Quranic sharia!

10- We have submitted a research to the Egyptian Organization for Human Rights, titled "Freedom of Opinion between Islam and Fanatic Muslims" in 1993, and it is published here on our website. We have submitted a research to The U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom titled "Religious Freedom between Islam and Fanatic Muslims", in 400 pages available for sale on the website amazon.com, and we have asserted in it the fact that there is no ceiling for freedom in Islam (the Quran alone) and that the Sunnites have turned that freedom into fanaticism, bigotry, terror, and coercion in religion. The link to this research in amazon.com is as follows:

http://www.amazon.com /s/ref=nb_sb_noss?url=search-alias%3Daps&fieldkeywords=Religious+freedom+between+Islam+and+fanatic+Muslims

Secondly: more details about absolute religious freedom within Islam:

No coercion in religion:

1- The whole Quranic Chapter 109 is enough to assert this Islamic notion: "Say, "O disbelievers. I do not worship what you worship.Nor do you worship what I worship. Nor do I worship what you worship. Nor do you worship what I worship. You have your way, and I have my way."" (109:1-6). This Quranic Chapter shows that contradictory and different view in religion render different people as accuser of others as heretics, but this does NOT entail necessarily any type of persecution or inquisition of being judgmental; most people think others as not true believers. For instance, we, Quranists, see that our way differs from the rest who sanctify and worship stones and mortals and tombs. Such things and mortals are associated deities with God. "And most of them do not believe in God unless they associate others." (12:106). "That is because when God alone was called upon, you disbelieved; but when others were associated with Him, you believed. Judgment rests with God the Sublime, the Majestic." (40:12). The Quranic Chapter 109 orders Muhammad himself to tolerate nonbelievers and leaving them alone, on equal footing to belief freely in whatever notions they liked, as the same goes for believers in the Quran. Hence, no one is to judge, persecute, or condemn others, leaving the judgment to God alone in the Hereafter. This is equality hinted in 109:6 to both sides: believers and nonbelievers in the Quran.

2- Muhammad is admonished not to coerce others in religion, as he was overzealous to convert others to Islam; God tells him in the Quran that people are born with free will, and he is not to coerce or force any one: "There shall be no compulsion in religion…" (2:256) this verse was revealed in Yathreb, but the next one in Mecca: "Had your Lord willed, everyone on earth would have believed. Will you compel people to become believers?" (10:99).

Legislations of self-defense fighting in the Quran aim to face coercion in religion and religious persecution (fitna):

1- Fitna is a Quranic terminology denoting compulsion in religious maters and religious persecution. This is discernable from the following verse: ''…And persecution (fitna) is more serious than killing. They will not cease to fight you until they turn you back from your religion, if they can…" (2:217). We understand from the Quran itself that the very first aim in self-defensive fighting in the Yathreb city-state ruled by Muhammad was to protect houses of worship of all creeds: "Permission is given to those who are unjustly fought against, and God is Able to give them victory. Those who were unjustly evicted from their homes, merely for saying, "Our Lord is God." Were it not that God repels people by means of others: monasteries, churches, synagogues, and mosques-where the name of God is mentioned much-would have been demolished. God supports whoever supports Him. God is Strong and Mighty." (22:39-40). Hence, fighting here was to deter and combat aggression and persecution suffered by the weak and oppressed who were persecuted for worshipping God. The right of self-defense is asserted to protect houses of worship of all creeds, among other reasons, and this assert the protection of religious freedom and liberty of worship peacefully for all, regardless of creed.

2- Quranic details of fighting those who commit aggression against peaceful believers, to stop religious persecution, or fitna, are found in the following verses. "And fight in the cause of God those who fight you, but do not commit aggression; God does not love the aggressors." (2:190). "And fight them until there is no oppression, and worship becomes devoted to God alone. But if they cease, then let there be no hostility except against the oppressors." (2:193). "Fight them until there is no more persecution, and religion becomes exclusively for God. But if they desist-God is Seeing of what they do." (8:39). When fitna is stopped, persons are free in their religious choices and beliefs, leaving God to judge their religious differences, as religious legislation is His alone.

Guidance or misguidance is a personal and individual responsibility, NOT linked to the State or society:

1- One is free to guide or mislead oneself, bearing the consequences. "Say, "O people, the truth has come to you from your Lord. Whoever accepts guidance is guided for his soul; and whoever strays only strays to its detriment. I am not a guardian over you."" (10:108). "Whoever is guided-is guided for his own good. And whoever goes astray-goes astray to his detriment. No burdened soul carries the burdens of another…" (17:15). "And to recite the Quran." Whoever is guided-is guided to his own advantage. And whoever goes astray, then say, "I am one of the warners."" (27:92). "We sent down upon you the Book for mankind in truth. He who follows guidance does so for the good of his soul. And he who strays in error does so to its detriment. You are not their overseer." (39:41). "Insights have come to you from your Lord. Whoever sees, it is to the benefit of his soul; and whoever remains blind, it is to its detriment. I am not a guardian over you." (6:104). Hence, the State should never undertake the mission to ''guide'' others to Paradise; rather, to achieve justice and to protect religious freedom of all citizens to allow their bearing such responsibility individually in the Last Day.  

2- God asserts what one chooses for oneself: as guidance or misguidance begins with what one chooses, as God does not choose on one's behalf; that is, if one chooses guidance, God will increase such guidance. "God increases in guidance those who accept guidance. And the things that endure-the righteous deeds-have the best reward with your Lord, and the best outcome." (19:76). "As for those who are guided, He increases them in guidance, and He has granted them their righteousness." (47:17). When one chooses misguidance, devils encourage one to go on like that. God asserts that this type of persons is incorrigible: "What of him whose evil deed was made attractive to him, and so he regards it as good? God leads astray whomever He wills, and He guides whomever He wills. Therefore, do not waste yourself sorrowing over them." (35:8). Hence, God misleads the misguided ones when they choose misguidance and guides those who seek guidance with all their might. This is linked directly to the human will. That is why God orders Muhammad in 35:8 not to feel sorry for the misguided ones.

All differences in religion are to be judged by God in the Last Day:

1-God addresses all people in the Quran to determine the definite rules in personal individual responsibility and religious freedom, with Him as the Sole Judge of people in the Last Day. "If you disbelieve, God is Independent of you, yet He does not approve ingratitude on the part of His servants. And if you are thankful, He will approve that in you. No bearer of burden can bear the burden of another. Then to your Lord is your return; and He will inform you of what you used to do. He is aware of what the hearts contain." (39:7). "Say, "Am I to seek a Lord other than God, when He is the Lord of all things?" No soul gets except what it is due, and no soul bears the burdens of another. Then to your Lord is your return, then He will inform you regarding your disputes." (6:164).

2- God is Omniscient and the Creator of all things in the universe, the Only Judge in settling religious differences among people in the Last Day: "Say, "Our God, Initiator of the heavens and the earth, Knower of all secrets and declarations. You will judge between your servants regarding what they had differed about."" (39:46). Hence, inquisitions done by Sunnite Wahabis are inacceptable and abhorrent, deemed as self-deification and usurping God's role and right. One does not have the right to question hearts and beliefs of others, since God is the Eternal Judge of all people: "Whoever invokes another god besides God-he has no proof thereof-his reckoning rests with his Lord. The disbelievers will not succeed." (23:117).

3- Believers should be concerned only with reforming and correcting themselves, leaving nonbelievers alone: "O you who believe! You are responsible for your own souls. He who has strayed cannot harm you if you are guided. To God is you return, all of you, and He will inform you of what you used to do." (5:105).

4- Religious bigotry and fanaticism must cease by replacing them by competing for good and pious deeds, and waiting for God's judgment in the Hereafter: "…Had God willed, He could have made you a single nation, but He tests you through what He has given you. So compete in righteousness. To God is your return, all of you; then He will inform you of what you had disputed." (5:48).

Islamic state allows and makes room for the freedom of disbelief for anyone:

Disbelievers who have other creeds or do not have a creed of any type have absolute freedom to be and do so, on equal footing with believers, as all citizens are equal in rights and duties, since judgment is postponed to the Day of Judgment. This was applied by Muhammad and is commanded in the Quran to him and to real believers. "Say: "O my people, work according to your ability; and so will I. Then you will know. Who will receive a humiliating punishment, and on whom will fall a lasting torment."" (39:39-40). "Say, "O my people! Work according to your ability, and so will I." You will come to know to whom will belong the sequel of the abode." The wrongdoers will not prevail." (6:135). ""O my people, do as you may, and so will I. You will know to whom will come a punishment that will shame him, and who is a liar. So look out; I am on the lookout with you."" (11:93). "And say to those who do not believe, "Act according to your ability; and so will we." "And wait; we too are waiting."" (11:121-122).

No restriction or confiscation to the right to hold any religious opinions:

God mentions in the Quran opinions of disbelievers, though they are blasphemous and insulting; see 5:64, 3:181, 28:38, 7:28, and 79:24. Thus, God might have omitted such views, never telling them to us, as some of them were said in ancient eras before the Quran; yet, they are there to be refuted, not restricted or confiscated. Restrictions, confiscations, and the persecution of writers and their writings is the preferred hobby to clergymen and right-wing politicians. The world witnessed many instances of confiscation of writings in the Middle Ages, and now in the Middle East that still lives in the Middle Ages. This confiscation is contrary to God's mentioning blasphemous words of disbelievers in the Quran to refute them. Eventually, based on this fact, we assert the following points.

1- Any given State should never interfere in any peaceful religious call or preaching; rather, its role is to ensure freedom of expression for all citizens equally. Hence, all laws of restricting such freedom should be annulled, like the so-called law of contempt of religions, in Egypt. Such a law is applied only to protect the Wahabi Sunnite creed from discussion and refutation, whereas other creeds of Egyptians are being daily mocked and derided and their followers are persecuted: Coptic Orthodox Christianity, Shiite creed, and Baha'ism. Even real Islam (i.e., Quranism) is being persecuted and blocked in Egypt, and many Quranists were imprisoned for years in 2001, accused of showing contempt of Islam! The terrorist Wahabi articles in the Egyptian Constitution of 2012 formulated by the terrorist MB members should be annulled, especially article 220 that stipulates that the principles of Islamic sharia includes all fiqh (jurisprudence or theology) notions and fundamental rules considered authoritative in Sunnite doctrines.

2- Absolute freedom of preaching, proselytizing, and call for all citizens, in Egypt and elsewhere, must require that Muslims do it to non-Muslims, Christians do it to non-Christians, Wahabi Sunnites do it to non-Wahabis and non-Sunnites, Shiites do it to non-Shiites, Sufis do it to non-Sufis, Baha'is do it to non-Baha'is, and atheists do it to non-atheists, and so on.

3- Peaceful preaching entails no coercion or compulsion in religion; preaching does NOT mean imposing anything on others. Preachers exhibit and show their creeds, not impose them; such imposition should be punishable by law because it violates religious freedoms.

4- Freedom to preach entails the core of any religious call: to prove others creeds and their followers as wrong. Everyone has the right to consider that one's creed is the right one and those of others are wrong. Even the testimony of Islam, (There is no God but Allah), begins with denying other gods and deities to confine divinity to Allah alone. "There shall be no compulsion in religion; the right way has become distinct from the wrong way. Whoever renounces evil and believes in God has grasped the most trustworthy handle; which does not break. God is Hearing and Knowing." (2:256). Hence, believers in accordance with the Quran deny any other gods and deities to believe in God alone, and others apart from such a notion is deemed disbelievers in the Quran. "Religion with God is Islam (submission)…" (3:19). "Whoever seeks other than Islam as a religion, it will not be accepted from him, and in the Hereafter he will be among the losers." (3:85). Hence, we have the right to preach the notion that disbelievers who deny the Quran will dwell in Hell for eternity, and that those who worship Jesus, Muhammad, the so-called companions, imams, and saints are polytheists. We have the right to preach the notion that the pilgrimage to mausoleums and tombs, including the one in Yathreb ascribed to Muhammad, is a polytheistic practice and those mausoleums are satanic evil deeds. Yet, we do not have the right to impose our views on others; we only have the right to spread ideas, supported by evidence, with no coercion or compulsion to others. Likewise, others have the right to deny the Quran and to say whatever they like about it and about Muhammad, with or without citing evidence, proofs, or even falsehoods. The Baha'is have the right to refute other creeds, and the same right is given to Christians, and so on. The reason: all of us will stand before the Almighty God in the Last Day to judge and settle all differences. Hence, the right to preach freely and refute other creeds should be granted, but without compulsion or coercion of others to convert. Hence, there is no punishment, by death or imprisonment or persecution, to those who convert to other creeds and leaving the ones they inherited. Such punishments are applied by the Shiites and the Sunnites, and formerly in the Middle Ages Catholics. Hence freedom of preaching and proselytizing should be unrestrained at all as long as there is no persecution and compulsion.

5- Freedom to preach makes room for alternatives and choices for all citizens without ceiling. For instance, if anyone chooses freely to convert to Christianity/Islam and leave Christianity/Islam, one is free to do so, leaving judgment to God alone. There should be no hindrance before a convert, and there is no need for a certificate from any institution like the Church of Al-Azhar. Real Islam in the Quran acknowledges and urges no institutions or clergymen at all in the first place. The same freedom applies to those who convert to Sufism, Shiite creed, Baha'ism, Satanism, etc. and even atheism. All of us are individually responsible for one's choices.

6- Another result from freedom of conversion and preaching is to liberate oneself from the authority of the worst type of human beings: clergymen. Clergymen of all creeds appoint themselves as mediators between humankind and God, and they manipulate spiritual leadership to achieve venal and political ambitions: to reach the highest levels possible of power, authority, and wealth. Hence, religious freedom raises the awareness of citizens within a given nation and paves the way to purify the political field from religious frauds that trade with religious notions as mottoes to deceive people. Hence, political competition would be among those who serve people better and respect their freedoms, especially regarding religious choices. Freedom of religion equally to all citizens will result in real liberty of thought, resulting in turn in the least possible amount of myths and falsehoods to encourage people to criticize and refute worship of mortals and stones and to mock religious myths sanctified because they are ancient falsehoods formerly feared to be criticized and refuted.

7- Being adversaries in religion simply means to hold different opinions, leaving final judgment to God. Everyone has the right to preach any opinions with cited evidence, but one must leave judgment to God eventually, and such opinions must be ascribed to oneself, NOT to God or Islam. God will judge our opinions, right or wrong. Our adversaries have the right to  mock/refute our opinions, and we are to leave judgment to God as well. This is justice among adversaries in creeds. All followers of all creeds, including atheism, have the right of self-expression concerning all creeds. Thus comes the link between justice and freedom.

8- It is strange that the Quran advocates such absolute freedom of thought and religion 14 centuries ago, whereas the West applies in in the 20th century and Wahabis and their likes deny such rights to all people! In the USA, preaching Islam goes on unhindered, and coverts to Islam are not persecuted, because no one interferes with personal freedom. Even some persons buy churches to turn them into mosques, helped in such endeavors by American Christians. We say this based on first-hand experience. Yet, Sunnite Wahabi mosques in the USA never allow the entrance of Shiites! In the Middle East, it is a crime punishable by law to preach Christianity among Muslims! They understand wrongly that freedom is one-direction way; to convert from Christianity to Islam and NOT the vice versa! Even converts to Islam who like to return to their former creeds, Christian or not, are punished by imprisonments or being killed as apostates, as we have written before in detail in several articles published on our website.

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

Chapter 4: The fourth principle of the Islamic sharia: justice          

 

Firstly: justice as the aim and purpose of all celestial divine messages:

1- Justice, as per the Quran, is the paramount aim of all divine messages/scriptures sent by God via messengers and prophets. "We sent Our messengers with the clear proofs, and We sent down with them the Book and the Balance, that humanity may uphold justice. And We sent down iron, in which is violent force, and benefits for humanity. That God may know who supports Him and His messengers invisibly. God is Strong and Powerful." (57:25). Any human society or community should achieve justice, as this value is the core of all celestial messages of all eras. The divine religion urges all humanity to apply justice via cooperation of all individuals or citizens equally, including men and women and the rich and the poor. If this does not materialize, as tyrannical rule of injustice remains and prevails, iron is to be of use as per 57:25. This means that it is legal and just to orchestrate armed revolt against tyrannies and unjust ones so as to apply justice and lend victory to this core value of God's religion, as God knows who really support and advocate application of justice. Tyrants do not cede power using wisdom and paying heeds to preaching and admonishment; they have to use terror, oppression, suppression, and torture to remain in power, protecting themselves with countless corrupt laws and countless arms and weapons. This is repeated countless times in human history. Yet, the basis of confronting and facing tyrants remains to spread and raise awareness among people that freedom and justice are the essence of the celestial source of the religion of Islam (the Quran alone). If tyrants do not respond to that, armed resistance should come in handy, as we deduct from 57:25 and its reference to iron.  

2- That is why application of justice is an application to divine sharia or legislation, as justice is the core and essence of the celestial religion given from God since Noah until Muhammad in the Quran, as the last divine message from God to humankind. The divine messages in all eras were rejected by all tyrants and all the unjust. "He prescribed for you the same religion He enjoined upon Noah, and what We inspired to you, and what We enjoined upon Abraham, and Moses, and Jesus: "You shall uphold the religion, and be not divided therein." As for the idolaters, what you call them to is outrageous to them. God chooses to Himself whom He wills, and He guides to Himself whoever repents." (42:13). Thus, by applying justice and religious freedom for all equally, no divisions that might threat society could occur, as no one controls anyone, and everyone gets due rights in this life, whereas differences in religious views are postponed until divine judgment in the Hereafter.

Secondly: types of justice:

Justice in dealing with God:

 Justice in relation to God means to believe in Him as One God the Omnipotent Creator of all things, with no peers, associates, or partners among other deities and mortals. Polytheism is described in the Quran as grave injustice: "…polytheism is a terrible injustice" (31:13). Admittedly, this topic is differs from one person to another, judged eternally and eventually by God in the Last Day, and this is fair and square. The reason: all of us hold different views about divinity, beliefs, creeds, etc., and believers of any doctrine, creed, or denomination think that they own absolute truth and accuse others of being heretics. It is unjust to be judge on one's adversaries in creed, as all humans are adversaries in creed, or in lack of it. hence, it is just that God is the Only Judge of such differences in the Last Day of Judgment.

Justice in dealing with environment:

1- Justice in dealing with one's environment is urged within the contemplation of the Quranic term ''balance'', which refers to fair dealings with everything. This means in our modern parlance and culture the natural balance as the basis of creation in the universe as well as the basis of divine messages and judgment in the Last Day. Details are found below.

2- Concerning creation of the universe as per precise balance, God says in the Quran: "And the sky, He raised; and He set up the balance. So do not transgress in the balance. But maintain the weights with justice, and do not violate the balance." (55:7-9). Hence, heaven above us, with its celestial bodies and atmosphere strata, is created based on precise minute scientific system of balance, and human beings are not to transgress, meddle, and interfere in such balance; otherwise, corruption ensues. This goes for life among human beings, when justice is lost when they are dealing with one another. That is why God in 55:7-9 links natural balance to justice in dealing with people.

3- The divine balance is manifested in the creation of physical matter in all sorts from nuclei to galaxies as well as in all branches of natural sciences. Let us be reminded of the following verses: "It is He who made the sun radiant, and the moon a light, and determined phases for it-that you may know the number of years and the calculation…" (10:5). "It is He Who breaks the dawn. And He made the night for rest, and the sun and the moon for calculation" (6:96). "We spread the earth, and placed stabilizers in it, and in it We grew all things in proper measure." (15:19). "There is not a thing but with Us are its stores, and We send it down only in precise measure." (15:21).

4- Such precise balance in living and non-living creatures entails never corrupting it so as not to disturb the natural balance. The celestial book of God, the Quran, is also the balance of justice; see 57:25, where the Book is linked to balance, aiming at achieving justice by and to people. Hence the Book, i.e. the Quran, is the balance to measure one's dealing with God, with oneself, with others, and with one's environment.

5- Because the balance is one and the same in all celestial messages, their essence is the same to all prophets and messengers of God. Hence, the divine message is a book, as the Quran in Islam, not a Sunna, fiqh, or hadiths that fill thousands of books written by persons. Since the divine celestial messages have but one clear message, (There is no God but Allah), and assert values of justice, freedom, and mercy, God makes all divine messages concise in one book, the Quran, with justice as its essence. God orders us in the Quran to perform justice and charity, the latter term meaning to pardon those who trespassed against us, and this value is higher than justice: "God commands justice, and goodness, and generosity towards relatives. And He forbids immorality, and injustice, and oppression. He advises you, so that you may take heed." (16:90). God commands Muhammad to tell People of the Book (i.e., probably the Jews in Yathreb) the following: "…I believe in whatever Book God has sent down, and I was commanded to judge between you equitably…" (42:15). The Quran is the last divine message until the End of Days, and so, it is preserved as the balance, measure tool, criterion, and yard stick. "It is God who revealed the Book with the truth, and the Balance. And what will make you realize that perhaps the Hour is near?" (42:17). Hence, the Quran is linked to the Truth and the Balance. The Quranic term ''truth'' means veracity, justice, and refers to the Quran itself, as a book, in other contexts. All previous books of God before the Quran are described in the Quran as the Truth and the Balance.

6- In the Day of Judgment, deeds of people will be weighed justly in the divine balance based on atoms or the minutest unit: "We will set up the scales of justice for the Day of Resurrection, so that no soul will suffer the least injustice. And even if it be the weight of a mustard-seed, We will bring it up. Sufficient are We as Reckoners. " (21:47). Deeds of people will be measured and weighed against the divine book, which is the measure stick or criterion to be used by oneself to judge things in a believer's life, as we deduce from the following verses. "The scales on that Day will be just. Those whose weights are heavy-it is they who are the successful. But as for those whose weights are light-it is they who have lost their souls, because they used to mistreat Our revelations." (7:8-9). Hence, verses of the Quran is the balance in our lives and later on in the Hereafter juxtaposed against the book of one's deeds, when one will be judged justly in the Last Day. Hence, justice is to be taken always into consideration in dealing with God, with people, and with our environment.

7- Corruption is against justice, and if corruption reigns supreme and prevalent in human relations, environment is corrupted as well. This is hinted in the Quranic story of a prophet named Shuaib, when he admonished his people who used to cheat others in balancing goods, as this corruption will lead to more forms of corruption; see 7:85 and 11:85. Hence, God links corruption to corrupt relations among people first: "Corruption has appeared on land and sea, because of what people's hands have earned, in order to make them taste some of what they have done, so that they might return." (30:41). It has been known in Egypt, during Mubarak's era, that stock-taking season to count goods in storehouses was the time when storehouses and buildings were set to fire. This crime of arson used to cover up corruptions and stealing; thieves used to destroy the environment after committing the crime of theft.

8- Accordingly, justice is the core and essence of Islam (the Quran), sharia legislations, creation of the whole universe, and eventually, the basis of reckoning and judgment in the Last Day. That is why God asserts the one and true testimony of Islam: "God bears witness that there is no god but He, as do the angels, and those endowed with knowledge-upholding justice. There is no god but He, the Mighty, the Wise." (3:18). God here links the testimony of Islam to justice. It is unjust toward God to add words to this testimony by adding the name of Muhammad, setting him as a deity beside God high above and apart from the  rest of prophets and messengers and the rest of human beings in a dual testimony phrasing that contradicts 3:18.

Justice with people:

1- It is unjust to remove equality between Muslims and non-Muslims within one country; we, Quranists, refuse the notion of dhimmitude, as it is never mentioned in the Quran nor applied by Muhammad in the city-state of Yathreb. Such  terms are concocted and fabricated by ancient fiqh (theology) scholars during the Middle Ages, after conquering several empires and countries and persecuting their original non-Arab peoples, forcing them to pay tributes annually, contrast to Quranic commands of justice to all people.

2- Justice in dealing with people is applied when one deals justly and fairly with all people: Muslims and non-Muslims, kinsmen and strangers, Arabs and non-Arabs, friends and foes. That is why justice is urged to be verified and asserted in the Quran in all things; for instance, in keeping one wife: "…But if you fear you will not be fair, then one…" (4:3). another example in fairness with kinsmen and relatives, among the Quranic Ten Commandments: "…And when you speak, be fair, even if it concerns a close relative…" (6:152). "O you who believe ! Stand firmly for justice, as witnesses to God, even if against yourselves, or your parents, or your relatives. Whether one is rich or poor, God takes care of both. So do not follow your desires, lest you swerve…" (4:135). The divine command here is addressed to believers to apply justice, even in bearing witnesses about themselves and relatives, while avoiding whims and desires that might lead to injustice. Justice is urged in dealing fairly with foes, even when animosity exists: "O you who believe! Be upright to God, witnessing with justice; and let not the hatred of a certain people prevent you from acting justly. Adhere to justice, for that is nearer to piety…" (5:8). Enmity does not justify any sort of injustices, we discern here. In another verse, believers are urged to deal charitably and fairly with non-believers in the Quran who are peaceful and non-aggressors who do not persecute believers: "As for those who have not fought against you for your religion, nor expelled you from your homes, God does not prohibit you from dealing with them kindly and equitably. God loves the equitable." (60:8). That is why we assert that peaceful Copts of Egypt, whose history is filled with being persecuted and patience with such a condition, preferring martyrdom to resistance, are the ones who are in dire need for charity and justice of Muslims; those who commit aggression against them deserve the curse and punishment of God.

3- justice is urged n the Quran as well concerning trade dealings, markets, writing debts, dealing with orphans, litigation and judging, bearing witness …etc. see 2:282, 6:152, 2:127, 4:58, 42:15, 65:2, and 49:9.    

Justice in politics:

1- Political justice is direct democracy as explained above, exercised equally by all citizens in a given country, with no one superior over the other. God is the Only Superior One. In the Islamic city-state of Yathreb of Muhammad, the only one deemed Islamic by Quranists, there were no royal emirs or monarchs or caliphs with honorifics used in addressing them in a deifying, hateful manner. Such honorifics were used in the Middle Ages to assert injustice and tyranny within laws allowing mortals to rise above the rest of mortals, in contrast to God's sharia laws in the Quran that urge equality of all human beings as the very first step of justice application.   Such honorifics and high statures and positions suited theocracies in the Middle Ages and in our modern times in many countries, alongside with their earthly, man-made, and fabricated creeds. To call the head of Al-Azhar institution in Cairo, Egypt, the grand imam of all Muslims is deemed remnants of Middle-Ages theocracies in Egyptian history. This horrific title of ''grand imam'' sets the head of the institution as above Muhammad himself. The same insult is being perpetuated in honorific titles used by the Shiites, like Ayatollah! We deem this as blasphemy against God who ordains justice and equality among people, not differentiation among them using falsehoods and erroneous notions ascribed to creeds.

2- In the Islamic state or country, experts who have knowledge in certain specializations serve citizens with their expertise, and they are liable to be questioned, rewarded, and punished. This is the norm in democracies of the West. Within Islam, Muhammad was not distinguished as a leader/ruler in Yathreb in comparison to its dwellers, concerning being questioned and held responsible, despite his receiving divine revelation. People used to call prophets and messengers of God by their first names with no surnames or honorific titles; see 2:55, 2:61, 5:22, and 5:112. Even in invoking and imploring God in prayers, people use the pronoun ''you''. "…You are our Lord and Master, so help us against the disbelieving people." (2:286). "…You are our Protector, so forgive us, and have mercy on us. You are the Best of Forgivers." (7:155). "…You are my Protector in this life and in the Hereafter. Receive my soul in submission, and unite me with the righteous." (12:101). "…There is no God but You! Glory to You! I was one of the wrongdoers!" (21:87). "They will say, "Be You glorified; You are our Master, not them…" (34:41). Whereas if one addresses ecclesiastic clergymen of Sunnites and Shiites with the pronoun ''you'' with no honorifics, one is doomed for punishment!

Justice in wealth: (social justice and solidarity):

 Resources in earth are to be for all humanity equally, in accordance with equal opportunity principle. This is deduced from the following verse: "He placed stabilizers over it; and blessed it; and planned its provisions in four days, equally to the seekers." (41:10). This means that those who seek such resources with hard work would find them and profit by them, for the welfare of humanity. God created us different in degrees of talents, abilities, and traits, and hence the differences in financial statuses. This is among tests of life to all people: "God has favored some of you over others in livelihood…" (16:71). Hence, we understand the repetitive commands within Islamic legislations in the Quran to care for the poor, the weak, the ill, the impoverished, the impecunious, relatives, orphans, poor travellers, and the helpless. This shows that Quranic legislations aim at achieving social justice.

Thirdly: between relativity and absoluteness of justice in terms of application:

1- Absolute justice entails something impossible for human beings; judges ought to know the contents of the hearts and minds of witnesses, defendants, lawyers, etc. to verify justice and truth, if laws urge them in deed. That is why absolute truth cannot be realized in life; rather, it will be in the Last Day, performed by God alone, the Almighty and the Omniscient. "The Day when they will emerge, nothing about them will be concealed from God.  "To whom does the sovereignty belong today?" "To God, the One, the Irresistible." On that Day, every soul will be recompensed for what it had earned. There will be no injustice on that Day. God is quick to settle accounts. And warn them of the Day of Imminence, when the hearts are at the throats, choking them. The evildoers will have no intimate friend, and no intercessor to be obeyed. He knows the deceptions of the eyes, and what the hearts conceal. God judges with justice…" (40:16-20).

2- If absolute justice is impossible in this transient world, we need to achieve as much justice as e, humans, can within our means and potential. This requires piety and righteousness in the first place, or conscience in our modern parlance. Those who create legislations within human laws should have a just conscience, and the same goes to all people in courts. Justice is the keyword in Islam: the Quran, and should be so in minds of every Muslim.

3- Piety and righteousness are linked to the inner recesses of one's heart and mind; that is why balance of justice is very precise, if justice is done 99% and not 100%, this is unjust judgment due to 1% injustice based on whims and caprices: "But as for the unjust, they will be firewood for Hell." (72:15). Just people deserve the love of God: "…God loves the equitable." (5:45, 49:9, and 60:8). We see that this is asserted and repeated three times in the Quranic text. The pious believers should work hard to achieve such a status with God: would they side with justice wholeheartedly or not? Would they like to be hated or be loved by Him? "Among us are those who are submitting, and among us are the unjust. As for those who have submitted, it is they who pursue rectitude. But as for the unjust, they will be firewood for Hell."  (72:14-15).


 

Chapter 5: The fifth principle of the Islamic sharia: Peace                

 

Firstly: meaning of peace:

Islam means in terms of faith in one's heart and mind to obey and to submit to God alone. This language of the heart is universal among all human beings, on which judgment in the Last Day will be based. No human being has the right to judge another human being's faith, or lack of it; this is self-deification, as if one is playing the role of God. The Quran asserts postponement of such judgment, by God alone, to the Last Day; see 2:113, 3:55, 10:93, 16:124, 5:48, 39:3, 39:7, and 39:46.

2- As for the meaning of Islam in terms of demeanor, it is peaceful behavior seen and felt by all others around us, regardless of their faiths. "O you who believe! Enter into peace, wholeheartedly, and do not follow the footsteps of the Devil; he is to you an outright enemy." (2:208). God here urges us to retain peace in our lives. Peace is one of the Holy Epithets of God in the Quran, and the terms used in greetings among Muslims: salaam! (i.e. peace!). this is the Islamic assertion of peace, in the Quran, as a way of life to all real believers.

3- Any human beings who achieve peace in terms of behavior in dealing with all people and never commit violence or aggression, and then to couple this with faith in God alone with no other deities, submitting to His will and obeying and worshiping Him wholeheartedly with all their might, such persons deserve peace of God in the Last Day; see 15:46, 6:127, 13:24, 10:10, and 36:58.

Secondly: concepts of disbelief and polytheism in the Quran:

1- Disbelief and polytheism are synonymous in Quranic terms and contexts; see, for instance, 9:1-2, 9:17, and 40:42.

2- The Arabic term for disbelief is Kufr, which means literally to cover, in Arabic and in English. We do belief that the English verb and noun ''cover'' is derived from the Arabic root k/f/r. Another old meaning for disbeliever (Kafir, in Arabic) is peasant and its plural for (Kuffar) means peasants, who literally cover plants with water and soil to grow them. This agricultural meaning we discern from 57:20 in the Quran. God created human beings with innate feelings and instincts that revere no one save God Almighty; see 30:30, but the social environment with its inherited notions and quasi-religious traditional concepts cover this pure innate instinct with the falsehoods of saints, deities, and mortal 'holy' ones ascribed to God unjustly, under the pretest that they help people draw nearer to God as intercessors or mediators. This is deemed as disbelief (cover: Kufr) and at the same time polytheism as one ascribe divinity and holiness to mortals, books, and things beside God Our Creator. There is little true faith within polytheism, due to partners and deities ascribed to God, leading to very little percentage of sanctification and worship to God alone. The reason: a big percentage of faith is divided among sanctified things and mortals, dead or alive. that is why God in the Quran describes the vast majority of people as polytheists who do not believe in God except along with other gods and deities; see 12:106. This is faith lacking in purity and sincerity due to polytheism, synonymous to or tantamount to unbelief, leading to Hell in the Hereafter if one does not repent. God warns us against ascribing partners to Him in divinity; see 40:12. This little faith in God is discarded and rejected by God, as we read in 4:46, and will be of no use to people in the Last Day; see 32:29.

3- Anyway, polytheism and disbelief means together injustice and aggression; see 31:13. It is injustice toward God Almighty to ascribe gods and deities to Him in faith and creed and worship. Kufr (disbelief) in Islam is also aggression and violence toward peaceful people, with transgressions and crimes like killings, murder, oppression, suppression, persecution, tyranny, restriction of rights of any kind, especially liberties like freedom of thought and belief. Hence, unjust and aggressive people who violate rights of others are nonbelievers and disbelievers, as per the Quran, regardless of these people's faith in heart and overt manifestation of it, as this is linked to God's judgment in the Last Day. we have the right to judge behaviors and demeanors, especially crimes, oppression, aggressions, and transgressions against others who are peaceful.

4- Accordingly, Islam has two meanings: 1) obedience and submission to God in faith, and 2) peaceful dealings with all people. Disbelief or polytheism has two meanings that come under the umbrella term ''injustice'': 1) to ascribe partners, deities, and associates to God by revering and sanctifying things, locations, books, and mortals, and 2) to confiscate rights of people and oppress them by acts of violence, aggression, transgression, and suppression. God is the Sole Judge of faiths of people in the Hereafter, whereas people have the right to judge demeanors and behaviors, good or evil. We say that evil, wrong, and bad deeds of injustice and aggression are deemed as disbelief in terms of behavior, while peaceful deeds and dealings are deemed to be belief in terms of demeanor, regardless of one's faith or creed. Hence, disbelieving polytheists are the criminal terrorists who commit their atrocities and violence and the tyrants who oppress their citizens with injustices.

5- Polytheism and disbelief are linked to injustice in the Quranic context. Injustice is described in the Quran about 200 times, to make us know exactly what constitutes injustice in all aspects. Polytheism and disbelief are linked to aggressions and transgressions in the Quranic context several times, and God prohibits injustice and tyranny, and He ascribes both in the Quran to polytheists.

Thirdly: peace as a principle in the Islamic sharia:

  The peace principle in sharia described in the Quran is linked directly to the other remaining principles, like freedom, justice, and equality, and to other divine commands in the Quran. We give an example of that related to the Quranic prohibition of killing innocent people to assert this point as follows.

Details of retribution in crimes of killing/murder in light of the meaning of peace in the Quran:

 Retribution is inherently clear in self-defensive fighting ordered in the following verse: "And fight in the cause of God those who fight you, but do not commit aggression; God does not love the aggressors." (2:190), and overtly clear in the following verse: "The sacred month for the sacred month; and sacrilege calls for retaliation. Whoever commits aggression against you, retaliate against him in the same measure as he has committed against you. And be conscious of God, and know that God is with the righteous." (2:194), but this entails more explanation as follows.

1- In the Islamic city-state in Yathreb led by Muhammad, all peaceful citizens are believers in terms of behavior, regardless of their faiths. This is the meaning of Islam in terms of overt demeanor, as we have explained above. All aggressors are disbelievers even if they claim to believe in the Quran, because they use God's religion to kill, murder, and massacre the innocent and to compel and coerce others in matters of religion, as done now by Wahabis of our era. Commands of fighting in the Quran are for reasons of self-defense against aggressors only who attack peaceful believers. Hence, true believers never begin fighting and are never aggressive unless to defend themselves when attacked first, because they know God dislikes aggressors; see 2:190. When they fight aggressors in self-defense, they know that God hates aggressors whom are deemed disbelievers, as per the Quran, due to their violent, non-peaceful behavior, not to their faith: "…You are our Lord and Master, so help us against the disbelieving people." (2:286).

2- Hence, all peaceful people are believers in this Islamic city-state, even if they are non-Muslims, and that is why God warns believers, who retain peace, against the Devil that urges violations of rights and violence and transgressions against others, especially the right to live: "O you who believe! Enter into submission, wholeheartedly, and do not follow the footsteps of the Devil; he is to you an outright enemy." (2:208). Disbelief in the Quran does NOT hinder one to be described as believer who sticks to peace and to non-violence. Because religious freedom is responsibility of one before God alone,  not to any other human being. Islamic state should never interfere in one's tenets or notions of faith. That is why God has called these believers, in the sense of adhering to peaceful behavior, to believe in the Quran/Islam as well: "O you who believe! Believe in God and His messenger, and the Book He sent down to His messenger, and the Book He sent down before. Whoever rejects God, His angels, His Books, His messengers, and the Last Day, has strayed far in error." (4:136). This verse is addressed to believers in peace behavior, not in faith. This verse was among the earlier verses revealed in Yathreb, as some of its dwellers kept worshiping idols. Among the last verses revealed in Yathreb and the Quran as a whole, the following: "O you who believe! Intoxicants, gambling, idolatry, and divination are abominations of Satan's doing. Avoid them, so that you may prosper." (5:90). This verse refers to a fact intentionally ignored in religious discourses: some of the so-called companions or contemporaries of Muhammad, apart from the hypocrites, kept drinking and gambling and worshipping tombs/shrines until shortly before Muhammad's death. The Quranic command here is to avoid them, not to demolish shrines. Such addition to bad habits prohibited in the Quran means that they were believers in the sense of peaceful behavior, not faith yet, and hence we find this divine warning to them in the following verse as well: "The Devil wants to provoke strife and hatred among you through intoxicants and gambling, and to prevent you from the remembrance of God, and from prayer. Will you not desist?" (5:91). The last question here asserts their polytheism in terms of faith, but they had religious freedom as long as they are peaceful. In sum, God warns them concerning faith, with NO obligation or coercion imposed on them of any type, as Muhammad had but one mission to convey God's message: "Obey God and obey the Messenger, and be cautious. If you turn away-know that the duty of Our Messenger is clear communication." (5:92).

3- Hence, in this city-state of Islam, peace was the cornerstone; bloodshed and violence had to be avoided at any cost to its citizens and to outside attackers as well, if possible. That is why it had to be a strong city-state to deter aggressors and preserve peace: "And prepare against them all the power you can muster and all the cavalry you can mobilize, to terrify thereby God's enemies and your enemies…" (8:60). This deterring would stop bloodshed to both early Muslims and their enemies as well.

4- In case aggressors stopped their aggression, Muslims should stop fighting them, as self-defensive war is required only in cases of attacking: "But if they cease, then God is Forgiving and Merciful. And fight them until there is no oppression, and worship becomes devoted to God alone. But if they cease, then let there be no hostility except against the oppressors." (2:192-193). God will forgive oppressors if they return to peace and cease their aggressions: "Say to those who disbelieve: if they desist, their past will be forgiven. But if they persist-the practice of the ancients has passed away. Fight them until there is no more persecution, and religion becomes exclusively for God. But if they desist-God is Seeing of what they do." (8:38-39).

5- If aggressors stop and incline to peace, believers should accept peace, trusting God as peace-lovers, even if the aggressors offering peace is deceitful: "But if they incline towards peace, then incline towards it, and put your trust in God. He is the Hearer, the Knower.If they intend to deceive you-God is sufficient for you. It is He who supported you with His aid, and with the believers." (8:61-62). All forces of peace-lovers should unite against evil aggressors to prevent religious persecution and to end corruption: "As for those who disbelieve, they are allies of one another. Unless you do this, there will be persecution in the land, and much corruption." (8:73).

6- In case of fighting wars and battles, those who hand over themselves as POWs should be secured with peace as they have stopped aggression: "And if anyone of the polytheists asks you for protection, give him protection so that he may hear the Word of God; then escort him to his place of safety. That is because they are a people who do not know." (9:6) "When you encounter those who disbelieve, strike at their necks. Then, when you have routed them, bind them firmly. Then, either release them by grace, or by ransom, until war lays down its burdens…" (47:4).

7- POWs during battles who resort to peace and stop aggression are NOT to be killed, as per divine command in the following verse: "" (4:94). That is why it is unthinkable that one peaceful believer would kill another peaceful believer unless in manslaughter; without intention "" (4:92), as intentionally doing so is punished in Hell for eternity: "" (4:93).

 

 

 

 


 

Chapter 6: The sixth principle of the Islamic sharia: The right to live                                                                                                      

 This principle is related to the right to preserve and protect human life of innocents who did not kill, as linked to Islam, the religion of mercy.

Firstly: Wahabism, the terrorist creed of cruelty and aggression:

1- Cruelty, savagery, bloodshed, massacres, and atrocities were committed by the Brothers of Najd who helped Abdul-Aziz Al-Saud to establish the KSA. Al-Saud sent his agents of Wahabism to Egypt to convert Egyptians (who were in the early 1920s mostly moderate Sunnites and Sufis) into Salafism (exact synonymous term of Wahabism). The so-called Sharia Society in Cairo turned from Sufism into Wahabism via such Wahabi agents. Later on the Wahabi agent sheikh Hamid Al-Fiqi established in Cairo Ansar Al-Sunna Society (i.e., supporters of traditions ascribed to Muhammad) to propagate Wahabi thought under the name Salafism (because the term Wahabism was and still is hated in Egypt) to replace Sunnite Sufism, aided by sheikh Rashid Reda, the primary agent of Al-Saud in Egypt at the time who helped create a semi-military militia named Muslim Youths. Among the brilliant youths of that militia was Hassan Al-Banna, who created the terrorist MB group in 1928 to engage into politics manipulating Wahabism propagated by other agents. The terrorist MB group managed until recently to show their terror along with militias and movements branched from them. They committed atrocities of assassinations and terrorist actions and crimes since the 1940s until now. The usual MB policy is to hypocritically appear as innocent peaceful ones when they are weak, but once they get power and authority, they show their tendency to bloodshed, terrorism, and crimes of all sorts: murder, theft, rape, assassination, torture, confiscations of possessions unjustly, and we hear recently of fornication as a form of jihad!

2- Such terrorism, crimes, and hypocrisy under the pretext of faith, the Wahabi one which the misled ones assume it is Islam, remind us with God's description of hypocrites in the Quran who feign being believers in faith, but they are conspiring corruptors: "Among the people are those who say, "We believe in God and in the Last Day," but they are not believers. They seek to deceive God and those who believe, but they deceive none but themselves, though they are not aware. In their hearts is sickness, and God has increased their sickness. They will have a painful punishment because of their denial. In fact, they are the troublemakers, but they are not aware. And when it is said to them, "Believe as the people have believed," they say, "Shall we believe as the fools have believed?" In fact, it is they who are the fools, but they do not know. And when they come across those who believe, they say, "We believe"; but when they are alone with their devils, they say, "We are with you; we were only ridiculing." It is God who ridicules them, and leaves them bewildered in their transgression. Those are they who have bartered error for guidance; but their trade does not profit them, and they are not guided." (2:8-16). The terrorist MB group members follow the footsteps of Jews described in the Quran as sinners and disobedient to God among the Israelites. Jews of Yathreb used to conspire against Muhammad, and God warns believers against them, as they ascribe falsehoods and lies to God, and it was easy for them as consequence to deceive early Muslims: "Then after that your hearts hardened. They were as rocks, or even harder. For there are some rocks from which rivers gush out, and others that splinter and water comes out from them, and others that sink in awe of God. God is not unaware of what you do. Do you hope that they will believe in you, when some of them used to hear the Word of God, and then deliberately distort it, even after understanding it?" (2:74-76).  It is the same procession of hypocrisy, deceit, double-standards, and hardened hearts of the terrorist MB members, and that is why God warns believers against following the footsteps of the hypocrites especially amongst the Jews: "Is it not time for those who believe to surrender their hearts to the remembrance of God, and to the truth that has come down, and not be like those who were given the Book previously, but time became prolonged for them, so their hearts hardened, and many of them are sinners?" (57:16).

3- The terrorist MB claim they do acts of worship and utter before cameras religious terms; yet, we can say that they will never receive the mercy of God, due to their history of bloodshed that goes on until recently in Egypt and elsewhere, registered in video. Such violence and crimes of terror are against Islam in the Quran, the religion of mercy.

Secondly: Islam the religion of mercy:

1- The Merciful is among the divine epithets or names of God, linked to other epithets/names as we read in the Quranic Chapter two: "Your God is one God. There is no God but He, the Merciful, the Compassionate." (2:163), "…He is the Relenting, the Merciful." (2:37), "…You are the Acceptor of Repentance, the Merciful." (2:128), "…I am the Acceptor of Repentance, the Merciful." (2:160), "…God is Kind towards the people, Merciful." (2:143), "…God is Forgiving and Merciful." (2:173), "…God is Forgiving and Merciful." (2:182), "But if they cease, then God is Forgiving and Merciful." (2:192), "…God is Most Forgiving, Most Merciful." (2:199), "…Those look forward to God's mercy. God is Forgiving and Merciful." (2:218), and "…But if they reconcile-God is Forgiving and Merciful." (2:226).

2- God's mercy is not for sinners and criminals, but for the pious and charitable ones: "…God's mercy is close to the charitable doers of good." (7:56), and "…My mercy encompasses all things. I will specify it for those who act righteously and practice regular charity, and those who believe in Our signs." (7:156). God will be Merciful and Forgiving to those who have repented: "…Our Lord, You have encompassed everything in mercy and knowledge; so forgive those who repent and follow Your path, and protect them from the agony of Hell." (40:7). The Quran was revealed as the last divine message that contains cure and mercy to those who seek faith and the righteous path of piety, and it contains as well loss and grief to those who seek to manipulate its verses in wrongdoing and mischief to reach wealth, power, and authority: "We send down in the Quran healing and mercy for the believers, but it increases the wrongdoers only in loss." (17:82).

3- "We did not send you except as mercy to humankind." (21:107):

 Of course, terrorist Wahabis under many names with their committed atrocities, massacres, and other crimes, ascribed and justified falsely in the name of Islam, have made Islam a source of terror, not mercy, to human beings! People tend to forget that legislations of fighting in the Quran are for the aim of self-defense and stopping persecution, which assert the peaceful aspect of Islam, as we have written a lot before. Yet, bloodshed done in modern times in the name of 'jihad' overwhelms all meanings and effaces right interpretations of the Quran. The real enemies of Islam, Wahabis, are called in Arab and West media as 'Islamists', a false name that is insulting to Islam and tarnishing its name, while Quranists are dubbed deniers of Sunna and haters of hadiths. We, Quranists, believe that the real tradition of Muhammad is found in the Quran itself; we do not believe in the so-called hadiths, as such sayings are ascribed to Muhammad falsely and never uttered by him, and such hadiths tarnish Islam, as we discern from the Quran that is a religion of justice, peace, mercy, and freedom. A painful contrast to 21:107 to view YouTube and TV videos depicting atrocities and massacres of terrorist Wahabis, who call themselves jihadists, while they shout 'Allahu Akbar!' (i.e., Allah is the Greatest!). The verse 21:107 asserts a warning to those who despair from God's mercy: "He said, "And who despairs of his Lord's mercy but the lost?"" (15:56). God in the Quran calls every sinner to repent in their lifetimes to obtain His mercy: "Say, "O My servants who have transgressed against themselves: do not despair of God's mercy, for God forgives all sins. He is indeed the Forgiver, the Clement."" (39:53).

Real tradition of Muhammad is mercy and charity:

1- Muhammad was the personification and embodiment of mercy as per 21:107, as he conveyed the Quran to people to proclaim the mercy of Our Lord. We discern his real character in this verse: "It is by of grace from God that you were gentle with them. Had you been harsh, hardhearted, they would have dispersed from around you. So pardon them, and ask forgiveness for them, and consult them in the conduct of affairs. And when you make a decision, put your trust in God; God loves the trusting." (3:159). This means he was kind-hearted and merciful toward others around him in his lifetime, and he used to forgive those who insult him, calling him a mere ear, as the divine revelation defends him: "And among them are those who insult the Prophet, and say, "He is all ears." Say, "He listens for your own good. He believes in God, and trusts the believers, and is mercy for those of you who believe." Those who insult the Messenger of God will have a painful penalty." (9:61). God tells him in the Quran to state clearly that he is to hear what is good and that believers trust him; Muhammad used to ask God's pardon for the hypocrites who mocked the poor believers who give away the little they had for charity and for God's cause, and the divine revelation rebukes him for it: "Those who criticize the believers who give charity voluntarily, and ridicule those who find nothing to give except their own efforts-God ridicules them. They will have a painful punishment. Whether you ask forgiveness for them, or do not ask forgiveness for them-even if you ask forgiveness for them seventy times, God will not forgive them. That is because they disbelieved in God and His Messenger. God does not guide the immoral people." (9:79-80). Suffice it to say that God describes Muhammad, the seal of prophets, as merciful, the only human described as such in the Quran: "There has come to you a messenger from among yourselves, concerned over your suffering, anxious over you. Towards the believers, he is compassionate and merciful." (9:128).

2- Putting the above point into consideration, we discern the difference between the real traditions of Muhammad in the Quran and the falsehoods of the Sunnite/Wahabi Sunna and hadiths that urge violence, terror, bloodshed, cruelty, bigotry, fanaticism, and extremism. The Quranic tradition is the only source of legislation (i.e., sharia) in Islam, and it asserts the right to live for every human soul. In contrast, the Sunnite Wahabi traditions are devilish and urge mass-killings, murder, and massacres for countless reasons: not performing prayers, the so-called heretics, apostates, and renegades, married adulterers, and those who oppose tyrant rulers and advise them to apply justice, as well as killing peoples to invade their lands.

Thirdly: committing suicide between Islamic sharia legislation and Wahabi legislations:

1- People of our modern times gape in wonder at witnessing the new type of terror crimes by suicide bombers, who are Wahabis that think this suicide bombings are deemed jihad for the sake of God! These suicide terrorists believe that once they die, they will find themselves in Paradise with tens houris to have sex with! Yet, in fact, this is the worst type of suicide; one here does not kill oneself only, as one kills unjustly other innocent people. This is complicated layers of injustice and aggression, unpardonable by God, of course. This Wahabi terror has nothing to do with Islam, as God's mercy is manifested in the Quran: "… And do not kill yourselves, for God is Merciful towards you." (4:29). God here prohibits suicide as a crime and a grave sin, then what about suicide bombers among Wahabi terrorists? "Whoever does that, out of hostility and wrongdoing, We will cast him into a Fire. And that would be easy for God." (4:30). One is not to commit suicide in any case, even when tortured by enemies. God knows what is inside our minds and hearts, and those who commit suicide will reside eternally in Hell. Suicide bombers then are worst types of those who kill themselves; as they kill others in the process, deluded by gods and deities of Wahabism among its sheikhs and leaders, who enjoy being in the lap of luxury while sending delusional youths to be suicide bombers.

Fourthly: Assertion of prohibition of killing innocent people in the Islamic sharia:

1- We mean by the innocent people those who do not commit murder or killing, and consequently deserve no retribution as a result.

2- Within Quranic verses revealed in Mecca, the focus is on ethical morals and high values as well as the testimony of Islam (There is no God but Allah). There was no room at the time for any legislative details about sharia, revealed later on in Yathreb. Meccan verses tackle general high values and moralistic issues, as if they are like a constitution declaration paving the way for sharia legislations in detail in verses revealed in Yathreb.

2- General higher values and tenets of faith include the following examples. "Say, "My Lord has forbidden immoralities-both open and secret-and sin, and unjustified aggression, and that you associate with God anything for which He revealed no sanction, and that you say about God what you do not know."" (7:33). Hence, we deduct that immortalities include fornication, adultery, and homosexuality, and sins including wine drinking; see 2:219. Unjustified aggression includes killing, murder, beating, theft, robbery, looting, and rape.  The last part in 7:33 indicates that ascribing falsehoods of views and hadiths to God and Muhammad is absolutely prohibited, and are sins akin to polytheism.

3- Meccan verses of the Quran include moral and ethical pieces of advice and the call to dedicate worship and faith to God alone with no other deities. 3/1: The Quranic Ten Commandments are good examples of this; see 6:151-153. We read the order not to kill one's children, and this includes prohibition of abortions to fetuses throbbing with life, as per the general rule: "And do not kill the soul which God has made sacred, except in the course of justice…" (17:33). Quranic Chapter 17 was revealed in Mecca within the groupings of tenets of faith and moralistic values and orders that detail the Quranic Ten Commandments. Such details begin in 17:22-23, until we reach 17:33. 3/2: We find the Quranic descriptions of high values and morals of real believers: "The servants of the Merciful are those who walk the earth in humility, and when the ignorant address them, they say, "Peace."" (25:63). This is in contrast to servants of the Devil, the Wahabis who terrorize all. Other descriptions of true believers include the following: "And those who do not implore besides God any other god, and do not kill the soul which God has made sacred-except in the pursuit of justice…" (25:68). We notice the repetition of the divine command of not to commit killings and murders as a basic rule; the only exception is hen to exact punishment for those who have killed. Retribution is fair and just in this case; the Quran describes itself in these terms: "With the truth We sent it down, and with the truth it descended…" (17:105). Truth here includes retribution as justice, referred to in the exception in 25:68. Hence, we deduct that the meaning of 25:68 is repeated three times in the Quranic text to assert the right to live and to protect the lives of the innocent ones. Other legislative details in verses revealed in Yathreb show fighting in self-defense and in exacting retribution against those who have killed.

Fifthly: mercy and alleviation in exacting punishment for those who have killed others:

1- Of course, there is nothing that justifies killing except to avenge the killed one(s) in retribution as explained in the Quran. A soul for a soul is the rule in the Torah, repeated in the Quran in context of the Israelites seeking judgments of Muhammad, in Chapter five, among the last ones revealed in the Quran: "But why do they come to you for judgment, when they have the Torah, in which is God's Law? Yet they turn away after that. These are not believers. We have revealed the Torah, wherein is guidance and light. The submissive prophets ruled the Jews according to it, so did the rabbis and the scholars, as they were required to protect God's Book, and were witnesses to it. So do not fear people, but fear Me. And do not sell My revelations for a cheap price. Those who do not rule according to what God revealed are the unbelievers. And We wrote for them in it: a life for a life, an eye for an eye, a nose for a nose, an ear for an ear, a tooth for a tooth, and an equal wound for a wound; but whoever forgoes it in charity, it will serve as atonement for him. Those who do not rule according to what God revealed are the evildoers." (5:43-45). The new item in the Quran, in contrast to the Torah, concerning killers is to lessen chances of retribution by demanding diyya (financial compensation given to heirs of the one killed) to alleviate and lessen chances of killing more souls: "O you who believe! Retaliation for the murdered is ordained upon you: the free for the free, the slave for the slave, the female for the female. But if he is forgiven by his kin, then grant any reasonable demand, and pay with good will. This is a concession from your Lord, and a mercy. But whoever commits aggression after that, a painful torment awaits him." (2:178). Hence, killers might not be punished if diyya is accepted by heirs of the ones killed. This alleviation or mitigation aims at preserving souls and stop killings.

Sixthly: retribution in fighting for the cause of God:

1- Retribution is the basic, main rule in fighting in self-defense to eliminate persecution and achieve justice, because God's Sharia aims to preserve lives and to attain mercy, justice, and charity. Retribution here is not deemed aggression, but a reaction to aggression began by the unjust ones; yet God orders us not to exceed in revenge: "And fight in the cause of God those who fight you, but do not commit aggression; God does not love the aggressors." (2:190). "The sacred month for the sacred month; and sacrilege calls for retaliation. Whoever commits aggression against you, retaliate against him in the same measure as he has committed against you. And be conscious of God, and know that God is with the righteous." (2:194). Hence, excess of revenge or retaliation is forbidden, as self-defense is to achieve justice, not to perpetuate mutual killings. Retaliation in that case preserves life. 

2- Mentioning the above, it is important here that we deal fairly and peacefully with anyone who does not hold weapons and arms against us; this one is not to be killed unless after committing crime of killing first when relatives or heirs of the killed ones refuse diyya.

3- It is a grave sin and crime to attribute killings, in cases NOT related to retaliation, to the religion of God; this is utter falsehoods. Details of this are found in our previous researches and books published online, titled "Punishment for Apostasy", "Islam the Religion of Peace", "Untold History of Omar", and "Persecution of Coptic Egyptians upon the Arab Conquest".

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

Chapter 7: The seventh principle of the Islamic sharia: Mitigation and alleviation in legislations

 

We have written above about mercy as the basic root of all sharia principles, especially in the right to live and preservation of human life, as God is the Compassionate and Merciful Who sent Muhammad as a mercy to humankind. We have resumed the notion of diyya, and we have asserted that the true character of Muhammad as we discern from the Quran shows him to be kind-hearted and merciful. Hence, the seventh principle is stemmed and derived as well from mercy of God. We do not need to repeat details of that here. We directly tackle the seventh principle in Islamic sharia: mitigation, alleviation, and removing of difficulties, complications, suffering, and restrictions via legislations of the Quran.

Firstly: Islamic sharia legislations are directly linked to this sort of alleviation:

1- God says in the Quran: "…He has chosen you, and has not burdened you in religion…" (22:78). Burdens here means suffering, tiredness, and hardship, imposed by others or self-imposed. Islamic sharia is based on mitigation, as part of the divine will in Quranic legislations: "God intends to lighten your burden, for the human being was created weak." (4:28).

2- We find the following among the Quranic commands: "…We do not burden any soul beyond its capacity…" (6:152). Hence, real believers who will dwell for eternity in Paradise are NOT fanatic and extremist bigots; rather, they will be those who apply God's sharia based on their capacity without overburdening oneself: "As for those who believe and do righteous works-We never burden any soul beyond its capacity-these are the inhabitants of the Garden; abiding therein eternally." (7:42). God says about the traits of the pious righteous ones: "And those who give what they give, while their hearts quake, knowing that to their Lord they will return. It is they who race towards goodness. It is they who will reach it first. We never burden any soul beyond its capacity. And with Us is a record that tells the truth, and they will not be wronged." (23:60-62).  

3- Mitigation and alleviation include overlooking unintentional mistakes and forgetting: "God does not burden any soul beyond its capacity. To its credit is what it earns, and against it is what it commits. "Our Lord, do not condemn us if we forget or make a mistake. Our Lord, do not burden us as You have burdened those before us. Our Lord, do not burden us with more than we have strength to bear…" (2:286). But reckoning is for intentional acts: "God does not hold you responsible for your unintentional oaths, but He holds you responsible for your intentions. God is Forgiving and Forbearing." (2:225). "…There is no blame on you if you err therein, barring what your hearts premeditates…" (33:5).

4- God overlooks those who were forced to utter blasphemy, fearing persecution or torture by enemies, and the raped girls. "Whoever renounces faith in God after having believed-except for someone who is compelled, while his heart rests securely in faith-but whoever willingly opens up his heart to disbelief-upon them falls wrath from God, and for them is a tremendous torment." (16:106). "Believers are not to take disbelievers for friends instead of believers. Whoever does that has nothing to do with God, unless it is to protect your own selves against them. God warns you to beware of Him. To God is the destiny." (3:28). "…And do not compel your girls to prostitution, seeking the materials of this life, if they desire to remain chaste. Should anyone compel them-after their compulsion, God is Forgiving and Merciful." (24:33).

5- God overlooks those who have to eat forbidden foods, fearing to die of hunger. "He has forbidden you carrion, and blood, and the flesh of swine, and what was dedicated to other than God. But if anyone is compelled, without desiring or exceeding, he commits no sin. God is Forgiving and Merciful." (2:173). "…But whoever is compelled by hunger, with no intent of wrongdoing-God is Forgiving and Merciful." (5:3).

6- Alleviation is urged for the ill and crippled among both genders in cases of traveling, working, jihad, and other social interactions; see 24:61 and 48:17.

Secondly: alleviation in acts of worship:

1- In performing ablution, washing oneself, and personal cleanliness: instead of millions of pages in books of Sunnite fiqh tackling the subject, with contradictions that make readers burst out laughing, we have ONLY two Quranic verses revealed in Yathreb, showing alleviation of burdens as well in this respect. "O you who believe! Do not approach the prayer while you are drunk, so that you know what you say; nor after sexual orgasm-unless you are travelling-until you have bathed. If you are sick, or traveling, or one of you comes from the toilet, or you have had intercourse with women, and cannot find water, find clean sand and wipe your faces and your hands with it. God is Pardoning and Forgiving." (4:43). "O you who believe! When you rise to pray, wash your faces and your hands and arms to the elbows, and wipe your heads, and your feet to the ankles. If you had intercourse, then purify yourselves. If you are ill, or travelling, or one of you returns from the toilet, or you had contact with women, and could not find water, then use some clean sand and wipe your faces and hands with it. God does not intend to burden you, but He intends to purify you, and to complete His blessing upon you, that you may be thankful." (5:6).   

2- In performing prayers: we see alleviation in how to perform prayers in times of fear and wars; see 4:101-102. "Guard your prayers…and stand before God in devotion. But if you are in fear, then on foot, or riding. And when you are safe, remember God, as He taught you what you did not know." (2:238-239). This includes fear of passing the time of prayers for any reason, one can perform ablution using pure dust or sand, and can pray in any position, as long as one is performing prayers devoutly and on time in the fear of God.

3- In spending money for the cause of God: in preparations for battles of self-defense, believers were expected to donate money and to participate in fighting; yet, among them were the poor, the needy, the ill, the crippled, and the weak. Their noble innate feelings of willing to participate despite their inability have made God to describe them as ''righteous ones'' who gave pieces of advice to believers for the best: "There is no blame on the weak, nor on the sick, nor on those who have nothing to give, provided they are true to God and His Messenger. In no way can the righteous be blamed. God is Forgiving and Merciful." (9:91). The same goes for those who implored Muhammad to let them participate despite their having not horses: "Nor on those who approach you, wishing to ride with you, and you said, "I have nothing to carry you on." So they went away, with their eyes overflowing with tears, sorrowing for not finding the means to spend." (9:92).   

4- In performing pilgrimage: it is known that this is imposed only on those who can in terms of strength and money: "…Pilgrimage to the House is a duty to God for all who can make the journey…" (3:97). It would have been an unbearable burden if it were imposed like prayers. It is a shame that poor and sick ones in Arab societies have to pay exorbitant fees of pilgrimage to the affluent ones of the KSA, who already own billions!

5- In fasting: fasting rules are found in 2:183-187. Fasting is described as a means to attain piety and righteousness, and it has been alleviated in comparisons to fasting of Abraham by allowing the travelers and the sick to break the fast if they cannot bear it, in return for alms for the poor. Fasting in days of Abraham was from night prayers until sunset of the next day; alleviations in the Quran make fasting time from dawn to sunset. Legislations of fasting include here 19 words about imposing fasting, and 160 words about alleviation and allowing exceptions to break the fast or not to fast in the first place. The verses assert here the alleviation of burden: "…God desires ease for you, and does not desire hardship for you…" (2:185).

Thirdly: alleviation in matters of personal affairs and dealings:

1- Agreements in marriage contracts and stipulated conditions in them, as in the following verse: "… give them their dowry-a legal obligation. You commit no error by agreeing to any change to the dowry…" (4:24). Agreements in trade dealings as we read in the following verse: "O you who believe! Do not consume each other's wealth illicitly, but trade by mutual consent. And do not kill yourselves, for God is Merciful towards you." (4:29).

2- Other agreements tacking what is deemed as fair and just within norms of a given society, especially in cases of divorce: see 2:232, 2:233, 2:236, and 65:6-7.

Fourthly: alleviation in compelling others within sharia of Islam:

1- the Quranic sharia shows clearly that any country or State should never interfere in faith tenets and practices of its citizens, as per the Quranic law of allowing no compulsion in religious matters. The State regulates application of justice only, especially in cases of rights of women. Clearly, God wants us to use our conscience in applying sharia personally in our lives. Most sharia legislations in the Quran deal with and address the close relation between the believers and God. That is why all legislations in the Quran are linked to piety and righteousness; see 65:2 and 2:231-232.

2- Interference of the State is obligatory in cases that entail protection of society and individual rights: like punishments of murder, theft, fornication, adultery, homosexuality, stealing, robbing, looting, and slander. Falsehoods of the Sunnite creed add punishments like stoning and for wine-drinking, apostasy, and forsaking prayers, unrelated to the Quranic text at all. Punishments in the Quran aim at correction and rectifying not at taking revenge; all Quranic punishments are non-applicable if sinners do repent; see examples of this in cases of slander and adultery as per 24:5, homosexuality whose punishment is rebuke and admonishment as per 4:16, and lastly in cases of robbing and thefts as per 5:33-34 and 5:39.

3- The main aim is piety and attaining righteousness to avoid residence in Hell for eternity. All torture and torment in life equals not even a second in Hell in the Afterlife. The Quran contains about 1000 verses describing Hell. That is why punishments in life aim at correction and rectification, not at taking revenge. Sinners and aggressors will be punished eternally in Hell if they do not repent before their death as per the following rule: "…Whoever works evil will pay for it, and will not find for himself, besides God, any protector or savior." (4:123). This payment is in this world and the next; see 3:56, 9:55, 9:85, 9:74, and 32:21. Hence, the focus is on avoiding eternal torment in Hell, as punishments in life are for correction and rectification to urge repentance of sinners. We have talked here above about not to kill killers of the heirs of the killed ones accept diyya.           

Lastly: alleviation is manifested in the Quran by the limited number of legislation verses in it:

 Legislations in the Quran are found in less than 200 verses, with repetitions and details and warnings and admonishing, especially about personal affairs of marriage and divorce as well as inheritance and written wills and trade dealings, plus norms of society deemed part of justice and fairness. This leaves good room for issuing laws to protect people's rights and interests in life within a framework of justice, mitigation, and alleviation.      

The Seven Principles of the Real Islamic Sharia and How to Apply Them
The Seven Principles of the Real Islamic Sharia and How to Apply Them

By: Dr. Ahmed Subhy Mansour
Translated by Ahmed Fathy


ABOUT THIS BOOK:
The commonly used term 'principles of the Islamic sharia' is vague, because it remains to be the center of hot political debates as well as political manipulation and deceit. This research presents to readers what we deem as the Quran-based real principles of the Islamic sharia and how to apply them based on a Quranist vision, in hope of realizing religious reform among the Muhammadans who think of themselves as 'Muslims'. May God come to the aid of all of us.

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