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Part one : Freedom of religion in Islam

Part One: Freedom of Religion in Islam


How to understand the Quran and the Real Islam

There are two different ways of understanding the Quran and the religion of Islam.

A - The first is to see Islam through its divine source, namely the Quran, provided that Quranic terminology should be solely understood based on Quranic explanation and definitions of the term concerned. Arabic language's rich history and vocabulary usually leaves room for different interpretations of any one particular term, yet our approach is to confine ourselves only to the Quranic explanation of the Quranic term. Therefore, this Quranic approach necessitates a thorough knowledge of the full Quranic text so that definitions of terms would be developed only after going through all the verses connected to the subject being researched, otherwise, interpretation may deviate and lacks precision.

B - The second way to understand Islam is through Muslim traditions. By definition, traditions is a human source as its contributors vary, ranging from the sayings ascribed to the Prophet Mohammed and recorded more than two centuries after his death, the "folklore" developed concerning Quranic stories with a view to proving or promoting certain emphasis, and the sayings of renown Muslim Scholars or ‘the Imams of the Muslim Jurisprudence and the other scholars’. Islam can be understood through the prism of the body of knowledge produced by these human resources, and the Quran, the divine source of the religion, is understood according to the views and explanations of any possible combination(s) of these human sources.

It’s thus clearly natural to face the product of these human sources in the form of contradicting views and opinions, each of which searches for supporting verses in the Quran, and in most cases leading to in slippages in interpretations as relevant verses would be interpreted based on terminology definitions derived from these human schools of thought, influenced by all sorts of political, cultural and historical factors, rather than from the Quranic definitions themselves as explained above.

 The difference between the two ways:

The second method is the one which is overwhelmingly followed by the fanatic Muslims of today, and their behavior is heavily influenced by its precepts. The main part of this human body of knowledge has stopped developing by the 12th century AD; therefore it is heavily influenced by the ethos and mentality of the Middle Ages, such as fundamentalism, fanaticism, holy wars and religious trials, and persecutions, which is found today in the behavior of Wahabism and fanatic Shiites.

This understanding of Islam, based on traditions that froze since the crusades, is the bases of contemporary judicial opinions (fatwa) which is responsible for conferring to Islam the image of a religion keen on terrorism, violence, contradiction and fanaticism (which is no wonder if the bases belong to the age of the crusades.) When Muslims established their mighty empires, it was natural that pure Quranic meanings would be twisted to fit political realities.

The main part of the traditions is Hadith or Sunnah, which is the saying attributed falsely to the prophet Mohamed. They invented sayings that served their purpose and attributed these to the prophet as holy texts that should be obeyed by believers as part of the religion. This is the belief of the Sunni Muslims. It is noteworthy that the Shiite Muslims followed other sayings attributed to the Prophet and his relatives and descendents, while the Sufi Muslims have followed the sayings of their holy saints.

Thus whoever views Islam through the lenses of these traditions will find nothing mixtures of Medieval culture, some full of superstitions (Sufi tradition), violence (Sunni tradition), and a combination of the two (Shiite tradition).

If, however, the first method is followed, the result would be surprising, as Islam would be discovered as a religion of unlimited religious freedom, peace, justice and forgiveness and other lofty values.

I chose the first method of understanding Islam first of all because the Quran is the only confirmed source of Islam. As indicated earlier, interpreting the Quran through its own explanations of its own terms yields totally different results.


Freedom of religion in Islam at a quick glance


Freedom of religion is defined here as man’s total freedom of creed and thinking, as well as his freedom of declaring and expressing his rituals and advocating his religion peacefully without imposing it on others. This definition is taken from the Quran. The full religious freedom is a principle that was assured by Islam since it emerged, and applied by Muhammad and some of his successors (caliphs). Yet religious freedom has been abrogated by force during the reign of the Qurayshy Umayyad Caliphates (655-750 AD). Thereafter, the Abbasid Caliphates came up with a theocratic concept of governing the state. That concept was established by fabricating religious texts, distinct from the Quran, but connected to the Prophet through the claim that the texts are his sayings. These texts were so manipulated and elevated to the status of a man-made religion, as Abbasid theocratic concepts, through the long time of Abbasid sovereignty during which these traditions were recorded, were gradually and accumulatively transformed into divine dictates, thus becoming an integral part of Islam, although in reality, these stand at odds with pure Islamic values.
Through the Saudi/Wahaby influence, this Middle Age heritage has became the legislative framework and political doctrine of fanatic Sunni leaders (like Muslim Brotherhood) who in essence call for the application of Abbasid religious and political system. Sharia in their dictionary means the re-establishment of the Abbasid Caliphate, going back to medieval values, viewing the world of international relations through the same lenses of the Abbasids, i.e. the camp of war (largely Christendom) vs. the camp of peace (Islamdom), with continuous war until Islam prevails (being the only true religion). As strange as it may sound to one who does not see deep from within, these are the doctrinal bases of theocratic regimes like that of the Saudi Arabia, and also of other autocratic regimes, such as the Mubarak regime in Egypt, albeit a seemingly secular facade. Dictators in the Arab and Muslim worlds have their own official religious scholars who control education, media and mosques to suppress any religious reform that advocate democracy, tolerance and religious freedom from within Islam. Mubarak needs the Muslim Brotherhood to use them as excuse to stay in power, so he defends their Sunni Wahabi traditions, persecuting the Islamic peaceful reformers who are experts in the war of ideas from within Islam having Islamic values against the terrorism.
As a fact, those dictators and their Scholars along with the fanatic religious oppositions (like Muslim Brotherhood) represent the biggest danger to Islam and the Muslim World and to the safety of the international community. Those dictators usually fight with their fanatic religious oppositions, but they become immediately united in one camp against any Islamic religious reform, advocating –peacefully - the real Islamic values of freedom, justice, tolerance and human rights.

Efficiently fighting against these legalistic fanatics can be conducted by exposing their falsehood from within Islam. The endeavor should start with a call for reforming the Arab and Muslim legislation – especially the penal code – to secure religious freedom and human rights for the entire citizenry, and to establish democratic regimes. Achieving this objective requires endeavor to enlighten and educate Muslims from within Islam so that Muslims realize that true Islam is based on unlimited freedom of belief and speech, justice and tolerance and peace, while the fanatic Sharia contradicts Islam.
Thanks to the United States Commission of international freedom for its help in writing this research in the field of religious freedom in Islam and how the fanatic Muslims have violated it.





Chapter one: The Roots of Freedom of religion in Islam


Man’s freedom of religion is the origin of his existence in this world. Moreover, it is the reason of God’s creation of the universe, and the idea of the hereafter. This is how far the roots of freedom of religion in Islam go. This puts an end to every pretext of people supporting suppression of religion in the name of God, The Creator.


(1)Freedom of religion as a test for us


Let’s read the verses of Quran, those are dealing with this issue in order:

1-     God created the universe including planets, stars, galaxies, and the seven heavens which exist beyond the universe and beyond our imagination. God Almighty says: “Assuredly the creation of the heavens and the earth is a greater matter than the creation of men: yet most men understand not”.(Ch.40/Vrs.57)

2-     God created the universe and the great heavens because of one aim, choosing a creature called man. God Almighty says: (He it is Who created the heavens and the earth in six days- and His throne was over the waters- that He might try you, which of you is best in conduct.”(Ch.11/Vrs. 7). So God created heavens and earth to see which one of us is best in conduct.

3-     - At the end of this examination, there will be the Hereafter, when God Almighty will destroy the universe and the heavens to create a new earth and new heavens and reckon people according to their deeds. God Almighty says: “One day the earth will be changed to a different earth, and so will be the heavens, and men will be marshaled forth, before God, the One, the Irresistible”(Ch.14/Vrs.48)

4-      - Thus, man is ordered to contemplate God’s aim of creating heavens and earth. God Almighty says: “Men who celebrate the praises of Allah, standing, sitting, and lying down on their sides, and contemplate the (wonders of) creation in the heavens and the earth, (With the thought): "Our Lord! Not for naught Hast Thou created (all) this! Glory to Thee! Give us salvation from the penalty of the Fire”. (Ch.3 /Vrs.191)

5-     - Thus God hasn’t created heavens and earth in vain. God Almighty says: “And We did not create the heaven and the earth and what is between them in jest.”(Ch.21/Vrs.16).

6-     God created heavens and earth for a true aim, and He made a specific time for them to end. God Almighty says: “We created not the heavens and the earth and all between them but for just ends, and for a term appointed” (Ch.46/Vrs.3)

7-     - Every man goes through his own examination when he exists on earth, lives his appointed age, then dies. Man is required to know during his life that God created him to be examined. God Almighty says: “ He Who created death and life, that He may try you, which of you is best in deed” (Ch.67/Vrs.2)

8-      - Man fails in the exam and hell is appointed as his fate when he spends his lifetime negligent of the aim of his existence. God Almighty says reminding man of the aim of his existence: “Did ye then think that We had created you in jest, and that ye would not be brought back to Us (for account)?”(Ch.23/Vrs.115). God says this to man in the Hereafter when everything has ended.

9-     - It is noticed that God Almighty made the factors of the examination balanced and fair. He created man with a pure instinct, which is his inner sensitive scale that can distinguish between good and evil and directs his faith to God only. In contrast, God assigned the devil to mislead man, and sent prophets with divine books, beautified life and its pride. However, and above all, He created man free, either to obey Him or not, or to believe in Him or not. Moreover, God created man capable of keeping all his secrets, desires, feelings, concerns and thoughts away from anybody in order to enjoy his independence and freedom of thought. If man wants to be free, he will be, and if he wants to be a slave to another man or any thought, he will be too. What is important is, man is able to choose, and through choice, man can use his freedom however he wants. The majority of mankind – according to the Quran – usually chooses to be nonbelievers, and deny their inner instinct and ignore God’s existence.  To this extent, God Almighty created man with free will. And man’s free thought can lead him to deny the existence of God, the Almighty.

10-In contrast to man’s freedom during lifetime, there’s no prospect of freedom of choice in the Hereafter. Individual freedom of thinking, working and behaving ends at the moment of death, and then man is appointed to take responsibility for his life deeds. This is why God speaks about the Hereafter in Quran in passive tense about the Day of Judgment. For example God Almighty says: “And the earth will shine with glory of its Lord: the record of deeds will be placed open; the prophets and witnesses will be brought forward; and a just decision pronounced between them; and they will not be wronged in the least. And every soul will be paid in full (the fruit) of its deeds; and (God) knoweth best all that they do. The unbelievers will be led to Hell in crowd; until, when they arrive there, its gates will be opened).. .(..And those who feared their Lord will be led to the Garden in crowds”(Ch.39/Vrs.69:73) God doesn’t say: prophets and witnesses will come, but He says: prophets and witnesses will be brought forward. He doesn’t say: The unbelievers will go to hell, but He says: the unbelievers will be led to Hell in crowd, likewise He says: those who feared their Lord will be led to the Garden in crowds. So in the Hereafter everything will be driven. God Almighty says: “But each one of them all will be brought before Us (for judgment)”. (Ch.36/Vrs. 32). And He says “It will be no more than a single blast when lo! They will all be brought up before Us”(Ch. 36/Vrs. 53). “Will be brought” is in passive tense to assure that they will lack free will and ability to run away.

11-So God Almighty gave us free will in this life to set us up for an examination. He sent a religion to follow. He gave us the unlimited freedom to obey his religion or to disobey it. His true religion accompanied with divine books, yet not accompanied with a sword or angels to order people to follow it. God didn’t create hell in life as He didn’t want nonbelievers to be thrown in it before the eyes of other people. If He did, there wouldn’t be any exam. God sent the religion free of this all. He blessed man with freedom and enabled him to choose either to be a believer or a disbeliever. Nevertheless, God postponed the examination until the Hereafter, and said that He would come in the Hereafter to judge among people.

In this Judgment Day, man’s freedom will end forever, and he will face the results of his deeds when God comes in the hereafter, and earth shines with its God’s light. God did not authorize some people to punish, in His name, others just because they have different opinions or because they disbelieve in God. And those who proclaim their right to punish others spoil the case from its roots and play the role of God - as there is no god but Him. They dominate what God Almighty wanted it to be free, as He created human mind free without restraints, able to think with no limits, and believe or disbelieve if it wants. They fake God’s religion and assault His powers that He saved for Himself to practice in the Hereafter, on grounds that there is no need for punishment and reckoning in the hereafter, as long as there is a compulsion in faith and religion in this life. They form a bad, extreme, bloody, stubborn and fusty image of God’s religion, and contribute to get most people away from it. This bad image has nothing to do with God’s religion. It is their image and their human made religion that is entirely opposite to God’s religion.

12-Because they were the real enemies of God, He legislated militancy against them, not to force people to get into Islam, but to assure people’s right of to believe or not to believe, as well as their right to get rid of the domination of insincere religious leaders. The insincere religious leaders in Muslim World (priesthood advocates) are those who pretend to be talking in the name of God, and controlling- in His name- people’s minds and thoughts. Islam fought them with the legislation of militancy. Yet the insincere religious leaders of Muslims succeeded in reversing concepts and misrepresenting Islam, fabricating an ugly human made religion that contradicts the real Islam in the Holy Quran.

13- God confirms in the Holy Quran that He will judge all people in the field of different religions in the Hereafter. In Al Medina, there was a religious political opposition who claimed themselves to be Muslims, to plot against Islam and Muslims. The Holy Quran called them hypocrites. Those hypocrites used to debate with Prophet Muhammad insulting him and his religion, God ordered him not to listen to them and to declare that God will judge between him and them on the Day of Judgment which will be postponed until the Hereafter. God Almighty says: “if they do wrangle with thee, say: God knows best what it is ye are doing. God will judge between you on the Day of Judgment concerning the matters in which ye differ” (Ch.22/Vrs.68-69). God says about disbelievers: “those who reject faith will not cease to be in doubt concerning revelation until the hour of judgment comes suddenly upon them, or there comes to them the penalty of the day of disaster. On that day the dominion will be that of God”(Ch.22/Vrs.55- 56 ).

When the prophet moved to the city of Medina and became a ruler of a state and a leader of a nation, Quran didn’t allow him to force hypocrites to believe in God and obey Him, as they had total freedom of opinion. They entrapped the believers in times of wars, which is considered a great treason in human laws. Yet God has postponed punishment until the Hereafter when He will judge between believers and hypocrites. God Almighty says: “These are the ones who wait and watch you: if ye do gain a victory from Allah, they say: "Were we not with you?"- But if the unbelievers gain a success, they say (to them): "Did we not gain an advantage over you, and did we not guard you from the believers?" but Allah will judge between you on the Day of Judgment. And never will Allah grant, to the unbelievers, a way (to triumph) over the believers “. (Ch.4/Vrs.141)

God owns the religion but he does not impose it on us.  God wanted to examine us, so He created heavens and earth, then created us free either to believe in Him or not. Moreover, He did not authorize prophets, the elite of people, to force anybody to believe in Him. The exam of each of us ends at the time of death, and each will face his fate then in the Hereafter. .


(2)Freedom of religion in Quran

1-     Quran approves that God could make people, if he wanted, one nation with no differences, with no choice, and born on absolute piety like programmed machines. Yet God wanted to create people free to choose different opinions and different religions. Some are believers and some are disbelievers, some are guided and some are misled, each according to his choice and desire.

God Almighty says: “If it were God’s will He could gather them together unto true guidance”. (Ch.6/Vrs.35). “If it had been His will, He could indeed have guided you all”.( 6/ 149) . So God’s will, doesn’t interfere to lead people to faith, or else all people would be faithful, as no one can stand in the way of God’s will. Yet people are different, and they own the freedom of choice between faith and infidelity. This proves that God’s will doesn’t interfere, and people will stay different because it is what God wants, and nothing can hamper God’s will. God Almighty says: “but they will not cease to dispute, except those on whom thy Lord hath bestowed his mercy.(Ch.11/Vrs.118-119). There are different choices before people, and God sends books and sends prophets to enable people to distinguish between right and wrong, justice and injustice, then He leaves it free for them to choose between this and that. God Almighty says: “And unto God leads straight the way, but there are ways that turn aside, if God had willed, He could have guided all of you”. (Ch.16Vrs./9.)

2- When people choose the wrong way, they try to find a religious support for their choice by faking the truth which is suggested in divine books. Yet, God’s will doesn’t interfere, and He allows forging the truth, so people can search for the truth and choose between real and fake. God Almighty says: “Likewise did We make for every Messenger an enemy,- evil ones among men and jinns, inspiring each other with flowery discourses by way of deception. If thy Lord had so planned, they would not have done it: so leave them and their inventions alone. “. So God wanted to make them free to lie to Him and His messenger, and He said to his messenger: “If thy Lord had so planned, they would not have done it, so leave them and their inventions alone”(Ch.6/Vrs.112).

3-     God threatens to punish them in the day of Resurrection, He Knows their conspiracies of manipulating His verses, yet though He gives them freedom, He will make them take the responsibility of their deeds on the Day of Resurrection. God Almighty says: “Those who pervert the truth in our verses are not hidden from us, which is better? He that is cast into the hell fire, or he that comes safe through, on the Day of Judgment? Do that ye will: verily He seeth clearly all that ye do”.(Ch.41/Vrs.40-41). He asked them to do what they wanted, and it is clear that He is addressing those who manipulate God’s religion.

4-     Insincere religious leaders are those who earn living by telling lies and attribute them to the Almighty God and His messenger. They own the will to fight against God, but will bear their mistake on the Day of Resurrection. And the practical evidence is clear before us as they practice their job until now.

5-     - As God Almighty calls people for truth and reminds them of it, He approves their freedom of choice and calls it a “will” too, in order to raise the rank of freedom. God says in two Sura of Quran: “Verily this is an admonition: therefore, whoso will, let him take a straight path to his Lord”(Ch. 73/Vrs 19)Ch.(76/Vrs.38 ). So guidance is the choice of everyone. People can choose either to be guided or misled. Eventually, the guided way is good for man, and the misled way is bad for him. God Almighty says: “A warning to mankind, to any of you that chooses to press forward or to follow behind, every soul will be held in pledge for its deeds”. (Ch.47/Vrs.36- 38). The same meaning is repeated suggesting man’s will and his entire freedom of either to believe in God or not. God says: “Nay, this surely is an admonition: let any who will, keep it in remembrance”.( Ch.74/Vrs. 54- 55). “Verily this is no less than a message to all the worlds: with profit to whomever among you wills to go straight”(Ch.81/Vrs.28). And “Therefore let whoso will, keep it in remembrance”.(Ch.80/Vrs.12). Are more evidences on man’s freedom to believe in God or not needed?

6-     Freedom of belief in God is the utmost of the opinion in Islam. As long as the Quran suggests that man is free to believe or disbelieve in God, man is free also to disbelieve in the leader or in any religious or civil authority.

7-     - From here the Islamic principle “let there be no compulsion in religion” emerges. This famous verse Ch.(2/Vrs.256 )was sent while the prophet was in Medina, when the state of Islam was powerful and strong. Yet this principle was sent before in Mecca when the prophet was exaggerating in urging people to believe in God alone. So God told him, reminding him with His will: “if it had been thy Lord’s will they would all have believed, all who are on earth! Wilt thou then compel mankind, against their will to believe”.( Ch.10/Vrs. 99).

8-     God ordered the prophet to leave alone those who insisted on disbelieving, as God sent him as a messenger with no power over them. God Almighty says: “therefore do thou give admonition, for thou art one to admonish, thou are not one to manage men’s affairs. But if any turn away and reject God, God will punish him with a mighty punishment for to us will be their return; then it will be for us to call them to account”(Ch.88/Vrs. 21- 26) . God is the only One Who will reckon their deeds in the Hereafter. The same meaning is repeated in: “Turn aside from those who join gods with God, if it had been God’s will, they would not have taken false gods. But We made thee not one to watch over their doings nor art thou set over them to dispose of their affairs”.(Ch.6/Vrs. 106- 107). And: “Verily We have sent thee in truth as a bearer of glad tidings and a Warner: but to thee no question shall be asked of the companions of the blazing fire”.(Ch.2/Vrs.119). The Holy Quran was sent with specific sayings that assured the freedom of religion. The prophet was ordered to say them, yet he had to respect his enemies’ right to worship other gods than God, as he has the right to devote to God only. God Almighty asks his prophet to say: “it is God I serve, with my sincere and exclusive devotion: serve ye what ye will besides Him”.(Ch.39/Vrs.14-15). God gave them will. A whole sura is saying: “say: o ye that reject faith! I worship not that which ye worship” and at the end it says: “to you be your way and to me mine”.

9-     God orders the Prophet Mohamed to declare that he says the truth that he got from God, and then they have a total will either to believe in God or disbelieve in Him. They would bear the responsibility if they disbelieved, as torture is waiting for them in the hereafter. God Almighty says: “"Say, the truth is from your Lord": Let him who will believe, and let him who will, reject (it): for the wrong-doers We have prepared a Fire whose (smoke and flames), like the walls and roof of a tent, will hem them in: if they implore relief they will be granted water like melted brass, that will scald their faces, how dreadful the drink! How uncomfortable a couch to recline” (Ch.18/Vrs.29) . And He says about Quran: “say: whether ye believe in it or not”(Ch.17/Vrs.107). So they are free whether to believe in Quran or not.








Chapter two: Dialogue is Evidence on Freedom of Religion in Islam.


1- Imagine that there was a good leader, whose people demonstrated against him. Yet he chose to use dialogue and persuasion with them instead of force. This means that he followed the approach of justice in governing his land. In the meantime he didn’t compel his people to obey him and left them free. Imagine this sort of rulers in our miserable Muslim World.!.

When we read the Holy Quran we find that God the creator of the universe doesn’t want to force people to believe in Him, His books, and messengers. Because God created people with free will, He conducts a dialogue with them to convince them to believe in Him as the only one God, not to enforce them to believe in him that way. The insincere religious leaders in Our Muslim World are humans like us but they make themselves higher than God. They reject having a dialogue with the intellectuals, and find it enough to issue decisions of condemning them because they have opinions that are different than theirs.

It would take a long time if I presented every means of dialogue in the Holy Quran, so I will go through quick hints:

2-     God has sent the Quran as an intellectual Holy message: (We have sent it down as an Arabic Qur'an, in order that ye may learn wisdom) (12/ 2 ) (We have made it a Qur'an in Arabic, that ye may be able to understand (and learn wisdom).) (43/ 3). Quran is to guide the humans to the straight path. This guidance is based on reason and free thinking.

3-     So, using mind, thinking and contemplating are necessary to read the Quran and to be a good believer. God urges people to reflect upon Quranic meanings, saying: (Will they not then ponder the Qur'an? If it had been from other than Allah they would have found therein much incongruity) (4/ 82 ) (Do they not then reflect on the Quran? Nay, on the hearts there are locks ) (47 / 24 )

4-      God usually in the Quran urges humans to think and consider his creation to confirm the belief in Him alone as the only One God! or ( Allah), saying :.( It is He who sends down rain from the sky: from it ye drink, and out of it (grows) the vegetation on which ye feed your cattle. With it He produces for you corn, olives, date-palms, grapes and every kind of fruit: verily in this is a sign for those who give thought. He has made subject to you the Night and the Day; the sun and the moon; and the stars are in subjection by His Command: verily in this are Signs for men who are wise. And what He has created in the earth of varied hues most surely there is a sign in this for a people who are mindful.) (16 / 10 - 13). If man consider all of this he has to believe in the One God, Allah, so, God says (Is then He Who creates like one that creates not? Do you not then mind?) ( 16 / 17).

God Almighty honors human mind, the resource of free will, when He asks it to judge. At the same time, insincere religious leaders in Muslim World ask us to stop thinking and stop discussing their thoughts and creeds.

5 - God has sent rational proofs that He is the only God, saying:” If there were other gods with God, the universe system would be corrupt”( If there were, in the heavens and the earth, other gods besides Allah, there would have been confusion in both! but glory to Allah, the Lord of the Throne: (High is He) above what they attribute to Him!) (21/ 22).  The unity of creation in the universe proves that God is one with no companions; otherwise there would be a dispute. And because there is no dispute, God is only one. This is presented in God’s saying: “say: if there had been other gods with Him, -as they say, - behold, they would certainly have sought out a way to the lord of the throne! Glory to Him! He is high above all that they say! Exalted and great beyond measures!”. (17/ 42- 43) . If there were many gods, each has his own creatures, there would be a competition and a split that would lead to another different universe, God Almighty says: “No son did God beget, nor is there any god along with him: if there were many gods, behold, each god would have taken away what he had created, and some would have lorded it over other! Glory to God! He is free from the sort of things they attribute to Him”.( 23/ 91).

God Almighty proves that He is the one God, with rational proofs, convincing and replying to some people who think that there are many gods along with God. God granted people the freedom of thought and creed; otherwise He wouldn’t allow them to believe in these thoughts that offend His glory. And He gave them freedom in his religion; he wouldn’t have a dialogue with them or ask their minds to find out the corruption of these thoughts.

6- God did not hesitate to humble His Glorious Self to have a dialogue with human mind in order to make them understand and seek a proof. For example, some of the people of the book had some thoughts concerning Abraham, so God sent a reply saying: “Ye people of the book! Why dispute ye about Abraham, when the law and the gospel were not revealed till after him? Have ye no understanding? Ah! Ye are those who fell to disputing even in matters of which ye had some knowledge! But why dispute ye in matters of which ye have no knowledge? It is God Who knows, and ye who know not!”( 3/ 65- 66.)

It is the best honor given to people’s freedom. God Almighty sent verses in order to answer some thoughts of his creatures and convince them, while He could destroy the earth and the heavens. Yet some creatures give themselves privileges beyond our imagination, and refuse to answer other people who have different opinions and find it enough to declare them renegades and disbelievers deserve death. The comparison is horrible; God answers the allegations of some of his creatures with rational proofs, and insincere religious leaders in Muslim World find themselves higher than any discussion with people just like them.

 7- God didn’t hesitate to record his enemies’ opinions despite its futility and though those opinions were mere swears and offenses. Pharaoh said he didn’t know any god but himself for Egyptians, “Pharaoh said: oh chiefs! No god do I know for you but myself” (28/ 38). He said also he was the highest God of Egyptians, “I am your lord, most high”. (79/ 24). God could keep these sayings secret, yet some of these sayings were told ages before the revelation of the Quran, and we knew about them through Quran. The favorite hobby of the insincere political and religious leaders in Muslim world is to ban books and writings. The world witnessed massacres- during middle ages and in our third world which lives its middle ages- of books, writings and authors. Yet God Almighty recorded all his enemies’ opinions even those which offended His sacred entity. And these sayings became verses of the holy Quran that we read, and through its recital we worship God. It was natural for God to answer with a proper reply, and said He Almighty created man from a tiny clot, then that man turned into an enemy of God. But God allowed this enemy to say freely what he wants. God didn’t ban His enemy’s sayings, but recorded them. There are dozens of verses that tackle the same subject.

After this statement of Quran, we have to inquire if seizing books and views agrees with Islam?!

Decency of dialogue in Quran


1-     During the darkness of Middle Ages, verses of Quran were sent with the best ways of dialogue with antagonists who had opposed Islam. When we think about these verses and look at ourselves, we feel sorry for what some of us, who bear the banner of Islam, do. They impose their own religious opinions suppress others’ rights to declare theirs. Moreover, they persecute them and proclaim them disbelievers who must be killed. If they thought about verses of Quran, they would find out that they were repeating the deeds of the tribe of Qureish at the time of the prophet

2-      The Quranic principle of dialogue is based on wisdom, good preaching and answering enemy’s offenses in the best way. God Almighty says: “invite all to the way of thy Lord with wisdom and graceful preaching, and argue with them in ways that are best and most gracious”.( 16/ 125). God ordered his messenger to invite people to embrace Islam through wisdom, graceful preaching, and to debate with his enemies not in the good way, but in the best way. That was an obligation on the high ranked prophet, thus, it would be more proper for Muslims to bear others’ insults and answer them with the best ways.

3-     God Almighty expresses this in a lovable way saying: “who is better in speech than one who calls men to God, works righteousness, and says: I am of those who bow in Islam? And not alike are the good and the evil. Repel (evil) with what is best, when lo! he, between whom and you was enmity would be as if he were a warm friend. And no one will be granted such goodness except those who exercise patience and self-restraint, - none but persons of the greatest good fortune “(41/ 33- 35). God considers man of best words as who invites others to believe in God, represents a good example to others in good deeds, declares his surrender to God, and answers with the best ways of patience, forgiveness and meaningful words when people debate with him, or offend him during dialogues. Therefore the enemy would have to apologize and turns into a good friend. This degree of ethical heights in invitation for God can’t be reached but by who suffered patience for God’s sake. This person is considered to be having a” great good fortune”. These are the general principles of decent dialogue: Inviting people to God with wisdom, good preaching, and answering insults with the best of deeds and words.

4-     Quran could only say this, but for the importance of the issue in Islam, which is based on freedom of choice, verses of Quran dealt with detailed stories suggesting decent dialogues. God forbids insulting the enemy or mocking his beliefs and sacred properties in order that he does not insult back the Almighty God, God says: “Revile not ye those whom they call upon besides God, lest they out of spite revile God in their ignorance. Thus have We made alluring to each people its own doings. In the end will they return to their Lord, and We shall then tell them the truth of all that they did ".(6/ 108).

5-     In this part of the verse: “Thus have We made alluring to each people its own doings. In the end will they return to their Lord, and We shall then tell them the truth of all that they did ". (6/ 108), God clarifies the significance of this; that who misled, was not forced, but he chose and defended the way. God in turn beautified dark way for him, and eventually he would turn back to God in the Hereafter. Actually man starts with choosing the way he finds comfortable for him, whether true or false. Then God’s will come to indulge each one more in his chosen way. God says: “Say: "If any men go astray, (Allah) Most Gracious extends (the rope) to them, until, when they see the warning of Allah (being fulfilled) - either in punishment or in (the approach of) the Hour, - they will at length realize who is worst in position, and (who) is weakest in forces! Allah increaseth in right guidance those who walk aright, and the good deeds which endure are better in thy Lord's sight for reward, and better to resort to” ( 19 / 75 – 76 )  Man starts with choosing his way, then God advance believers in guidance and disbelievers in darkness. In other words, God adorns for believers and disbelievers their chosen ways. God says about believers: “But God has endeared the faith to you and has made it beautiful in your hearts, and He has made hateful to you unbelief, wickedness, and rebellion”.( 49/ 7), and says about disbelievers: “as to those who believe not in the hereafter, We have made their deeds pleading in their eyes; and so they wander in distraction”.( 27/ 4)


In dialogue: Approving and recognizing religious freedom for opponents


1-     Quran forbids debating with misled people who reverse situations and see true as false and false as true. God Almighty says to his prophet Mohammad: “Is he, then, to whom the evil of his conduct is made alluring, so that he looks upon it as good, (equal to one who is rightly guided)? For Allah leaves to stray whom He wills, and guides whom He wills. So let not thy soul go out in (vainly) sighing after them: for Allah knows well all that they do! “(35/ 8).

2-     Dialogue should be conducted through wisdom and rational means. Quran includes examples on the dialogue God had with his creation that practiced his right of refusing rational pretexts and logical proofs, and would be responsible before God on his choices in the Hereafter. And thus the one who invites people for truth should leave his opponents and abandon them politely. God says to his prophet as a constitution for him and to any other who invites for God: “And have patience with what they say and leave them with noble dignity”. (73/ 10). And says: “Hold to forgiveness; command what is right; But turn away from the ignorant”. (7/ 199).

3-     Turning away from the ignorant in religion means to leave him to the way he chose and liked, and to leave him as well till the day of the judgment. God says to the prophet: “Therefore turn away from them and wait, surely they too are waiting   “  (32/ 30  ).  “Therefore shun those who turn away from Our message and desire nothing but the life of this world. That’s as far as knowledge will reach them”. (53/ 29).

4-     God orders to leave disbelievers assure their religious freedom and their responsibility on this freedom before God in the Hereafter. God says: “say to those who don’t believe: do what ever you can, we shall do our part. And wait ye! We too shall wait”.( 11/ 121- 122). And He says: “say: o my people! Do whatever ye can: I will do my part, soon will ye know who it is whose end will be best in the hereafter, certain it is that the wrong doers will not prosper”.( 6/ 135). and says: “say: O my people! Do what ever ye can, I will do my part, but soon will ye know, who it is whom comes a penalty of ignominy, and on whom descends a penalty that abides”( 39/ 39- 40).

5-     Leaving disbelievers alone, which confirms their freedom of choice and their responsibility for it, bears signs of frightening that reflects a hope to guide them. If there wasn’t hope, focus would be on leaving disbelievers with best ways in dealing. God say: “and certain it is that either we or ye are on right guidance or in manifest error! Say: ye shall not be questioned as to our sins, nor shall we be questioned as to what ye do. Say: our Lord will gather us together and will in the end decide the matter between us and you in truth and justice, ”(34/ 24- ) When hope to guide is lost, and the other side sticks to his position, the answer should be: “Either we or you are on right guidance or misled” do not say to him :“You are infidel, go to hell”. It should be said to him “you are not responsible for our criminality and we are no responsible for your acts”. Similarly it would be said in Quran: “you wouldn’t be reckoned for our crimes, and we wouldn’t be reckoned for your crimes”. However, the decent dialogue of the holy Quran refuses this behavior. Instead, it is said “God will gather us in the Hereafter and will judge between us” not “we are people of Heaven and you are people of Fire”. This is what should be said to those who are opposing religious opinions and persecuting the peaceful believers.

6-      This decent behavior and speech is not considered duplicity or false method. However Quran deemed it to be real emotion that comes from heart and bears grace and forgiveness. This emotion rises from the belief that the opponent has done wrong to himself and he will get severe torture in the Hereafter, because he failed in the exam and misused the freedom God granted him. Faithful man should forgive his enemy if he imagines the atrocity of torture in the Hereafter. This is not a rational effort to explain or prove issues. Yet it is reflecting upon the meanings of the clear and overt verses of Quran. God says about the Hereafter: “And the Hour is surely coming, when this will be manifest, so overlook, any human faults, with gracious forgiveness” (15/ 85). God recommended not just forgiveness but gracious forgiveness. God says: “God has knowledge of the prophet’s cry: oh my Lord! Truly these are a people who will not believe! But turn away from them and say: peace! But soon shall they know!”( 43/ 88- 89). So we should forgive people with different views and creed and say: “peace, you will know” when we lose hope to convince them. God says ordering faithful believers: “tell those who believe, to forgive those who do not look forward to the days of God, it is for Him to recompense for good or ill each people according to what they have earned. If any one does a righteous deed, it endures to the benefit of his own soul, if he does evil, it works against his own soul, in the end will ye all be brought back to your Lord”( 45/ 14- 15).










Chapter 3: Freedom of religion applied by the Prophet Muhammad

1- “No compulsion in religion”


Insincere religious leaders in Muslim World don’t feel good about God’s saying: “Let there be no compulsion in religion.” 2/ 256. They misinterpret its meaning alleging that compulsion can’t be used to force people to embrace Islam, yet it should be used to force Muslims to implement the laws that some of which wasn’t legislated by God. One of these false laws they invented is killing Muslim who converted from Islam to other religion.

 This misinterpretation distorts the meaning of this Quranic verse which is confirmed by other verse saying to the Prophet Mohamed ( If it had been your Lord’s Will, surely all those who are in the earth would have believed, all of them; will you then force people till they become believers?( 10 . 99). Glory to God Who doesn’t forget anything, and thank God because He kept the Quran away from any violation, otherwise insincere religious leaders would change whatever they want.

 “No compulsion in religion” is a basic Quranic rule, confirmed – directly and indirectly - by more than one thousand verse, and was applied by the Prophet Mohamed during his life.

“No compulsion in religion” was revealed in Al Medina when the Muslims in the time of the Prophet Mohamed had a powerful Islamic state. This verse had been revealed to confirm hundreds of verses were revealed before in Mecca when Muslims were persecuted.

“No compulsion in religion” means clearly that there must not be any compulsion in forcing people to believe in God or not, or to perform rites. God wants people to worship Him out of their choice and conscience, and not to pray for Him out of fear. God wants people to give charity out of loving Him. And out of their desire to satisfy Him, not to satisfy superiors or to gain people’s love.

In Al Medina in the time of the Prophet Mohamed there were the old lecherous of Al Medina before Islam who hated Muslims and Islam, yet they claimed to be Muslims to plot against the Prophet Mohamed and Muslims. God named them “Hypocrites”. Those Hypocrites used to   give charity not for God’s love. So God asked the prophet not to take their charity. God says: “the only reason why their contributions are not accepted is: that they reject God and His Messenger, that they come to prayer without earnestness, and that they offer contributions unwillingly.”( 9. 54 ). And God says about believers who have repented: “Others have acknowledged their wrong doings, they have mixed an act that was good with another that was evil, perhaps God will turn unto them in mercy for God is Oft- Forgiving, Most Merciful . Of their goods take alms. That you would purify and sanctify them thereby, and pray for them. Verily your prayer is a relief to them” 9/ 102- 103.

 2- Freedom in Quran is a responsible freedom. You are free in what you think and free to obey or disobey under condition of not harming others. Yet you should be punished when you harm others for the benefit of the entire community. That is why God approved punishment of crimes of killing, banditry, robbery, adultery, and accusing pious married women of having sexual relationship with men other than their husbands. However, Quran doesn’t suggest any punishment for renegades, wine drinkers or those who don’t perform prayers. These punishments were invented by Abbasids, two centuries and more after the death of the Prophet Mohamed. It is related to the Sunni Sharee’a which contradicts Islam.

3- Insincere religious scholars find the Islamic Quranic value of “enjoining just and forbidding evil.” a way to dominate others, adding many forbidden matters that were created by them or their ancestors. Those forbidden matters were not known during the time of the Prophet Mohamed; however they see the value of “enjoining just and forbidding evil” as a pretext for compulsion in religion.

“Enjoining just and forbidding evil” is a mere verbal order and a prohibition recommended for every Muslim and not limited to a certain group. It is for the entire Muslim society to be active in advising each other in the field of high values and to purify themselves through good education God describes the good society saying : “Those who have faith and do righteous deeds, and join together in the mutual teaching of truth , and tolerance”( 103. 3). It is a kind of cooperation in maintaining the good values as God orders the Muslim society saying “ And help each other in goodness and piety , and do not help each other in evil and aggression” ( 5 . 2).

This verbal advice doesn’t authorize anybody to force others to do good deeds, and this is proved by God’s saying to Muhammad: “ And be kind to the believers who follow you. Then if they disobey you, say: I am free of responsibility for what you do”( 26/ 214: 216). God orders him to be modest with believers, and to say that he is free of responsibility of their deeds when they disobey him, but not to hit them with chains. Likewise, God doesn’t order the prophet to say he is free of them. God says to the prophet: “say: I am free of responsibility for what ye do”. It means he is free of their bad deeds not to be free of them in person. These are the limits of “enjoining just and forbidding evil”. We can say we are free of someone’s misdeeds when he insists on them. This is what Prophet Mohamed used to do with his companions. Yet the problem is that some people grant themselves an authority higher than that of the Prophet Mohamed himself.

How did Prophet Mohamed act with his companions and hypocrites? And how far did hypocrites enjoy freedom during the first Islamic state in Al Medina? The answer to insincere religious leaders lies in the answers of these questions.

2- Freedom of religion in Muhammad’s Government


Muhammad wasn’t a normal ruler. He was a messenger and prophet who used to get a divine revelation and that spread his religion within his state and out of it. Hypocrites represented opposition against Muhammad’s government. They opposed Islam and the prophet’s policies and authority. Yet their fear prevented them from raising an armed riot against the state. They were too weak to demonstrate. So they found it enough to conspire against he prophet, then to swear that they were innocent. However, they enjoyed great freedom of words and deeds - that Quran assured for them- against the state they lived within but worked against.

Quran answered their cons and allegations, and disclosed their conspiracies, yet recommended the prophet and Muslims to turn away from disbelievers and feel that the punishment waiting for them in the Hereafter is sufficient.

3- How far oppositions enjoyed freedom of opinion:


1- Hypocrites insulted believers and described them as fools, Quran answered them saying: “when it is said to them: believe as the other believe, they say: shall we believe as the fools believe? Nay, of a surely they are the fools, but they don’t know” 2/ 13.

2- Hypocrites liked to make fun of believers especially at the times before wars. They described rich people who gave charity as hypocrites, and made fun of poor people who gave charity, while they held their hands and refused to give charity. God says: “They who taunt those of the faithful who give their alms freely, and those who give to the extent of their earnings and scoff at them; Allah will pay them back their scoffing, and they shall have a painful chastisement”.

 Prophet Mohamed used to pray for them asking God to forgive them in spite of their bad deeds. God said: “Ask forgiveness for them or do not ask forgiveness for them; even if you ask forgiveness for them seventy times, Allah will not forgive them; this is because they disbelieve in Allah and His Messenger, and Allah does not guide the transgressing people.”( 9/ 79-80).

3- Hypocrites expressed their opinions concerning Quran freely, and they made fun of it publicly in many ways. God says: “The hypocrites fear lest a( Quranic ) chapter should be sent down to them telling them plainly of what is in their hearts. Say: Go on mocking, surely Allah will bring forth what you fear.”( 9/ 64).

4-Hypocrites asked sarcastically whose faith increased when new verses descended. God says: “And whenever a ( Quranic )chapter is revealed, there are some of them who say: Which of you has it strengthened in faith? Then as for those who believe, it strengthens them in faith and they rejoice?”( 9/124).

5- Hypocrites listened to the prophet reciting Quran and went out underestimating what they listened to and asked the people about it. God says to his prophet: “And there are those of them who seek to listen to you, until when they go forth from you, they say to those who have been given the knowledge: What was it that he said just now? These are they upon whose hearts Allah has set a seal and they follow their low desires.?” 47/16.

6- When hypocrites were asked why they made fun of Quran, they said, with no heed, that they were playing. Yet the prophet, the ruler of the state, didn’t take any action against them, because God would punish them in the Hereafter. God says: “And if you should question them, they would certainly say: We were only idly discoursing and sporting. Say: Was it at Allah and His verses and His Messenger that you mocked?. Do not make excuses; you have denied indeed after you had believed; if We pardon a party of you, We will chastise (another) party because they are guilty.”( 9/ 65-66).

7- Hypocrites summoned public councils to mock Quran. Some Muslims attended these councils with good intentions, but Quran was sent warning them not to attend them, some of them kept attending the councils. God says: “And indeed He has revealed to you in the Book that when you hear Allah's verses disbelieved in and mocked at, do not sit with them until they talk about some other discourse; surely then you would be like them; surely Allah will gather together the hypocrites and the unbelievers all in hell” 4/ 140.

8- Hypocrites insulted the prophet despite that he was the political leader and the messenger who possessed the holy inspiration. The prophet was ordered to consult people around him, so he did, and included hypocrites- who were leaders of Al Medina before him- in his discussions. And through their councils, hypocrites tried to set up traps for the prophet. So God warned him. God says: “O Prophet! Fear Allah, and hearken not to the Unbelievers and the Hypocrites “ ( 33. 1). Then they accused the prophet of giving his ear to everyone when they found the prophet listening to others, so God said: “among them are men who harm the prophet and say: he is all ear. Say: he listens to what is best for you, he believes in God, has trust in the believers and is a mercy to those of you who believer. But those who hurt the messenger of Allah will have a grievous penalty”.( 9/ 61).

God Almighty is the One who defended the prophet and described him as a mercy to believers, and pledged to punish those who harmed the prophet. Yet the prophet’s authority as a leader wasn’t given a role in that free community that allowed infidel opposition, covered with faith, to say what it wanted. God ordered his prophet to turn away from hypocrites’ harm and not to obey them. God says: “and obey not the behests of the unbelievers and the hypocrites, and heed not their annoyances, but put thy trust in God, for enough is God as a Disposer of affairs”. (33/48).

9- Hypocrites slandered the prophet when he deprived them from talking charity because they were rich. They rejected that decision and chased believers with their bad words. God says: “And of them ,there are those who slander you in the matter of the distribution of the alms; so if they are given from it they are pleased, and if they are denied it, lo! They are full of rage.” (9/ 58).

In long and short, Hypocrites enjoyed freedom of opinion during the time of Muhammad’s government. And through such freedom, they expressed their own views on Islam, Quran, and the prophet. Quran’s teachings assured this right for them, and the prophet forgave them and prayed for God to forgive them.

4 -The Extent of Opposition in Muhammad’s Government


Hypocrites’ freedom of opinion wasn’t limited to public declaration, but extended to actions, plots and conspiracies. Quranic legislation didn’t interfere until the Hypocrites trespassed the red line and their conspiracies harmed the state when it was surrounded by enemies. That was during the battle of (The Coalition : Al Ahzab). We can follow their conspiratorial steps to declare their views through Quranic verses:

1-Hypocrites were free to corrupt communities. They were free to call for corruption without being questioned or punished. Yet when they were asked about their deeds, they answered freely that this was reformation from their own point of view. God says: “And when it is said to them, do not make mischief in the land, they say: We are but peace-makers. Now surely they themselves are the mischief makers, but they do not perceive. ”( 2/ 11- 12).


2-While believers were enjoining what was just and forbidding what was evil, hypocrites were enjoining evil, and forbidding what was just and refusing to give Charity. They could declare their stance through an atmosphere of freedom that we can’t imagine to occur now in Muslim World. God says: “the hypocrites, men and women, have an understanding with each other. They enjoyed evil, and forbid what is just” 9/ 67. Believers were the opposite. God says: “the believers, men and women, are protectors, one of another: they enjoin what is just and forbid what is evil, they observe regular prayers, practice regular charity and obey God and His apostle. Upon them will God pour his mercy.”( 9/ 71).

The concept of “enjoying what is just and forbidding what is evil” was limited within Muslim community to verbal advice, without compulsion, harming or denying others.

3- Hypocrites rejected the prophet’s judgment, though he was the official leader, in an attempt to express their opposition to his authority. However the prophet turned away from them. God says: Have you not seen those who assert that they believe in what has been revealed to you and what was revealed before you? They desire to summon one another to the false deity, though they were commanded to deny him, and Satan would mislead them far astray. And when it is said to them: Come to what Allah has revealed and to the Messenger, you will see the hypocrites turning away from you with (utter) aversion.”(4/ 60- 61).

Actually Hypocrites were satisfied with Islamic judgment if it was for their benefit. God says: “when they are summoned to God and His apostle, in order that he may judge between them, behold, some of them decline to come, but if the right is on their side, they come to him with full submission.”( 24/ 48- 49). God suggests that obeying Quranic legislation is optional, yet He states that believers should hear and obey it. God says: “the answer of the believers, when summoned to God and His apostle, in order that he may judge between them, is no other than this: they say: we hear and we obey. It is such as these that will attain felicity.” (24/ 51).

4- Even at times of wars and emergency, hypocrites had total freedom of words and deeds against their state. In spite of the fact that modern democracies resort to human regulations and exceptional laws, Quranic legislation support freedom to an incomparable extent.

*During the battle of (Uhud), hypocrites were free not to fight with Muslims. Then they put the responsibility of defeat on Muslims on grounds that Muslims didn’t obey them and refused to stay in the city of Al Medina. God says: “And that He might know the hypocrites; and it was said to them: Come, fight in Allah's cause, or defend yourselves. They said: If we knew fighting, we would certainly have followed you. They were on that day much nearer to unbelief than to belief. They say with their mouths what is not in their hearts, and Allah best knows what they conceal. Those who, while they sat at home, said of their brethren (who were fighting for the cause of Allah): If they had been guided by us they would not have been slain. Say (unto them, O Muhammad): Then avert death from yourselves if ye are truthful.”( 3/ 167).

God gave the answer to the prophet: “Say : then avert death from yourselves if ye are truthful.”(

3/ 167 -).

*During the battle of Al-ahzab, the enemy soldiers from different tribes led by Qureish surrounded the city of Medina, and the hypocrites couldn’t get out. So hypocrites got panicked and turned into spies for the disbeliever enemies. Moreover, they mocked the prophet’s promise of victory, called Muslims not to join the fight, and left their posts of safeguarding. Muslims faced hard times that God describes as: “When they came upon you from above you and from below you, and when the eyes turned dull, and the hearts rose up to the throats, and you began to think diverse thoughts of Allah.. There the believers were tried and they were shaken with severe shaking. And when the hypocrites and those in whose hearts was a disease began to say: Allah and His Messenger did not promise us (victory) but only to deceive. And when a party of them said: O people of Yasrib! There IS no place to stand for you (here), therefore go back; and a party of them asked permission of the prophet, saying. Surely our houses are exposed; and they were not exposed; they only desired to flee away.” (33/ 10 :13).

God says about hypocrites’ role in calling believers for not joining fight or defending themselves: “verily Allah knows indeed those among you who hinder others and those who say to their brethren: Come to us; and they come not to the fight but in small numbers” 33/ 18.

During those hard times, three groups of hypocrites emerged; each had a damaging role that deserved God to send verses of threatening Hypocrites and defining a red line for them. God says: “If the hypocrites and those in whose hearts is a disease and the agitators in the city do not desist, We shall most certainly set you over them, then they shall not be your neighbors in it but for a little while”( 33/ 60).

God warned Hypocrites to stop playing their dirty games and threatened to order the prophet to take an action against them.

*In the battle of (Zatel Ossra) Hypocrites didn’t want to join fight on grounds it was too hot. So God deprived them of the honor of jihad in the future. God says: “Those who were left behind were glad on account of their sitting behind Allah's Messenger and they were averse from striving in Allah's way with their property and their persons, and said: Do not go forth in the heat. Say: The fire of hell is much severe in heat.  Would that they understood (it)”.( 9/ 81). God deprived them of getting the honor of jihad as their life penalty. God says: “Therefore if Allah brings you back to a party of them and then they ask your permission to go forth, say: By no means shall you ever go forth with me and by no means shall you fight an enemy with me; surely you chose to sit the first time, therefore sit (now) with those who remain behind.”( 9/ 83).

The second penalty is that no one would pray for them when they die. God says: “And never offer prayer for any one of them who dies and do not stand by his grave; surely they disbelieve in Allah and His Messenger and they shall die in transgression.”( 9/ 84).

Through Quran, we realize that compulsory recruitment wasn’t included within Islamic military according to Quranic constitution that suggests that there is no compulsion in religion. From here, the principle of volunteering life and money as the only way of mobilizing Muslim army came. And through the same principle of “no compulsion in religion” hypocrites enjoyed their freedom of rejecting recruitment and fight whether to defend the city of Medina in the battle of (Ahzab) or to go out with Muslims in their protective wars over the desert of Arabian Peninsula. Yet punishing them was in passive ways that were limited to turning away from them.

God is the only One who knows what is hidden in people’s hearts. God says: “and Allah knows best your faith: you (branch off), one from the other”( 4/ 25).

God talked about renegades of hypocrites who rejected Islam and made their punishment in life and in the hereafter in His hand. God Almighty says: “They swear by Allah that they did not speak, and certainly they did speak, the word of unbelief, and disbelieved after their Islam, and they had determined upon what they have not been able to effect, and they did not find fault except because Allah and His Messenger enriched them out of His grace; therefore if they repent, it will be good for them; and if they turn back, Allah will chastise them with a painful chastisement in this world and the hereafter, and they shall not have in the land any guardian or a helper” 9 / 74.


5- The opposition of hypocrites reached the level of conspiracy against the state, and this conspiracy took different forms:

*- hypocrites spread rumors at times of wars, and they conspired against Muslims during the battle of ( Al Ahzab) when danger was threatening all.(33/ 60). Yet they kept spreading rumors at times of peace too. God says: “when there comes to them some matter touching public safety or fear, they divulge it. If they had only referred it to the apostle, or to those charged with authority among them, the proper investigators would have tested it ” (4/ 83). This means, they disclosed secrets and spread rumors and speculations without going back to concerned authorities.

*- Because of their numerous rumors, Medina turned into a beehive within which gossip and rumors were exchanged, as the community of that city was open and free both politically and religiously. Despite God prohibiting the habit of holding secret counsels, yet hypocrites did not obey Him and insisted on holding their secret councils. They showed the prophet fake love. God says: “Have you not seen those who are forbidden secret counsels, then they return to what they are forbidden, and they hold secret counsels for sin and revolt and disobedience to the Messenger, and when they come to you they greet you with a greeting with which Allah does not greet you, and they say in themselves: Why does not Allah punish us for what we say? Hell is enough for them; they shall enter it, and evil is the resort!”(58/ 8).

The habit of holding secret counsels hit some Muslims in Medina. God says to them: “O you who believe! when you confer together in private, do not give to each other counsel of sin and revolt and disobedience to the Messenger, and give to each other counsel of goodness and guarding (against evil); and be careful of (your duty to) Allah, to Whom you shall be gathered together.” (58/ 9).

Then God explains the aim of hypocrites saying: “secret counsels are only inspired by the evil one, in order that he may cause grief to the believers, but he can not harm them in the least, except as God permits, and in God let the believers put their trust”( 58/ 11).

*- Hypocrites conspired against the prophet and pretended to be obedient. Quran revealed their dishonesty saying: “And they say: Obedience. But when they go out from your presence, a party of them decide by night upon doing otherwise than what you say; and Allah writes down what they decide by night, therefore turn aside from them and trust in Allah, and Allah is sufficient as a protector.”( 4/ 81).

*- Hypocrites conspiracy resulted in a split among Muslims, so Quran considered it good for Muslims when Hypocrites rejected to join their fight in the battle of (Zatel Ossra). God says: “Had they gone forth with you, they would not have added to you aught save corruption, and they would certainly have hurried about among you seeking (to sow) dissension among you, and among you there are those who hearken for their sake; and Allah knows the unjust. Certainly they sought (to sow) dissension before, and they meditated plots against you until the truth came, and Allah's commandment prevailed although they were averse (to it).” (9/ 47- 48).

*- Conspiracy dedicated hypocrites to contact Muslims’ enemies of disbelievers to form confidential allies against Muhammad’s government. Quran revealed these allies between hypocrites and disbelievers in many points. Nevertheless, in top modern democracies, contacting enemy governments at times of wars means  a great treason, but Islamic legislation does not specify a punishment for it , it is up to Allah to nullify this plot as peaceful Muslims put their trust in Him alone. God says: “Those who wait for (some misfortune to befall) you then if you have a victory from Allah they say: Were we not with you? And if there IS a chance for the unbelievers, they say: Did we not acquire the mastery over you and defend you from the believers? So Allah shall Judge between you on the day of resurrection, and Allah will by no means give the unbelievers a way against the believers?”( 4/ 141). God says about hypocrites’ confidential alliance with Muslims’ enemies in the time of war: “But you will see those in whose hearts is a disease hastening towards them, saying: We fear lest a calamity should befall us; but it may be that Allah will bring the victory or a punishment from Himself, so that they shall be regretting on account of what they hid in their souls.”( 5/ 55).

God says also: “Have you not seen those who have become hypocrites? They say to those of their brethren who disbelieve from among the followers of the Book: If you are driven forth, we shall certainly go forth with you, and we will never obey any one concerning you, and if you are fought against, we will certainly help you, and Allah bears witness that they are most surely liars.” (59/ 11).

God says about their penalty in the hereafter: “Have you not seen those who befriend a people with whom Allah is wroth? They are neither of you nor of them, and they swear falsely while they know. God has prepared for them a severe penalty; evil indeed are their deeds”( 58/ 14- 15).

*- Hypocrites conspired to expel the Prophet Mohamed and Muslims from Al Medina, and cease providing believers. God says: “They it is who say: Do not spend upon those who are with the Messenger of Allah until they break up. And Allah's are the treasures of the heavens and the earth, but the hypocrites do not understand. They say: If we return to Medina, the mighty will surely drive out the meaner there from; and to Allah belongs the might and to His Messenger and to the believers, but the hypocrites do not know.” ( 63 / 7-8 ).

Quran narrated some events of their conspiracy like spying. God says: “And whenever a chapter is revealed, they cast glances at one another: Does any one see you? Then they turn away:.”( 9 / 127 )

And says: “And when it is said to them: Believe as the people believe they say: Shall we believe as the fools believe? Now surely they themselves are the fools, but they do not know and when they meet those who believe, they say: We believe; and when they are alone with their Shaitans(devils, evil spirits, evil thoughts), they say: Surely we are with you, we were only mocking. Allah shall pay them back their mockery, and He leaves them alone in their inordinacy, blindly wandering on.

”( 2/ 13-15).

This means that God gave them freedom to choose the wrong way and to reach to its end.

*- Through their huge freedom, hypocrites could build a mosque to be a den used to conspire against Muslims and harm them. They turned that mosque into a place for everyone conspired against Islam and the state of the prophet. God says: “And those who built a mosque (masjid )to cause harm and for unbelief and to cause disunion among the believers and an ambush to him who made war against Allah and His Messenger before; and they will certainly swear: We did not desire aught but good; and Allah bears witness that they are most surely”( 9/ 107). Muslims used to go to that mosque with good intentions, and it seems that the prophet used to go as well, unknowing what was going on in that mosque.

God said to His Prophet :“ Never stand in it; certainly a mosque founded on piety from the very first day is more deserving that you should stand in it; in it are men who love that they should be purified; and Allah loves those who purify themselves.” ( 9 / 108 )

In contrast to some narrations written by Muslims two centuries after that, suggest that the prophet burned that mosque, which is against Quranic legislation, the following verse indicates that the prophet didn’t burn the mosque, God says: “the foundation of those who so build is never free from suspicion and shakiness in their hearts, until their hearts are cut to pieces. And God is All knowing, Wise” (9/ 110).

*- The prophet and believers found it was enough to boycott the den to obey God’s saying: “Never stand in it”. It was the policy followed by the prophet to deal with his enemies inside his state. He turned away form them, left them enjoying their freedom of religion and declaring their opinions in words and actions, even if that reached the degree of conspiracy.


6- It may be said that this policy is not proper in our current time and we have to take protective measures or legislate exceptional regulations in order to face conspiracy against freedom. However, Quran recommends the best way of protection against conspiracy: To own more freedom with putting trust in God. God created man free in the field of religion and thoughts. No one – including the prophets – has the right to control man’s freedom or seize it. Actually, it is the best way for safety in time of war and emergency. Most of this fear of potential matters may be just doubts in the minds of leaders. It is for their own desire of power, to make people scared of some illusions. This give the leaders more control on people. Finally it will affect people freedom and security as well. According to the holy Quran, opening ways for exceptions and assaults on free will leads to covert oppression then overt one. God says: “And they say: Obedience. But when they go out from your presence, a party of them decide by night upon doing otherwise than what you say; and Allah writes down what they decide by night, therefore turn aside from them and trust in Allah, and Allah is sufficient as a protector.”( 4/ 81). The protection is to turn away form Hypocrites and put our trust in God who is the supporter and the defender.

*- Hypocrites’ psychology is composed of fear, doubt, disloyalty and inability to trust others. This causes failure to their conspiracies at some point, and this stops them from continuing their plots. God says about the fear of hypocrites: “they swear by God that they are indeed of you, but they are not of you, yet they are afraid to appear in their true colors. If they could find a place to flee to, or caves, or a place of concealment, they would turn straightway thereto, with an obstinate rush”( 9/ 56- 57).

- Hypocrites allied with the enemies of Muslims in order to win the battle with Muslims, saying that they would go out with them if Muslims won. Quran revealed the confidential alliance and predicted that hypocrites would not help their allies: “if they are expelled, never will they go out with them, and if they are attacked in fight, they will never help them and if they do help them they will turn their backs, so they will receive no help.”( 59/ 12-).

Believers were stronger because of their faith in God and their application of His law. With applying the concept of (no compulsion in religion), God can grant victory believers today if they understand the truth of Islam. This truth which was distorted by the Sunni Sharee’a, made up by the insincere Middle Age scholars.


However, we still have the Quran. God says: “Surely We have revealed the Reminder (Quran), and We will most surely be its guardian”(15 / 9) with the Quran we can guide Muslims to accept religious freedom as an Islamic value along with democracy , justice, tolerance and peace. With  the Quran we can confirm the contradiction between Islam and the fanatic bloody religious culture of terrorism.






Chapter 4: Muslim’s Identity belongs to his religious freedom, not his country or nation


It is common knowledge in the Wahabi culture that a Muslim’s allegiance is to his faith, regardless of country of birth or nationality. That is why the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt promotes and advocates that a Muslim in Bangladesh or Pakistan is closer to an Egyptian Muslim than an Egyptian Muslim should be to an Egyptian Copt. This rumor is adopted by religious fanatic scholars who long for the establishment of a theocracy that spread all over the world, under the banner of Caliphate to confront the western crusaders and international Zionism. This rumor has no basis in real life besides, it contradicts Islam and here are the details:

On practical level:


1-     Muslims in real life are divided into many man-made sects and denominations that feud among each other. The practical division among Muslims is as follows:

A-A substantial Shiite minority feuding with the Sunnite, this enmity sometimes supersedes the enmity between Muslims and Christians. It is a prolonged deep-rooted enmity renewed by the memories of Karbala and the continuous bloodshed suffered by Shiites at the hands of Sunni extremists, especially in Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia and in Egypt, due to the Saudi Wahabi Influence. When the Shiite are in power or the majority, they persecute the Sunnite as it happened during the Fatimid period, and as it is taking place nowadays in Iran. In this condition, do not question the allegiance of the Shiite Muslim to the Sunnite Muslim in the frame of same religion, for they are opposing antagonists.

B- A strict Wahabi, Sunnite minority claiming to speak on behalf of Muslims at large. Equal within its ranks, are the plain terrorists like Bin Laden and Alzawaahri, and the civilian branch of terrorism, the Muslim Brotherhood, united by the common dream of a united Muslim State, ignoring realities of matters. Among them also, are the religious scholars in the service of established corrupt regimes. They direct their enmity towards the Sufi and the Shiite whom they consider to be idolaters, calling to wage wars against them, labeling them as graves and graven images worshippers. Hence, to speak of one religion is a waste of time.

C- An atheist Sufi minority that believes in the unity of existence, incarnation and oneness of every thing in the universe. They dropped rituals from their agenda claiming it hinder reaching the so – called union in God , whatever that might be. Based on those convictions, they regard the Muslims’ creed (There is no Deity except Allah) as intended for low level commoners.

D- A vast Sunnite Sufi majority, meaning they worship Sunni style, in performing daily prayers, fasting and pilgrimage, in a very superficial form of worship, yet find no qualms in sanctifying graves starting with the one attributed to the prophet  Mohamed , then the sacred Shiite graves ,then the sacred Sunnite graves and the sacred tombs sanctified by the Sufi . This silent majority, succumbs and yields to every tyrannical dictator, its real allegiance is to make a living and to tend to the needs of everyday life. It endures the injustice of whoever oppressive tyrant in power, applauds him as long as he is in power, and do the same for the one who succeeds him. Consequently, they are not concerned with real religious identification; they are concerned with themselves, and if any of its members migrate, it is for purely economical reasons and temporary in duration. The oppressor conducts a brain washing method with them, directing their national, pan-national or religious allegiance to him alone.

2 -The essence of belonging:


A-    It is that strong feeling that prompts a person to choose a way, a path and strives in its cause. Religion or Faith, linguistically in Arabic, means Way, Path, Road. Every human being chooses for himself a religion or a way in his life to interact accordingly with his Creator and people around him. Belonging is the center piece of this interaction.

B-    According to the Quran, and with respect to divinity, people are of two types. There is the one that believes in Almighty Allah alone as deity, no partner, no counterpart, did not bear an offspring, nor was He borne, and nothing is comparable to Him, believes in the Day of Resurrection, conducts himself in this life according to what Almighty Allah demands from him, obeys Him hoping to be one of the successful on that Day.

Then there is the vast majority of mankind that worships (DESIRE), any thing that the self desires in this life. All DESIRES have but one way, which is the longing for this earthly life, to gain wealth, power, prestige, glory, influence, pleasure and selfish cravings. Under the title of DESIRES, they differ. Some of them are atheists with their gods they belong to, some of them are followers of man-made religions that allows and permits all means to achieve status, power, wealth by any method, and there are some who consider their god they belong to, mere slogans to deceive people by, like pan nationalism, nationalism and workers’ rights, their goals is to reach power and wealth, as manifested by politico- religious careerists.

Then there is the silent crushed majority, the prey that the mightiest of the gladiators compete to rule and exploit, with their religious, national, pan national and social slogans. The dominant desire controlling that silent majority is to secure the basic needs of shelter, guaranteed steady income, health benefits, and security for his children and to live in peace. Towards that end, he sacrifices his strength and his life, and this is his practical religion which never exceeds the requirements of this life. Even when he prays to Almighty Allah, or besieges the saints, holy men, sacred graves and tombs to intercede on his behalf, his aspirations are limited to livelihood, kids’ success and marrying off the girls and to make it safely out of the hands of the oppressive ruler….and the rest of those trivial things. But the afterlife, he does not even think about, because he was oversaturated with ideas from his man-made religion that he will enter heaven, regardless of what he had done, for paradise is guaranteed for him with the prophet’s and other saint’ intercession. Or for the mere uttering of the two phrases of ” I bear witness” (1)-That there is no god except Allah and,(2)-That Mohammad is His messenger, but what is not guaranteed for him in this life is his sustenance, which is exactly opposite what have been mentioned in the Quran. For Almighty Allah has guaranteed sustenance to all creation and mankind regardless of their belief or disbelief. (2.126) (17. 18 - ) (11. 6) (29. 60) (6.151) (17.030 -) As for Paradise, (Entrance) is not guaranteed except for those who work for it diligently.

C-The issue of Identity in Islam has nothing to do with the one who follows his desires and chooses this earthly life over the eternal one. This type, his identity has been determined by his desires in this life; his identity is for this life. The worst of this type is the so called godly that uses religion to achieve power, or to provide means of living ,because he is deceiving people in the name of Almighty Allah, taking up lying as a vocation and spreading untruths upon which his earthly man-made religion is established to cheat and deceive.

D-The issue of identity and belonging in Islam is restricted to those who believe in Almighty Allah and Day of Resurrection, work for the pleasure of Almighty Allah, to attain his favor and his paradise, and always strive to do good deeds, to maintain justice and secure people’s rights without any religious ambitions or without asking for anything in return. It is the task of prophets and those who walk in their footsteps.

E-This believer; who strives in pursuit of Almighty Allah’s pleasure, to whom does he belong? What is his identity?

3-The true believer and nationalism 

Does the true believer belong to his people?

The Glorious Quran recognizes nationalism when it mentions every prophet’s dealings with his own people. Does that mean that the prophets and their followers belong to and have allegiance with their people? Here we have to point out few things:

One-Every prophet used to summon his people to Faith by calling them (My people).This form of speech was repeated in the Quran. Some prophets even addressed their people after their demise, addressed them feeling sorry how they ended up. (7.79, 93) It means they were his people even after death.

Two- Determining nationality in Islam is by ancestry and living within a society, that is coexisting, or by both. For an incoming stranger, acquires a certain people’s nationality by living, sharing and interacting with them. Prophet LUT migrated with his uncle ABRAHAM from Iraq to Jordan and lived with different people than his uncle, and by living with them he became their brother and their description became people of LUT or LUT’s brothers. (50. 13) (11. 78)

A prophet or a person might belong to and be identified with his people by bloodline, though he was brought up far from them, but is considered one of them through bloodline and heritage. Moses grew up and was raised inside the Pharaoh’s castle , while his people were undergoing all sorts of torture from the pharaoh, as soon as he was in contact with the general public, he committed a murder, he fled the scene, leaving his people and his (homeland) and went to Syria. He returned to Egypt, few years later as a prophet, addressing children of Israel as his people, although he never lived among them. (7.128 -)

Here, nationality is determined by bloodline and ethnicity and not by living the society or the environment.

Three- Determination of nationality (being part of a certain people) is not affected by a prophet’s people denial of his message and his mission. They are still considered his people no matter how antagonistic they are to him and his message. He might even use this connection of common background to endear them to his message, and to show them how concerned he is for their safety. Every prophets used to say  to his people (my people) and Almighty Allah refers to them as (his people),) despite their going astray, their deviation from the truth and their refusal of him, he is wooing them and they are abusing him. They are still his people even though they caused him all kinds of hardship. (7. 59 - ) (7. 65) (7. 66) (7. 67) (7. 68) (61. 5)

The same thing happened with the seal of all prophets Mohamed and his people of Quraysh, who denied him. Almighty Allah informs the prophet and about (his people), saying about the Quran: (And most surely it is a reminder for you and your people, and you shall soon be questioned.) (43. 44 ). So prophet Mohammad and his people were asked to believe in this Glorious Quran and to follow it, for they will be asked about it, like he will be, on Day of Resurrection. But Prophet Mohammad’s people, renounced and disbelieved in this Quranic truth all together, consequently, Almighty Allah ordered his prophet to declare that he is not responsible for them, for they are still his people, although they denied him and his mission. (6. 66). 

 The Quran came down with stories of prophets and of previous people, some of those stories came down before the Torah, and some were not mentioned in the Torah, like the stories of Arab prophets from the period of extinct Arabs. The details of those stories were unknown to the people of Mohammad or to Mohammad himself. (11. 49)

Yet they argued, with no basis or foundation for their argument, and tried to refute some of those stories (43. 57) 

Prophet Mohammad passed and his people did too, and on Resurrection Day he will come back to witness that they have deserted the Quran and they are the enemies to the Prophet Mohamed: (25. 30 -) . They are the enemies of prophet Mohammad (PBUH), they are the criminals, yet they are his people.

Four-The duty of a prophet towards his people is to summon them to the worship of Almighty Allah, having no deity except HIM, to advise and preach to them, even when they go astray. He was ordered to persevere with their abuse, and if they insisted upon their conviction, he was not allowed to force them to adhere to the religion, rather to tell them to remain on what they believe in, and that he will remain on what he believes in. We will examine that in detail later on. If this abuse escalated to torture and attempts on life, then time to declare absolution of belonging to the people, to migrate from his abode which he considered home, and not to partake in his people’s actions. Likewise did Abraham and the believers when they declared their innocence of their people’s actions and migrated from their homeland, Iraq. (60. 4 - ) .Here, Almighty Allah used them as an example for the migrating companions to learn not to maintain their allegiance to their people the Qureishite, who expelled the prophet Mohamed and the companions from their towns and their homes. (60. 1- ) 

4-Migration for religious freedom is the essence of belonging to Islam


A-To migrate away from one’s own people and to absolve one’s self from their deeds does negate the presence of nationalism. We saw the people of Mohammad are the same people until all will come back on Resurrection Day, when the prophet will be their adversary and a witness against them that they have deserted the Quran. The existence of nationalism, its permanence and to recognize it does not mean that a believer belongs to it. The believer here includes the prophet and anyone who genuinely believes in and follows the true divinely inspired religion.

 We said that the prophet employs national ties as a means to summon and call for Truth. He addresses his people derived from his love and concern for them, calls upon them to seek righteousness, goodness and success in this life and the hereafter. He does not coerce them into believing; he returns their abuse with tenderness and kindness and endures it. If peaceful methods fail with them, he has to absolve himself from them, leave them and migrate abandoning them and his home. For here, affiliation and belonging of the prophet and the true believer is to Truth and not to people, he does not ask for compensation or glory, he just calls upon them to follow the Truth and what is good. If they refuse, he respects their refusal, and leaves them to their choice, if they went to extremes in abusing and persecuting him, it becomes imperative upon him to desert them and to declare his innocence of their actions, though they are still his people.

B-Migration is the corner stone in the belonging of the believer to his faith and not to his people or his country or homeland. Migration becomes compulsory when persecution reaches unbearable levels, when the believer’s faith is threatened; his practice of his faith is restricted, prohibited, severely harmed, suffer of unjustified pursuit, torture, imprisonment and murder. Migration then is not a choice, but a duty, leaving his home, and his people, despite the fact that they are his people. Migration in this situation is very crucial, for based on his decision; his eternal fate will be decided; if he was capable of migrating and chose not to, holding unto his people and his home, acquiescing to oppression and injustice, his abode will be hellfire. But if he was incapable of migrating though he would have liked to, then he is forgiven. (4. 97- ). Almighty Allah promises those who migrated, endured hardship and relied on Allah, with ample reward in this life and the hereafter.  (16. 41- ) (16.110) (22. 58) 

C-Migration also is a fundamental element in choosing the afterlife. For this life is but a bridge to cross to get to the eternal life, its joys and pleasures are mere ornaments and trials, all will be rendered ruins, that is why a believer keeps the afterlife between his eyes by doing good deeds, for those are the lasting things for the Day of Resurrection. (18. 7 – 8 . 48 ) ( 57 . 20 ) 

D- Migration is tied to the purpose of creating mankind and to creating the universe to test mankind. For, Almighty Allah, created all this, created life and death, to test Man on this earth.(11. 7) (67. 2 - ). And appointed to each human being a time when he comes to this earth to live as a person, to live on it a specified period of time, then the person will die and this (self) will return to that abode it came from. And when all humanity is done with this trial period, this universe as we know it will be destroyed, thereby ending this earthly life and this Present Day making way for the Later Day, Day of Judgment, and either hellfire or paradise.(14. 48 ).

A believer understands that, and ever-present in his mind the notion that Almighty Allah did not create this universe in vain, (3.190-) (21. 16) (46. 3) (75. 36- ) (23.115) 

No, He created man for a trial no one can escape and no alternative for. So his belonging is to the everlasting permanent Afterlife and not to this someday, vanishing disappearing life. A believer is certain with this knowledge, how important it is, this short time he is permitted to be in this life, and how important it is to invest it, in doing what is good, to benefit him later on, and to have a genuine faith in Almighty Allah and in the Day After. It would be foolish for a believer to waste his limited stay in this life and the trial period, in being subjugated to religious persecution, that is why it is important for him, due to his awareness of the Afterlife, to leave his homeland of a country that seizes his right for free worship, and to absolve himself of those arrogant among his people who abuse him, trying to force him to go back off the right track. Belonging to the Afterlife fulfils an expectation for the believer to enjoy his freedom in exercising his faith and religion, for the duration of what is left for him on this planet, till the day he meets Almighty Allah on Resurrection Day and succeed in this trial on the Day of Reckoning.

E- One of the magnificences of Glorious Quran, Almighty’s saying: “O My servants who believe! Surely My earth is vast, therefore Me alone should you serve. Every soul must taste of death, then to Us you shall be brought back” (29. 56 - ).

This earth that Almighty Allah has created is very spacious, and because it is spherical, it extends to no end. A man on this earth is like an ant on a watermelon, an ant would keep moving along the surface of a watermelon without reaching the end, in that context, and earth is spacious with no end. But life is limited for Man, and every human being will someday taste death. Accordingly, if you were predetermined to live 60 years, your age which is limited with the arrival of death to end it, diminishes with every day that goes by, and it is incumbent on you, if you were a believer, who defined his belonging by believing in Allah and the Day After, that you do not waste a single minute of your life, for the minute that expires will never return, for you are riding the train of Time. It is not a train that never stops nor does it go back for any reason but keeps moving forward, and when the station for you disembark arrives-through death-then you must leave the train of life and time, and you become a prisoner to your deeds, good or bad. It is utter foolishness for a believer to waste his life and the time assigned for him on earth in a state of surrender to the one who despises him for his religion, and to the one who prevents him from practicing his faith and his rituals freely. He must migrate to Almighty Allah striving to utilize what is left of his life in attaining belonging to Allah and His religion.

F-Notice the word (My Earth), in His saying Glory to Him, “O My servants who believe! Surely My earth is vast”, (29. 56),here, the term, earth is attributed to Almighty Allah and is owned by Him, It is the only time that the term (My Earth) was mentioned in the Glorious Quran, although the word, Earth and its derivatives were mentioned 461 times in the Glorious Quran. What is intended here with the term (Earth), is that which people fight over, yet it belongs to Almighty Allah. A day will come when Allah Almighty will destroy this earth, and people will be summoned to account for their deeds, after a short predetermined life span, wasted by most people fighting and chasing an earthly mirage, forgetting that death, the big Zero, is in wait for them all. The ones, who will survive and escape the consequences of this Zero, are those who worked for the Hereafter, paid its dues while believing (17. 19).

 G-The reference here to the spacious earth, came to emphasize upon the believer specifically in the matter of migration, if they restricted your freedom in this land, then Almighty Allah’s earth is spacious, this emphasis was repeated in rebuking those who were capable of migrating, yet lagged behind. Upon his death and upon losing his chance, the Angels of death would blame them. Allah says : “When angels take the souls of those who die in sin against their souls, they say: "In what (plight) Were ye?" They reply: "Weak and oppressed Were we in the earth." They say: "Was not the earth of Allah spacious enough for you to move yourselves away (From evil)?" Such men will find their abode in Hell,- What an evil refuge! “. (4. 97  )

Almighty Allah says about the spacious earth for those who migrate in it,” He who forsakes his home in the cause of Allah, finds in the earth Many hardships, and abundance in the earth, Should he die as a refugee from home for Allah and His Messenger, His reward becomes due and sure with Allah: And Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful. (4.100). By  hardships, you earn Almighty Allah’s pleasure when confronting difficulties and exercising patience in dealing with them, afterwards comes Almighty Allah’s abundant grace in His spacious earth.

This hardship in immigration for the cause of Allah needs patience. Almighty Allah also says "O ye my servants who believe! Fear your Lord, good is (the reward) for those who do good in this world. Spacious is Allah's earth! Those who patiently persevere will truly receive a reward without measure!" (39. 10). It is obligatory on the believer to be God-conscious in belief and in action. In return for his good deed, he will reap good reward. Almighty Allah’s earth is spacious before the believer in his short time on it. Nothing is asked of him except exercise patience, and the reward for patient persevering people is unlimited.

5 -Contradiction between the Wahabi Identity and Islamic Identity- 


(1)-There is the average common type criminal who commits murder; he knows himself to be a criminal, people know he is a criminal. Then, there is a criminal who murders people in the name of Jihad, plunders their wealth, violates their human rights , justifying that by exploiting the religion of Almighty Allah which is based on justice, peace and freedom. This criminal commits injustice against people and against their Lord. He is the worst enemies of Almighty Allah. Those man-made earthly religions which hide behind the banner of Islam are the ones responsible for the misunderstandings that caused Islam to stand suspect of extremism, terrorism and injustice to others. Those man-made earthly religions, especially the Sunnite religion, canonized their unjust rulings by distorting the terminology in the Glorious Quran, and applying it to the concepts of Islam and Beliefs, and by distorting Islamic Law through changing the Quranic terminology, in addition to fabricating divine narrations attributed to the prophet Mohamed, and writing the biography of the prophet to coincide with these lies and fabrications. The masters of these earthly man-made religions used Islam to serve and fulfill their material and political ambitions. They established, by exploiting Islam, empires and dynasties and regimes, the latest of which is the Saudi Kingdom and the Iranian Republic. Along the same patterns, the Muslim Brothers dream, faking moderation; whereas Bin Laden uses the outright bloody confrontation.

(2)-For them , the issue of belonging here is the centerpiece of events:

For them to ride the shoulders of over one billion Muslims, they must talk about Ummet Al-Islam (The one nation of Islam), and every one of them, like Ben Laden, addresses his own Islamic Nation, requiring that belonging to this (Islamic ) Nation, supersedes national boundaries, own people, languages, cultural and economical levels, by doing so, they are stealing the original genuine Islamic concept of belonging, for as we mentioned before, the primary true concern for the Muslim is his creed and his belief in Almighty Allah and the Day after. But the goal remains the fundamental difference between Islam and those man-made religions aiming to acquire Power. Is the goal-The Desire to overpower desire of material greed and manipulate people? Or is it merely to summon people to Truth, to “no coercion in religion”, to promote human rights and justice?

(3) Here, the difference is clear and evident;

A true believer does not ask for or expect a reward or glory, he endures abuse and perseveres, and he migrates and respects everyone’s right in choosing his conviction, that is, he says and practices Truth, avoids the ignorant insolent waiting Allah’s judgment of all on Resurrection Day. This fact was repeated numerous times throughout the Glorious Quran as a command to Prophet Mohamed. Almighty Allah ordered him to declare the truth clearly, all at once, firmly and without equivocation or quibble along with turning away and avoiding the aggressive idolaters.  (15. 94) (7.199)

Avoiding them here was tied also to these concepts;

(a)The command to the Prophet Mohamed to follow the Glorious Quran and stressing the point that he is not responsible for their convictional choices , “Follow what is revealed to you from your Lord; there is no god but He; and withdraw from the polytheists.” (6.106 -).

(b)Emphasizing that he, along with them, have to wait for Almighty Allah’s verdict on Resurrection Day. (32. 30) 

(c) Stressing the concept of equality between them, for one of the two parties is rightly guided and the other is in a state of perversity, and neither party is responsible for the other, at the end, it is Almighty Allah’s role to judge between them on Resurrection Day.(34. 24  - 26) 

(d) By stressing that they have chosen to concentrate on this life only, and because of their love and infatuation with it, they denied the Glorious Quran. (53. 29)

(e) Avoiding them is tied to their right in maintaining and staying their original beliefs. (6.135 ) ( 39. 39 - )

 (f) The same position was asserted again and again when commenting on the stories of previous messengers in yielding to their people’s free choice and their responsibility in regard to that choice, that they have the right to maintain their beliefs, as much as they, the prophets, have the right to keep theirs, and for the two factions to wait until Day of Resurrection, Day of Determination. (11. 93 ) (11.121- ) 

(h) When Prophet Mohammad became the leader of an Islamic state, the same commands came to him to ignore and avoids the Hypocrites. ( 4. 63) ( 4. 81)

(i) All the above is to detail, to assert, to put into effect the universal principal in Islam- :” Let there be no compulsion in religion.”(2.256)

Fourth: This contradicts the so- called Shareeah of the Sunni religion and its jihad

Where there is coercion, pursuing those with different understanding of religion with oppression and the so-called penalty of apostasy, dividing the world into two warring camps, camp of Belief and camp of Disbelief, practicing random killing, even if it means killing Muslims in the process, rather legalizing the extermination of Muslims for achieving the higher goal of establishing the alleged Islamic state, what is worse than that, is the fact under such state, it is permissible in their Shareeah for the head of state to extinguish one third of the populace for the reforming of the remaining two thirds. They consider him to be the Owner of the people, the land and whatever it carries. The same philosophy the Umayyad followed during their Caliphate, followed by the Abbasid who theorized, canonized and sanctified it on religious grounds. The Memluk followed suit, then the Ottomans and now practiced by the Shiite state in Iran and the Sunnite in Saudi Arabia. Along those lines, the moderate Muslim brotherhood dreams, likewise, the extremist Bin Laden brothers.

6 -In conclusion:


Islam is Peace to be in a state of peace with others and to interact with them in peace. Every person peaceful in his conduct is a Muslim in essence, regardless of his creed. Islam in dealing with Almighty Allah is to submit and yield to Him, glory be to Him. It is not for any one to interfere in others’ beliefs and convictions through coercion or deprivation. It is the natural right for every peaceful person to migrate with his beliefs and convictions and to practice it in whichever method he prefers.

A genuine Islamic state is the one that guarantees freedom of religion, belief, thought and practice. People in it enjoy justice and tolerance; they establish practice and enjoy Political Justice: Democracy.

It is not the duty of an Islamic State to bring people into paradise or guide them to Truth, since it is a personal responsibility. Whoever follows guidance, it is for his benefit, and whoever goes astray, the consequence of that falls on him. The duty and function of the Islamic State is to serve its citizens, guarantees their rights and preserve their dignity.

By that definition, no Islamic state exists in Muslim World in our times, rather oppressive regimes raising the banners of Ethnicity, Nationality or Religious slogans, all of which to deceive people.

Islamic State exists in the West, Europe, America, Canada and Japan, where there is democracy, justice and human rights, that is why Arabs and Muslims migrate to the West, fleeing with their religion or in pursuit of making a living and a free dignified life. You will never find a European or an American migrating to an Arab country, fleeing with his religion. Even Israel, with its secularism and its brand of democracy is better than those unjust oppressive Muslim States. If the doors of immigrations to Israel were open to non-, Jews, millions of Arabs and Muslims would migrate to it. This means, the true belonging for Man is where he finds his freedom, dignity and rights, that is how belonging to Islam coincides with genuine belonging of Man.

It is belonging to freedom and justice; but if justice is lost and freedom is confiscated at home, then Almighty Allah’s land is very spacious, where you can find equality, justice, freedom and equal opportunity.


Chapter 5: Religious freedom and Islamic value of Justice and tolerance

 (1) Between Islamic justice and forgiveness


The term (Justice) has in Arabic languages two words: (Al Adl) and (Al Qist). The two words are equal in giving the meaning of (Justice). (Justice) as (Qist) comes in this verse (” We sent aforetime our messengers with Clear Signs and sent down with them the Book and the Balance (of Right and Wrong), that men may stand forth in justice; “(57/ 25).It confirms that the aim of the holy messages came from God is to establish justice in this earth.

Justice as Arabic word (Al Adl) comes in this verse “Lo! Allah enjoineth justice (Al Adl) and forgiveness (Ihsan)).

Arabic Quranic term (Ihsan) sometimes comes in the Quran linked to justice, as it is mentioned in That verse :(16 / 90 ). But the term (Ihsan) is usually misunderstood in Arabic tradition. It is usually understood as giving charity or doing the good deeds. This has influenced the translators of the Quran. For example in YUSUFALI translation: (Allah commands justice, the doing of good) and in PICKTHAL’s (Lo! Allah enjoineth justice and kindness), and in SHAKIR’s ( Surely Allah enjoins the doing of justice and the doing of good (to others) ( 16 / 90 ).

To know the real pure Islam, you have to read Quran according to its unique terminology. Accordingly, the Quranic term (Ihsan) means a degree which is higher than justice. It is forgiveness. The Quranic verses usually explain each other. For example verse 90 in chapter 16 is explained by verse 40 in chapter 42. It says “The recompense for an injury is an injury equal thereto (in degree): but if a person forgives and makes reconciliation, his reward is due from Allah” (42 / 40). So, justice is: (The recompense for an injury is an injury equal thereto in degree). But (Ihsan) is forgiveness and reconciliation. Let’s explain it: Suppose, you slap me for no reason, according to justice I have the right to slap you back, but to be in a state of (Ihsan) or forgiveness I should forgive you.

Forgiveness (Ihsan) in the Quran has two degrees: the good Ihsan and the best Ihsan. Suppose you slapped me for no reason, and I said to you:” Thank you, I forgive you”. This is the good Ihsan, or the good forgiveness. But when I said “Thank you, God bless you, I forgive you” and I give you money, this is the best Ihsan. According to the Quran, you find the good Ihsan in this verse: (These will be given their reward twice over, because they are steadfast and repel evil with good,) (Ch. 28 /Vrs 54), while the best degree is in these verses:  (Repel (Evil) with what is the best) (Ch.41 /Vrs. 34) (Repel evil with that which is best: We are well acquainted with the things they say) (23 / 96).

Those verses were revealed in Mecca along with other tens of verses when the early Muslims in the time of the Prophet Mohamed were persecuted by the mighty Arabic Tribe Qureish. God ordered them to maintain justice and forgiveness. It is the same orders for any believer under persecution.

2- Infidel, unbeliever, disbeliever are judged by humans according to their criminal religious behavior, not their faith


The real Muslim has to deal with all people according to justice and forgiveness. Once he transgresses the limit he will be no longer Muslim because Islam is built also on peace.

Islam means to submit oneself to One God – in faith – or in dealing with Him- and to be peaceful in behavior, or in dealing with people. God alone is the only one who has the power to judge our belief. The society in this world has the right to judge the individuals regarding the relationship among them. So, any peaceful one is Muslim regardless of his belief, and any honest, safe, and faithful person is a believer regardless of his/her inner faith.

On the other hand, anyone who transgresses the limits, wrongs others, or attacks and terrifies them in the name of religion, is an unbeliever or an infidel regardless of any religion or title he claims.
The Quranic language has many descriptions for infidels and disbelievers to characterize them regardless of time or any religion they claim. It’s up to the One God alone to judge their inner belief, but it is left to us as human beings to recognize them according to their transgression.

In criminal law, we can define the criminal according to his criminal behavior.

In the Quran, ( Kafer / Moshrik ) or infidels, disbelievers and idol worshipper in behavior is the one who use the religion or the name of God in persecuting people, killing them, steeling their money, their human rights and their religious freedom.

All these crimes are against justice. So, the term

( Kafer / Moshrik) has additional synonym descriptions to confirm his criminal deeds.

3-‘Al Zolm’ is against justice


‘Al Zolm’ is the first description of the act of being an infidel or a disbeliever. It’s an Arabic term which means to do wrong, to commit outrage, to tyrannize, to be unfair, unjust, to oppress, or to attack innocent people. This term is repeated in the Quran about 300 times as it is the main aspect of the disbelief and infidelity. For example, see: (2:254) (31:13) and: (2: 165) (4: 75 & 168) (6: 45) (10:13 &52) (11: 37& 67& &94& 102 & 116) (14: 44 & 45) (21:13) (29: 49)
The unbeliever chooses to wrong the One and Only God by adding partners to Him, but God is the only one who will judge him/her concerning the realm of faith and religion. If this unbeliever lives peacefully, he is a believer according to our limits in this life as we are concerned about living in peace, safety, and justice in terms of dealing with each other.

Every one believes that their faith is the real truth, so it’s against pure justice to judge each other in faith and belief. It’s a pure justice to leave this to God Himself to judge us as we all have different faiths concerning Him. So He is the only one who will tell us the real truth on the Day of Truth; see: (2:113) (3:55) (10:93) (16:124) (5:48) (39:3, 7, 46). Our concern should only be to live peacefully and justly and not to allow anyone to violate this peace in the name of God while he/she is wronging God and disobeying His commandments. It’s the most outrageous deed to disobey God and proclaim himself a person of God by killing people in His name.

This is an example of the Quranic Islamic culture contradicted by the early Middle Ages. A much greater contradiction was the culture of the Arabian Peninsula, where the Arab tribes used to live in continuous bloodshed, glorifying raiding each other, as a sign of honor and courage. Those Arab tribal incursions meant killing men of other tribes and enslaving their women and children, thus giving the other tribe the right to retaliate. This bloody culture was faced by Islam and its peaceful nature.

The Arabic Quranic language made (Al Zolm) one aspect of disbelief in the One God. The Quran discusses Al Zolm about two hundred times, making it a sign of infidelity and disbelief. In the Quranic context, another Arabic Quranic word ‘transgression’ is given the same meaning, and used in the same context regarding the unbelievers and infidels. Twice in the Quran, God says, “… and transgress not. Verily God loves not the transgressors.” This is mentioned in (2:190) to refer to the rules of fighting, and in (5:87) to confirm the absolute right of God alone in revealing Divine legislation. This was a serious warning to the believers not to prohibit the good things that God has permitted.

God mentioned two kinds of aggressions, one of them is being committed by infidels against peaceful people. Regarding them, God says, “It’s they who are the transgressors.” (9:10) [Read also: (50:25), (68:12), and (83:12).] The other kind of aggression is committed against God, His revelation and His legislation. [See: (4:154), (7:163), (2:229), (4:14), (65:1), (5:87, 94), and (23:7)].   It’s up to God alone to judge those who violate His image, His revelation and legislation. But it’s the responsibility of society to stand firm against those who violate human rights, especially religious freedom.

(4) “Al Sabr” (Tolerance or Patience) as an Islamic value to respond to “Al Zolm).

To face zolm and oppression, God ordered Muslims to be patient. Patience or a-ssabr is a Quranic term mentioned in the Holy book about one hundred times and is a great Islamic value meaning forgiveness, tolerance, forbearance, perseverance and endurance.  Muslims have to uphold a-ssabr all throughout their lives, seeking to please the Almighty Lord in every stance of life. One has to be sabir in forgiving those who insult him/her, and to be sabir if he/she has to fight to defend his/her life or freedom of belief. It’s a positive Islamic value meant to protect peace and to confirm tolerance and forgiveness. It is the middle ground between being totally passive as was the case of the peaceful, early Muslims, and the others who were active in aggression and transgression.

For more details:

1-Prophet Mohamed was ordered to maintain the value of (Sabr), or to tolerate the persecution : (Call to the way of your Lord with wisdom and goodly exhortation, and have disputations with them in the best manner; surely your Lord best knows those who go astray from His path, and He knows best those who follow the right way. And if you take your turn, then retaliate with the like of that with which you were afflicted; but if you are patient, it will certainly be best for those who are patient. And be patient and your patience is not but by (the assistance of) Allah, and grieve not for them, and do not distress yourself at what they plan. Surely Allah is with those who keep righteousness and those who are doers of good).( 16 : 125/ 128  ).  

Here the value of (Sabr) is accompanied with forgiveness and positive advocate for truth. It is the same order for all Muslims:  (And who speaks better than he who calls to Allah while he himself does good, and says: I am surely of those submitters (Muslims)? And not alike, are the good and the evil. Repel (evil) with what is best, when lo! he, between whom and you was enmity, would be as if he were a warm friend. And none are made to receive it(Reward in Paradise) but those who maintain patience and none are made to receive it but those who have a mighty good manner.) (41: 33/ 35).

2-(Sabr ) is necessary for believers in the time of persecution,  they escape persecution and immigrate for the sake of their religious freedom; God says : (To those who leave their homes in the cause of Allah, after suffering oppression,- We will assuredly give a goodly home in this world; but truly the reward of the Hereafter will be greater. If they only realized (this)! (They are) those who persevere in patience, and put their trust on their Lord. )( 16 : 41/42)

3-( Sabr) is necessary when you fight the Islamic Jihad ( to defend not to start war). (Did ye think that ye would enter Paradise without Allah testing those of you who fought hard (In His Cause) and remained patient?)( 3 : 142 )

4-In all cases, the real Muslim society has its people advice each other to maintain patience and uphold truth and justice. God says: (I swear by the time. Most surely man is in loss, Except those who believe and do good, and enjoin on each other truth/ justice, and enjoin on each other patience ):Chapter 103) 

5- The terrorist is the worst criminal.


Some unbelievers possess the two kinds of transgression, one of them being killing innocent people in the name of God. The Sunni and Shiites terrorists of our time are clear example of this case. It’s imperative to face them from inside Islam to prove the contradiction between their behavior and the true teachings of Islam and its jurisprudence. The simple criminal kills one person or few people without any religious justification, but the other criminal kills thousands of innocent people believing it’s his/her religious duty to kill those who have different religious beliefs. In this case, the terrorist does not kill the person, but also the real values of the Divine religion. In these circumstances, the killer is not the only criminal; it is also the scholars and religious authorities who preach such bloody culture as religious teachings deceiving ordinary Muslims to be terrorists in the name of Islam. Those liar scholars are the real criminals.















Chapter 6:  Religious freedom and Islam, as a religion of peace

1- Peace and Islam in a quick glance


Peace is the origin of the understanding of Islam as a religion as well as in the Arabic language. It is the basis of the relationship between Muslims and others.
The understanding of Islam in the Quran, as was the case with the word ‘belief’, has an outwardly meaning concerning the dealing with people and inwardly meaning concerning the relationship with God.
The inwardly meaning of Islam is to succumb and submit to God alone, pledging allegiance and obedience to Him and Him alone (6:161-163).
This meaning of Islam is the same message that came with all the prophets in all divine messages and in all ancient languages until it finally appeared in Arabic in the final divine revelation of the Quran. God doesn’t accept any other religion different from the submission to Him alone as the only God. This is the meaning of the verse “The religion (with or before or in the sight of) God, is islam …” (3:19). Note that the word Islam is not capitalized on purpose to show that the Quran is describing an attitude or a mode of being and not a specific religion. The verse continues (“Whoever desires a religion other than islam, never will it be accepted of him and in the hereafter he will be in the rank of those who had lost”) (3:85). Here, it describes about his future on the Day of Judgment where only God will judge all of mankind.

Islam means submitting to God alone in any language, time or place and in all divine messages. Alas unfortunately, in our culture, Islam was transformed into an Arabic description of a definite group in a specific epoch.
God is uninterested in the titles and divisions that people choose for them such as Muslims, Jews, Christians and Sabiens.
For this reason, God confirms in two verses that those who believe in God alone as the only God, believe in the Day of Judgment as the divine day of absolute justice and maintain peace and perform righteous deeds as a proof of their belief in the last day, they are the allies of God whether they are the followers of the Quran or the Old and New Testament (2:62, 5:69). These two verses confirm the other two verses: “The religion (before, with or in the sight of) God is islam” and “Whoever desires a religion other than islam, never will be accepted of him” (3:19 &85).
These verses imply that he who believes in God, the last day and performs righteous deeds in this world will be considered a Muslim in the sight of God on the Last Day regardless of the title he/she had in this world. It is up to God alone- not to us - on the Day of Judgment – not now- to judge the faith. Any one that claims this right to him/herself is claiming divinity for him/herself.
The real meaning of the inward face of Islam is submitting to God only and succumbing to Him alone with the language of hearts. It is the universal language that leaves no room for discord among people or believers, and based on this language all people will be judged on the last day. This is the inward meaning of Islam in dealing with the Almighty God, the Creator, or the inner meaning of the faith that lies inside the heart which will be judged by God alone on the Last Day.
God alone is the One who can monitor the real feelings of the human heart in this life, and the only one who- on Judgment Day- will tell us of our religious disputes. It’s up to every human to choose monotheism, paganism or atheism; it’s his freedom of belief and he will be responsible before God alone on the last Day. This describes Islam in dealing with God, or the inner meaning of Islam.
In Islam, outwardly dealing with people is directly related to the safety and security expressed and practiced among people, no matter how different their inner believes are. God says: “O you who believe enter peace wholeheartedly” (2:208). Thus God ordered the believers to enter the reign of peace”). We remember here that the salutation of Islam is peace “Alsalamu alikum” or “Peace be upon you” and that peace is one of God’s wholly names, Al Salam. All of this expresses the confirmation of peace in Islam and it confirms the fact that belief also means feeling safe and secure.

2- The relationship between Islam and peace in Arabic Quranic language 

* Understanding the word Iman or ‘Belief’:

According to the Quranic terminology and its particular language, the word “Believed,” Aamana, has two meanings in Quranic and Arabic language; you can believe in, a doctrine, a creed, a political concept (Aamana be...) or, you put faith in ,be confident  with or trust others (Aamana le --).

The first definition is related to faith as in the verse “the Messenger believed in what was sent down to him from His Lord and the believers. All believe in God, His angles, His books, His Messengers.” (2:285). Thus, to ‘believe in’ means to have a deeply rooted faith in one’s heart concerning the relationship between man and God.

People have had diversified faiths, even within the same religion or even within the same sect or school of thought.  The Quran confirms that people will be judged for the diversity of their faiths by God alone and only on Judgment Day (as found in verses 2:113 , 3:55 , 10:93 , 16:124 , 5:48 , 39:3 , 7:46 ).

The second meaning of (Belief) is the relationship between people, namely believing, having confidence in or trusting others. It implies that when someone is safe and secure, people trust him/her. One is also called a ‘Believer’ because he/she is trusted by people. This meaning is repeated in the Quran, especially in the stories concerning the Prophets. For example, in the story of Noah, the arrogant ones told him “Shall we trust you while it is the contemptible ones that follow you?” (26:111) what is meant here is “how can we trust you and feel secure with you seeing that you are followed by the lowest of the people”.  This meaning of ‘believing’ that involves trusting  someone is repeated in the story of Abraham (26:29), the story of Joseph (12:17), the story of Moses (44:21, 23:47), and also in the Quranic narratives of the life of Prophet Mohammed in Medina (3:37, 2:57). 

When somebody behaves in a trustworthy manner, he/she becomes safe and secure as observed from his/her outward behavior.  According to the Quranic terminology, this person is called ‘a Believer’ regardless of his/her religion or faith.  For that matter, he/she can be a Buddhist, Muslim, Christian, Jew or atheist.  It is a private matter between the individual and God that no creature has the authority to judge.  It is reserved for God alone on the Last Day.

The two meanings of the term ‘Belief’ are simultaneously expressed in God’s verses concerning Prophet Mohammed that says, “He believes in God, and trust the believers.” (9:61).

In the Arabic language and in this Quranic verse, the word Yu’menu has two meanings: to believe in and to trust in. Thus, this verse shows that to believe in God is to worship Him alone, and to believe in others is to trust them. To believe in God is to acknowledge that He is the One and Only. The evaluation of this faith, which many people dispute over, is to take place on Judgment Day. Therefore, what concerns and should only concerns humans among themselves is to live in Trust, Safety, Security and Peace.

Therefore faith in Islam is equivalent to peace among people. Being a believer means being a person of God and of peace and trust. This is the understanding of faith in the religion of Islam.

 Understanding the word “Islam’:

The understanding of Islam in the Quran, as was the case with the word ‘believe’,  has an outward meaning concerning the dealings with people and an inward meaning concerning the relationship with God .

The inward meaning of Islam is to succumb and submit to God alone, pledging allegiance and obedience to Him and Him alone (6:161-163). This meaning of Islam is the same message that came with all the prophets in all divine messages in all ancient languages until it finally appeared in Arabic in the final divine revelation of the Quran.

God doesn’t accept any other religion different from submission to Him alone as the only God.  This is the meaning of the verse, “The religion before God is islam …” (3:19).  Note that the word Islam is not capitalized on purpose to show that the Quran is describing an attitude or a mode of being and not a specific religion.  God also says : “Whoever desires a religion other than islam, never will it be accepted of him and in the hereafter he will be in the rank of those who had lost” (3:85). Here, it describes one’s future on the Day of Judgment where only God will judge all of mankind.

Islam means submitting to God alone in any language, time, or place and in all divine messages. Unfortunately, in Muslims culture, Islam was transformed into an arabic description of a definite group in a specific epoch.

God is not interested in the titles and divisions that people choose for themselves such as Muslims, Jews, Christians.  For this reason, God confirms in two verses that those who believe in God alone as the only God, believe in the Day of Judgment as the divine day of absolute justice and maintain peace and perform righteous deeds as a proof of their belief in the last day,  they are the allies of God whether they are the followers of the Quran or the Old and New Testament (2:62, 5:69). These two verses confirm the other two verses: “The religion before God is islam” and “Whoever desires a religion other than Islam, never will be accepted of him” (3:19 &85).

 These verses imply that whoever believes in God, the Last Day, and performs righteous deeds in this world will be considered a Muslim in the sight of God on the Last Day regardless of the title he/she had in this world. It is up to God alone- not to us - on the Day of Judgment – not now- to judge the faith. Any one that claims this right upon him or her is claiming divinity.

The real meaning of the inward side of Islam is submitting only to God and succumbing to Him alone with the language of hearts. It is the universal language that leaves no room for discord among people or believers, and based on this language, all people will be judged on the Last Day. This is the inward meaning of Islam in dealing with the Almighty God, the Creator, or the inner meaning of faith that lies inside the heart which will be judged by God alone on the Last Day.

 God is the only One who can monitor the real feelings of the human heart in this life. He is the only One who- on Judgment Day- will tell us of our religious disputes.  It’s up to every person to choose monotheism, paganism or atheism; it’s his/her freedom of belief and he/she will be responsible before God alone on the last Day. This describes Islam in dealing with God, or the inner meaning of Islam.

   In Islam, outwardly dealing with people is directly related to the safety and security expressed and practiced among others, no matter how different their inner beliefs are. God says :“O you who believe! Enter peace wholeheartedly.” (2:208). Thus, God ordered the believers to uphold peace in dealing with each others.  We remember here that the salutation of Islam is peace, “A-ssalamu alikum,” or “Peace be upon you” and that peace is one of God’s holy names, A- ssalam. All of this expresses the confirmation of Peace in Islam and it confirms the fact that( Belief) also means safety and security.

 Peace and security in Paradise will be for any peaceful believers:

The person who expresses and demonstrates his/her belief in goodness in his/her dealings with people and gains their trust , and  also, has true belief in God alone, deserves security, and will be secured and protected by the Almighty God on the Last Day.  He/she will be rewarded in the hereafter for being trusted by people and for having a sincere belief in God alone in this life.  This is the true meaning of belief in Islam and its reward is in the Last Day.

The same is true with one who practices ‘Islam’ in his/her dealings with others, is peaceful, and as such  practices ‘Islam’ in his/her relationship with God by submitting his/her heart and behaviors towards Him. This person is also entitled to ‘peace’s in the hereafter.

 On this subject God says, “It’s those who believe and confuse not their beliefs with wrong(beliefs or deeds), for them there is a security, and they are truly guided” (6:82).  This means that those who believe in God and have gained the trust of others because he/she did not wrong them will enjoy safety and security as a reward on the last day.  Their reward is nothing but the outcome of their deeds, and God describes their place to be in paradise in the hereafter. Their greeting upon entering paradise will be “Enter ye here in peace and security” (15:46) and about paradise, God says, “for them will be a home of peace in the presence of their Lord” (6:127).

Thus, peace and security in dealing with others plus submission to belief in One God along with obedience to Him alone leads to peace and security in paradise.  Such is the Islamic formula as presented by the verses of the Quran. On the other hand, transgression and injustice inflicted on others and on God leads only to Hell.

3- Understanding Muslims and peace in history


Now that we have clarified the relationship between the notion of peace, the understanding of “Islam,” and its belief and faith according to the Quranic and Arabic languages, let’s turn to the relation between “Islamic peace” and the real Islamic legislation according to the Quran alone.

Let’s examine the rules of ‘peace’ between Muslims and non Muslims.

First however, let’s suppose that early Muslims in the time of Prophet Mohammed did not practice peaceful Islam.   Does this, however, make it right to ignore the peaceful nature of Islam because of its followers’ behaviors?

Religion is just rules and commandments that should be applied by its believers. If those believers ignore the fundamental teachings of the religion, it is their responsibility, and they should be blamed, not their religion. Religion should only be held accountable for the teachings according to its Holy message, and not due to its follower’s human deeds.

It’s not only an Islamic issue, but also an issue in Christianity and Judaism.  We need only to remember what the religious Jews and Christians did in the Middle Ages and modern history. Therefore, it’s imperative to make distinctions between the religion itself and its human adherents whose deeds are mixtures of good and bad. However, we will discover that with Islam and its early Muslim followers, something different needs to be explained.


Recording Islamic History two centuries after Mohammed, widened the gap between the Quran and Muslim Tradition

The recording of Muslim history started and was established in the Muslim imperial periods that followed the footsteps of the Persian and the Roman empires. Thus, the writing of their history was shaped by the concepts of power and influenced by the Middle Age culture of fanaticism. For that reason, the gap between the Quran and the Muslim tradition was widened in terms of legislation and even in beliefs and faith.

As far as our subject matter is concerned, we find a clear gap between what the Quran says about the early Muslims during the period of  Prophet Mohammed and what was said in the recorded history of the Prophet and also, in the history of early Muslims and their battles.

The history of Prophet Mohammed was recorded more than two centuries after his death during the Abbasid Empire. This history was written by Ibn Iss-Haaq, Ibn Sa’d, Ibn Hisham, At-Tabary, and others. They mainly and falsely, concentrated on the Muslims’ actions in the battles during the period of Prophet Mohammed.

Those old historians rooted the concept that Islam is responsible for invading and occupying other people’s lands and it was spread by the sword. They gave to the history of Prophet Mohammed the violent history of the Muslim rulers who succeeded him and made great conquests and invaded other nations establishing their great empires. In the third empire,( Abbasid dynasty ) the historians lived and wrote the Muslims history of their time beginning with the history of Prophet Mohammed - tens of decades after his death - according to their culture, and created a gap between what was actually recorded in the Quran and their accounts.  Those historians were also religious scholars who were invited to respond in their times by religiously legitimizing the establishing and expansion of the Muslim Empire.

Yet, what is found in the Quran is something entirely different from what is recorded in history.

The starting point goes back to the Quranic term ‘those who believed’ and its original meaning being ‘those who choose safety and security in their dealing with others even if they were persecuted and harassed by them. They are believers even if their faith does not correspond to Islamic monotheism.’ We understand better the intended meaning of ‘those who believed’ from the verse that says, “Oh you who believed! Believe in God and His messenger, and the scripture which He sent before. Any who denies God, His Angles, His Books, his messengers, and the Day of Judgment, has strayed far away’. (4:136). Thus, God calls upon the believers, i.e., the peaceful ones to have a belief and faith in God, his prophets and his holy books.  In other words, he calls upon those who chose peace in their behavior to add to it the inner belief of faith in God alone, His prophets, and His books.

The expression ‘Oh you who believed’ does not imply any particular religious group. It addresses those who choose peace as a way of life and calls them to accept the Islamic faith because He said, ‘Oh you who believed!’ In other words, the belief in security and peace needs to be complemented by true sincere belief or faith in one God, His books and all His prophets, so that one is able to reach the blessings of paradise, namely peace and security, in the hereafter,.

 The early Muslims were really peaceful.

The peaceful believers who joined Prophet Mohammed in Mecca insisted on peace and on tolerating persecutions. While they were in Mecca suffering, the Holy Quran revealed the aspects of their coming Muslim state which included belief in One God, trust in Him, obeying Him, keeping prayers to Him and giving alms and conducting the direct democracy among themselves. God said explaining the other aspects, “And those who, when an oppressive wrong is done to them, take revenge, the recompense for an evil is an evil; but whoever forgives and makes reconciliation, his reward is with God. Verily, He likes not the oppressors.  And indeed whosoever takes revenge after he has suffered wrong, for such there is no blame against them. The blame is only against those who oppress people and resort to wrong in the earth unjustly; for such there will be a painful torment. And verily, whosoever shows patience and forgiveness that would truly be from the best commandments.” (42:36-43). This was revealed to prepare them to be ready for the future when they would have to defend themselves and retaliate, or to forgive and reconcile according to the future’s circumstances. Because of severe persecutions, early Muslims had to immigrate twice to Abyssinia (Ethiopia), and then to Yathreb (later on to be named Al Medina), their final immigration where they established their own Islamic state led by Prophet Mohammed.


  Be ready to defend yourself to achieve peace.

 When the permission to fight was granted for the early Muslims, it was expected that they would rejoice with the idea of retaliation, but the opposite occurred. They had grown accustomed to passiveness and toleration of pain, and hated the new legislation concerning jihad. (Note that Jihad here implies holy war in terms of self defense.)  They were oblivious to the fact that they needed to fight to defend themselves and to achieve peace. They didn’t realize that their enemy would cease to attack them once they showed some resistance.

The only way to defend oneself from his/her enemy is to be ready to defend themselves from attacks. It is the Quranic policy of “deterrent”. God said to the early Muslims and to every peaceful state, “And make ready against them all you can of power, including steeds of war to terrify the enemy of God and your enemy…”, “And if they incline to peace you must incline to it. And put your trust in God, Verily, He is the All – Hearer, the All-Knower”, “And if they intend to deceive you, then, Verily, God is All- Sufficient for you.”(8:60-62).

By being peaceful and strong, they can establish real peace. They can stop any potential attack against themselves and save not only their people, but also their enemy’s. These verses emphasize that the Quranic policy of ‘deterrent’ means to serve peace, not to encourage violence, especially when read in the context of all the rules of war specified in the Quran.  In the Quran, the purpose of war is only to defend, not to attack.

Beside the basic reason of self defense, God revealed in the Holy Quran other rules of self defense and condemned transgressions against peaceful people.


The early Muslims hated to defend themselves.

In spite of all these rules and their critical situations, the early Muslims in the time of Prophet Mohammed hated the permission to fight. Because of this reason, God addressed them in the Quran saying, “Fighting is prescribed upon you, and you dislike it. But it is possible that you dislike a thing which is good for you and that you love a thing which is bad for you. But God knows while you know not” (2:216).  Here, God tells them that even though they hate the idea of fighting, it is good for them because they need to defend themselves. Even though they liked to be silent and passive towards raging war, God knows that it is dangerous for them.

The problem the early Muslims faced was that they had gotten accustomed to patience and peace, but conditions had reached to a degree that threatened not only their religion, but their existence as well. The Quranic clarification was not enough to change their attitude and to push them to prepare for defense. A group among them rejected the legislation for fighting and even raised their voices asking God to postpone His command. So God answered, “Have you not seen those who were told to hold back their hands from fight but established regular prayers and spend in regular charity? When at length the order for fighting was ordained to them, be hold! A section of them feared men as-or even more than-they should have feared God; they said ‘our lord! Why have you ordained for us to fight? Would that you had granted us respite for a short period ?” (4:77). In Mecca they were ordered to refrain from self-defense and to consecrate their time and effort in prayer and spending in charity. The fact that a group rejected the order to fight and asked for it to be postponed showed the extent to which they were devoted to peace and hateful toward bloodshed.

Early peaceful Muslims in battles

The battles during the period of Prophet Mohammed were the biggest proof for the tendency of the early Muslims towards peace and their hatred for fighting, even in self-defense when it was forced upon them. We shall demonstrate from the Quran their peaceful attitude during three main battles: Badr, Alahzab, and Al-usra.

The battle of Badr:

This was the first and the most famous of the battles. In order to understand the real causes of this battle, we must first understand the terms (Eelaaf) or convention. This (Eelaaf/ convention) was a privilege given to the mighty tribe of Qureish, and is mentioned in the Quranic Chapter of Qureish (106:1-4). In its four verses, God said that because of His sacred Mosque located in Mecca, the Qureish tribe had its Eelaaf or trade convention.  They used to send their trade caravans between Syria and Yemen in peace during the winter and summer, and lived without hunger or fear, while the other tribes suffered hunger and continuous wars. The same meaning was repeated in other verses: (29:67), (28:57).

The Quraysh traded with Syria and Yemen, exchanging goods once in the summer and once in the winter, carrying the eastern Indian goods from Yemen to the Roman Empire through Syria. They had obtained covenant of security outside Mecca, safeguarding the caravans during their journeys between Mecca and Yemen, and between Mecca and Syria. Inside Mecca, there was another type of covenant among the inhabitants. The Qureish tribe had to participate in financing both of the winter and the summer caravans. The budget needed was divided into shares which the Qureish people invested in. At the end of the year, they calculated the profits of the shares and each one took his earnings. When the Muslims were forced to leave Mecca and go to Medina, they lost their homes, properties and investments. The Qureish transgressors confiscated all Muslims homes and belongings.  The Muslims did not dare ask for their money from their enemy who chased and attacked them for their beliefs. 

Upon receiving the right to fight, the Muslims claimed their due share of the profits back from the Qureish.  It was for this reason that they raided the caravan which traded with their money. They hoped to get their money or the caravan without having to fight. However, on their way to meet the caravan, the Muslims were promised that they would either take over the caravan or that they would win over their enemy. They went for the caravan, but soon enough, an army from Qureish came to save the caravan and repel the Muslims who happened to be few in number.

It was clear that since there were no caravans, they would surely win the battle as was promised by God. Nevertheless, some of the Muslims were frightened to face the enemy in battle. The Quran described this situation as follows, “As Your Lord caused you to go out from your home with the truth, and verily a party among the believers disliked it. They were disputing with you concerning the truth, after it was made manifest, as if they were being driven to death while they were looking actually at it.” (8:5-6). It’s clear that the Muslims hated fighting, that they were honest about their position even though God promised to support them, and when they were ordered to engage in war, it was as if they could actually see death coming to seize them.

We need mention here that what the Quran says concerning the battle of Badr contradicts the stories written about the Prophet during the Muslim Empire. In these stories, the old historians confirmed that all of the Muslims of Badr were anxious to fight and none of them were doubtful about it. If it was not for the Quran, we would not have known the reality of the situation.

The real situation confirms that the early Muslims were not blood thirsty fanatics willing to die for the cause of “Holy War”, although they were persecuted and fought against.  They were peaceful people who wanted to worship God and glorify Him in peace.  But the stories have been twisted around in order to depict the early Muslims ‘incorrectly’, to justify using violence under the name of God. The contemporary Sunni and Shiites culture has until now ignored these verses for the same cause, so most of the Islamic reality is missing and continues to be so.

The battle of Alahzab, [The Allies]

The unbelievers (which we now in the Quranic term understand means those who attack peaceful people) surrounded Al Madina to destroy it and to exterminate all the Muslims who were strongly overtaken by fear and terror. It’s enough to see what the Quran has said about their state of mind, “When they came from above you and from below you, and when your eyes grew deviating, and the hearts reached to the throats, and you were harboring doubts about God. There, the believers were tried and shaken with a mighty shaking.”(33:10-11). We also understand from these verses that the term of ‘believers’ has nothing to do with the faith, because they harbor doubt about God in this critical time. The only meaning here is they are peaceful people who hate violence even if it is to defend their lives.  Their fears were so great that some of them ran away and called others to give up and spread bad rumors to discourage Muslims. On the other hand, others maintained great courage. (33:12-23).

 The battle of Al-usra:

This was the last of the battles. The Muslims were still not eager to defend themselves against the aggressive tribes in the north of Al Madina. There tribes used to attack the city of Al Madina, then retuned quickly to their desert. Here, the Quran became more reprimanding in certain verses (9:13-16). God said “Oh you who believed: Why is it when you are told to mobilize in the cause of God, you become heavily attached to the ground?”(9:38). Therefore the lack of motivation that they felt in the beginning remained with them until the end of the Prophet’s life.

4 -Quraysh tribe converted to Islam and the disappearance of peaceful Islam after Mohammed’s death


The nature of the daily lives of Arabian tribes of the time can help us understand why the Qureish tribe converted to Islam to keep their political and economic interests. Violence is the key word that describes the life of the Arabs.  In the Sacred Mosque in Mecca, every Arab tribe had its idol under the custody of Quraysh. Quraysh controlled Mecca, the sacred Mosque, and the pilgrimage. They lived in peace and prosperity while the other tribes lived in continuous blood shed for any and no reason. This made Qureish the most powerful tribe. The new religion of Islam threatened the religious trades of Qureish and its political and social situation. To keep its power, the elders of Qureish persecuted the followers of the new religion who were peaceful, helpless people from theirs and others’ tribes. It was daunting for the helpless believers to face the mighty powerful tribe of Qureish. Thus, the only way to save the new converts of the faith from potential genocide was to encourage self defense.

 Many people from numerous tribes converted to Islam, and helped others realize the nonsense of worshipping sacred tombs and statues, and from submitting to Qureish because of their false idols. Some of them wanted to get rid of Qureish, reducing its power and hegemony, and to help the new Islamic state.  This threatened Qureish’s trade routes more. The elders of Qureish reconsidered their situation. To keep their political and economical interests, they converted to Islam to use it for their continuous hegemony, especially since the active people inside the Islamic state were from Qureish tribe, including Prophet Mohammed.

The elders of Qureish quickly and easily surrendered and converted to Islam before the Prophet’s death. After about twenty years, they became the new leaders of the Islamic state and led new kinds of war and a new way of life. They established powerful Muslim empires which ignored the fundamental rules of Islam and its peaceful nature. The empire lasted six centuries under the rule of the children of Qureish’s elders.

 The disappearance of peaceful Islam after Mohammed’s death

After Prophet Mohammed’s death, the other Muslims from the different tribes who converted to Islam found themselves once again under the hegemony of Qureish. They revolted under the leadership of individuals from inside their tribes who claimed prophecy. This was the war of so-called apostasy which was the perfect chance for the elders of the Qureish to maintain the leadership of the Islamic state after the death of Mohammed. The Qureish tribe, consisting of the new Muslim converts along with the early Muslims, - led war against the other tribes who revolted against Islam and Qureish. By defeating them, the Qureish became the real leader of all the Arab tribes under the banner of Islam.

To avoid other tribal revolts, Qureish led all the Arab tribes to fight two super empires: the Romans and the Persians. By defeating them both at the same time, the Qureish established the powerful mighty Muslim Empires which influenced world history in the Middle Ages and ruled most of the world in that time according to the culture of the Middle Ages, and not according to the real values of Islam. So, the Islamic values were ignored, including the fundamental concept of peace, religious freedom, tolerance and justice.

During the time of the Muslim Empires, the true Islamic rules of Jihad were changed to attacking other peoples just to establish wealth, power and empire, while using the name of Islam.

Here, we have to explain the real meaning of jihad in Islam.


Chapter 7: Legislation of jihad in the Islam is to confirm religious freedom:

1- Understanding laws of Jihad in Islam


According to Quranic terminology, jihad is the striving of the soul, money, and energy to please God by all means. It includes giving money to the poor regardless of their religion and faith, peaceful disc evers, and to fight them only to defend not to attack. (29:8, 8:72, 25:52).  The Quran sets the legislation for jihad, its commandments, its principles and its final aims.

Generally, Quranic legislation is based on commandments or orders which serve principles or rules, and those principles or rules in turn serve the basic Islamic aims and values.

Regarding jihad, the order: “fight” is based on rules of self-defense in response to violent attack, or in the Quranic term, “fighting in the cause of God.” This principle serves the final aim/value of fighting which is to assure religious freedom and prevent religious persecution.

The greater value of jihad in Islam is to allow every person to follow the religion of his or her choice without any persecution. The Muslim state has to fight to prevent persecution and to defend itself and its freedom of belief and speech for the value of jihad.  In this way, every one has the freedom of choice in the realm of religion and he or she will be responsible before God only on the Last Day based to his/her freedom of choice. In this life, one is responsible only before society if he or she violates the rights of other people. 

For example, God said, “And fight in the cause of God those who are fighting you, but transgress not the limits. Truly, God loves not transgressors.” (2:190). Here the commandment is to fight and the principle is “in the cause of God those who fight you, but transgress not the limits. Truly, God loves not transgressors.” To fight for the cause of God means to fight according to His legislation which forbids transgression. God repeated and confirmed the same meaning, “...Then whoever attacks you, you may attack them to inflict an equivalent retribution.” (2:193).

The ultimate goal of this legislation in His saying is, “and fights them until there is no more oppression.”(2: 193). Therefore, the prevention of oppression is the essential aim for the legislation of fighting. Oppression in the Arabic and Quranic language means ‘fitnah,’ which is used in the Quranic terminology to refer to religious persecution committed by the criminal unbelievers in Mecca against the early Muslims. That persecution included the continuous fight against the peaceful early Muslims even after their escape from Mecca to Al Madina. God says, “And oppression is worse than slaughter. And they will not cease fighting you until they turn you back from your faith if they can” (2: 217).

By allowing religious freedom and preventing oppression in religion, every one deals with God alone, obeying or disobeying him, and every one will be responsible for his or her deeds only before God on the Day of Judgment.  None has the right to take upon oneself God’s sovereignty or judge other people’s faith or to persecute those who hold different religious opinions. This makes the realm of religion belong to God alone without any kind of human religious authority. This is precisely what the Quranic verse calls for when it says, “And fight them until there is no more oppression and all the religion will belong to God alone.” (8:39). God may forgive them if they refrain and stop transgression and persecution, and the Muslims have no right to attack them; otherwise they become transgressors themselves as God says, “And fight in the cause of God those who fight you, and transgress not the limits. Truly, God loves not the transgressors... But if they cease, then God is Oft- Forgiving, Most Merciful. And fight them until there is no more oppression and the religion will belong to God. But if they cease, let be no more transgression except against the transgressors only.” (2:190-193). This is confirmed in other verses (8:38-40). This legislation concerning fighting agrees with what is understood from the term ‘Islam’ which means submission and peace, and protects peace from any animosity or transgression.


2- Jihad and freedom of religion


Jihad assures religious freedom. It’s enough here to remember that the Quranic principle states, “There shall be no compulsion in religion.” (2:256). Moreover, God said to Prophet Mohammed, blaming him, “And had your Lord willed, those on earth would have believed, all of them together. So, will you then compel people until they become believers? ” (10:99). This confirms the Quranic fact that religion belongs to God alone without any human religious authority, and that  Prophet Mohammed does not have religious authority over people , as it’s the will of God alone that let people exercise their freedom of choice and be responsible for their beliefs before Him alone on the Last Day.

Freedom in religion is the key of democracy, as is the freedom of thought and speech.


3- Rules of alliance in time of war


For the first time in the Arab Peninsula, some Arabs established a real state according to our modern definition of state.  It was the first –and may be the last- Islamic state in the time of Prophet Mohammed. The new Islamic state had its border, army, people, and government. It also had allies and enemies.

Any believer from the Arab desert who wanted to be a member of this state had to immigrate to it and live inside its borders.  All the believers inside this state were allies to each other against their enemies who attacked the peaceful state. The Quran stated to them that the believers outside the state should immigrate to be a part of the state. If believers outside the Islamic state asked for protection, the state was obligated to defend them unless a treaty between the Islamic state and those who attacked these outsider believers existed.  So, all believers were to be allies to each other inside their state to stand firm against the transgressor unbelievers who were united against the Islamic state. (8:72 -73) .

Inside that Islamic state, there were different groups of oppositions who were against the state and its religion. The Quran called them the hypocrites.  They enjoyed freedom of speech and belief, and also the freedom of conspiracy against the state. The Holy Quran used to expose theirs plots and their inner thoughts, but at the same time, order the believers to avoid them, turn aside from them as long they did not fight the state.  Details can be found in the following :( 2:8-14, 204-206 ), (3:118-119, 155-158, 167-168), (3:60-69, 81-83, 105-115, 138-146), (5:52), (8:49), (9:42-68, 73-87, 93-98, 101, 107-110, 124-127), (24:11-26, 46-54), (33:1, 12-20, 24, 48, 57-61, 73), (37:16, 20-30), (48:6, 11-16), (58:7-22), (59:11-16), (63:1-8), and (66:9).

Although, the hypocrites inside Al Madina were under control, there was another kind of hypocrites who lived in the desert and used to come to the Islamic state claiming belief in Islam, with an inner goal of deceiving Muslims and to spy on them. Some of them offered to become allies to the state while in reality; they were enemies to the Islamic state. These hypocrites were a real danger to the Islamic state, so the Quran ordered Muslims not to ally with them until they immigrated to the state.  If they refused to immigrate, then they were to be treated as enemies in the battle field.  However, if they did not immigrate but did not attack the state, the Muslims were not allowed to fight them (4:88-91). God described most of those Arab Bedouins as the “worst in disbelief and hypocrisy and more likely to be in ignorance of the God’s Legislation.” (9: 97).

Most of them had a good relationship with the Arab Christians and Jewish tribes in the Arabian Peninsula. Some Arab Christians and Jewish tribes united together against the new Islamic state. Some people inside the Islamic state – including the hypocrites – had a good relationship with those allies in spite of their enmity. So, God ordered the Muslims not to take the hypocrites as allies as long as they fought the Islamic state.  If they did not fight the Muslims, the hypocrites were to be allies and a part of the Muslim state (5: 51-58).

The Islamic state had to defend itself against the attacks of Christian Arabs allied with Jewish tribes.  God ordered the Islamic state to fight them as they violated God’s commandment until they paid expiation as a punishment for their aggression (8:29).  It means not to occupy their land, nor to force them to convert to Islam, but only to pay back for their aggression as our modern international legislation deals with any country attacking other country and is finally defeated.  These rules of alliance protected the new peaceful Islamic state against all of its enemies who surrounded it.

Generally, God makes clear rules in dealing with the non- Muslims who are outside the Islamic state:

[1] Islamic state should deal kindly and justly with those who do not fight them, nor drive them out of their homes.

[2] Muslims are not allowed to be allies to those who attack and fight them because of their religion, those who expelled them from their home, or helped the transgressor unbelievers in driving the Muslims out of their homes.

God says:”Allah does not forbid you respecting those who have not made war against you on account of (your) religion, and have not driven you forth from your homes, that you show them kindness and deal with them justly; surely Allah loves the doers of justice. Allah only forbids you regarding those who made war upon you on account of (your) religion, and drove you forth from your homes and backed up (others) in your expulsion, that you make friends with them, and whoever makes friends with them, these are the unjust.”.(60:8, 9).

(3) If Muslims are persecuted inside a country that attacks Islamic state and this transgressor country is terrorizing the helpless Muslims, then those Muslims have the right to use (Al TAqyyyah) to save their lives, means to appease those transgressors. God says: “Let not the believers take the transgress unbelievers allies against believers; and whoever does this, he shall have nothing of (the guardianship of) Allah, unless you fear them.”( 3: 28 )

4 - Rules in battle field:


Not only does the Quran establish a clear relationship between the terms ‘Islam’ and ‘peace’ and the legislation of war , but the Quran also presents other legislations in order to confirm the main value of peace and to leave no ground for ambiguity or intended misuse.

1- A clear-cut example is presented in chapter 4 which talks about the prohibition of killing a peaceful, safe and secure believer.  The verse states, “It’s not for a believer to kill a believer except by mistake.” (4:92), this means that it is impossible or unjustifiable, that a true believer would intentionally kill another. The verse goes further in talking about the compensation due such a case and the rules related to it. Then, verse 4:93 talks about the Divine punishment awaiting the killer of a peaceful person or a believer, for, that matter doesn’t make a difference. The verse says, “And whoever kills a believer intentionally, his recompense is Hell, to abide therein forever, and the wrath and the curse of God are upon him and a dreadful punishment is prepared for him.” (4:93). Thus, whoever kills a peaceful believer faces eternity in Hell, wrath, curse, and great suffering. These are stated in the Quran as separate punishments each. Yet, it seems that the person who commits such a dreadful crime deserves all of these punishments added together.

Chapter 4 continues as verse 94 declares the right of life to any peaceful person regardless of his or her inner belief, it says, “Oh you who believed! When you go to fight in the cause of God, investigate carefully and say not to anyone who say peace to you ‘You are not a believer’.” Thus in times of war, the believers must carefully investigate to make sure that they aren’t committing the crime of killing a peaceful man, who by misfortune happens to be in the battle field. God gives everyone on the other side (the enemy) a constant right to be saved simply by pronouncing the words, “peace”, or the Islamic greeting: “Peace be upon you”. If the enemy says so, it then becomes unlawful to kill him or her. He/she even becomes a peaceful believer regardless of his/her inner belief and his /her strange presence in the battle field. If he/she is killed, the killer will deserve the punishments mentioned in the verse 93. Therefore, any peaceful person is a Muslim and a believer even during war time and in the battlefield. If he/she is killed, then the killer deserves the abode in Hell, the great suffering, and God’s curse and wrath.

2- It was a common practice of that time to kill the captives, enslave them, or free them for money or ransom. God blamed Prophet Mohammed when he set free all the captives of Badr Battle for money, as the main mission of the Prophet was not to seek the vanity of this life, but to be a good example to people. God ordered Prophet Mohammed to tell them that He would forgive them if they had any good in their heart, “O Prophet say to the captives that are in your hands, ‘If God knows any good in your hearts, He will give you something better than what has been taken from you and He will forgive you, and God is Oft- Forgiving, Most Merciful.’” (8:70). God ordered Prophet Mohammed and the Muslims only two choices in dealing with the captives: to either set them free or exchange them as prisoners of war. (37:4). Under all circumstances, the prisoner of war after release becomes Ibn Al Sabeel, or  a guest as long he is in the Muslim State, and should be given charity and alms and shelter until a safe return home. (76:8), (2:177, 215), (4:36), (8:41), (9:60), (17:26), (24:22), (30:38), (59:7).

These Quranic laws about the captives were ignored by Muslims during their history, and captives were killed as it was a bad habit in the Middle Ages. This used to happen during the battles between the Muslim Empire, the Roman Empire, and other nations, along with domestic wars during Muslims civil wars.  Moreover, killing the captives or enslaving them was accompanied by enslaving women and children. It was the culture of the dark Middle Ages which made Muslim traditions and history full of these aspects that manifested defiance to the real Islamic values.

3- In the case of a warrior fighting against the Muslims who decided to cease attack, he/she only has to seek an asylum. When he/she does so, his/her life is safe and secured. He/she should be allowed to listen to the Quran, to have no excuses before God on Judgment Day. The Muslims are ordered to escort him/her to a safe place, or a home, in security and peace. That is precisely what the Quranic verse says, “If one amongst the transgressor unbelievers seeks protection from you, grant it to him, so that he may hear the word of God, and then escort him to where he can be secured, that is because they are without knowledge.” (9:6). So, it is to make him know the peaceful message of the Quran, not to force him to be Muslim , then to escort him safely to his home, leaving him responsible for his choice before God in the Day of Judgment after knowing the Quran.

5 -The first order of Jihad as fighting gives another aim : is to defend churches, monasteries, synagogues and mosques.


 The early Muslims in Mecca who were around the Prophet Mohamed suffered continuous persecution. It was so intense that God allows the believer to appease the transgressors even by uttering disbelief in God, :( 16 / 106).

When persecution became so intense the believers had to immigrate to enjoy religious freedom. (16 / 41-42) (4 / 97 - ) (29 / 56 – 57).

After they migrated to Al Medina, they were continuously attacked by Quraysh who wanted to force them to go back to their previous idolatrous religion.  It is an unknown historic fact mentioned in the Quran only and ignored by old Muslim historians and scholars.  No Muslim scholar in our time knows that the mighty tribe of Quraysh used to attack Al Madina and fight the peaceful Muslims living inside who did not defend themselves because they did not have permission from God.

If it were not for the Quranic verses sent down which allowed them to practice self-defense, the early Muslims would have being destroyed and eradicated. Yet, the old Muslim scholars and historians during the Middle Ages did not consider these verses rationally, because rationalizing these verses would bring out a meaning that they preferred to be kept silent about.

The verse says, “Permission to fight is given to those were fought against because they have been wronged and verily God is most powerful in their aid.” (22:39), this verse gives permission for self-defense in case of persecution and injustice regardless of what the religion is. God encourages self-defense and brings victory to the victims who do so. The old Muslim scholars were oblivious to the generalization of this verse because it gave anyone the right to fight for his/her freedom of religion. Since this meaning is not exactly what the Middle Ages were about, it was better to disregard it.

The same scholars and historians also neglected a major factor of the verse. Since the followers of Prophet Mohammed were facing a dangerous enemy, if they had not been allowed to defend themselves, they would have easily been completely massacred.

The Quran demonstrates here a historical reality disregarded by the historians of the Abbasid Empire. The fact is that transgressors of Quraysh disbelievers repeatedly raided Al Madina, often killing the habitants, but the peaceful Muslims would not take action because they were not yet allowed to do so. It was not until they received the permission to fight that they began to defend themselves.

The following verse is another case where the old Muslim scholars chose not to rationalize.  The next verse talks about those peaceful early Muslims: “Those who have been expelled from their homes unjustly only because they said ‘God is only Our Lord’. For had it not been that God checks one set of people by means of another, monasteries, churches, synagogues and mosques, in which the name of God is commemorated in a abundant measure would surely have been pulled down.” (22:40).

We understand from this verse that not only did the victims face a threat of genocide, but the reason for their expulsion from their homes was the commemoration of God’s name as their only God and Lord.

In Islam: Fight to defend the churches, monasteries, synagogues and mosques.

Due to the religious fanaticism during the Abbasid Empire, the religious scholars chose to overlook the main point of this verse (22:40), namely that all followers of the Divine messages pray to the same God, and thus, all the houses of prayers are all equal in God’s eye. If the believers had not defended themselves altogether, their houses of prayers would not have remained standing. The verse clearly mentions, without differentiation, the places of worship of the Christians , Jews, Muslims and others, all united by the act of ‘constantly commemorating God’s name’. What is of extreme importance here is that the Quran assures the need to protect and respect all these houses of prayers regardless of the disputes among all of their followers, because in spite of disputes, these houses of prayers are shelters of peace and security, or it should be so.

It is very important also to note that the mosques – of the Muslims - are mentioned last.  Had the Quran been biased for Islam only, the verse would have said ‘In which God’s name alone is constantly recited,’ but since there are non- Muslims who have attached other saints and names beside God, they are also taken into account even though they clash with the Islamic monotheist faith of ‘there are no Lord but God’ La illah illa ALLAH.  Therefore the aim of this verse is to put all houses of prayer belonging to all faiths under protection from any violation, making it religiously accepted for any of these groups to defend themselves and their places of worship even if blood has to be shed.

It is clear here that the only reason for fighting is to protect the freedom of belief which God grants to all mankind, no matter what the religion is, as long it is a peaceful one void of any violence or transgression. Every person who builds a house of prayer has his/her own view and perspectives about God and worships Him accordingly. By all means, these houses and the people praying in them must enjoy safety and peace regardless of the differences among them. God is the only one who will judge them on the Day of Judgment.

God said to his final Prophet ( Mohamed) in dealing with the people of scripture ( Christian and Jews ): “  And We have revealed to you the Book with the truth, verifying what is before it of the Book and a guardian over it, therefore judge between them by what Allah has revealed, and do not follow their low desires (to turn away) from the truth that has come to you; for every one of you did We appoint a law and a way, and if Allah had pleased He would have made you (all) a single people, but that He might try you in what He gave you, therefore compete with one another to hasten to virtuous deeds; to Allah is your return, of all (of you), so He will let you know that in which you differed;” It is an order to compete in doing the good deeds, leaving their religious disputes to the One God on the Day of Judgment to judge among them telling the truth. But in this life, the houses of worship must be protected, all of them.

6 – Conclusion


According to the Holy Quran, there are only two religions; one comes from God, the creator, and the other comes from Satan. The real religion of God had come by divine revelations through the prophets and the messengers of God. The final message is the Holy Quran, and the final prophet is Mohamed. After the Quran and after Prophet Mohamed there is no divine revelation from God to any human.

Humans by the revelation of Satan usually twist and distort the real religion of God, establishing on its ruins different kinds of human made religions to serve their hunger for power and the vanity of this live.

This happened before and after Quran. Although God confirms the completion of the religion of Islam by the completion of the Quran, yet Muslims have different man made religions through the satanic revelation, under false saying were ascribed to Prophet Mohamed and God. Ironically, God – in advance - has exposed it in the Quran.( For examples :( 6/ 112: 114 ‘ 121) (5 : 90 ) ( 26 /  210 :212, 221: 223 )( 10/ 15 : 17) ( 36 / 60 : 62 ).

There are many differences between the real religion of God and the satanic man made religions.

In faith, in the real religion of God, there is no son, no idol, no partner with God, the creator. In behavior there is no transgressor, no persecution, no unjust, no dictatorship.

As far as our subject is concerned, there is no persecution in religion; it is unlimited freedom in the field of religion. The only excuse for fighting in Islam is to defend freedom of religion and to defend your life against transgressors. God says: (Therefore let those fight in the way of Allah, who sell this world's life for the hereafter; and whoever fights in the way of Allah, then be he slain or be he victorious, We shall grant him a mighty reward)( 4 / 74 ).

Here the fight is not for the vanity of this life, but sacrifice this life for God and the hereafter. Fighting in the cause of God means to defend and to save those who are persecuting by the transgressors. The next verse says, addressing the real Muslims :( And why should ye not fight in the cause of Allah and of those who, being weak, are persecuted, Men, women, and children, whose cry is: "Our Lord! Rescue us from this town, whose people are oppressors; and raise for us from thee one who will protect; and raise for us from thee one who will help!"( 4 / 75 )
Those are the transgressing disbelievers who follow the revelation of the Satan like this false (Hadith) that says (I am commanded to fight all the people until they say there is no god but one God and I am the messenger of God).

Now, there are two kinds of fight, one for the cause of God to defend the religious freedom while the other is fighting for the cause of Satan, to impose religion and to persecute people and to enslave them. This is mentioned in the next verse: (Those who believe fight in the way of Allah, and those who disbelieve fight in the way of the Satan . Fight therefore against the allies of the Satan ; surely the strategy of the Satan is weak.) ( 4/ 76).

Looking at the so - called Muslim World, you will find persecution in religion, theocratic and autocratic dictator regimes that enslave and torture their peoples and steal their money while they are upholding the satanic revelation of Sunni and Shiites.

In the US and the West, you will find religious freedom, democracy and justice.  This is under the title of secularism and civil society.

Which side is nearer to the real religion of God? 

Religious freedom between Islam and fanatic Muslims
Addressing Muslim mentality for reforming Muslims from within Islam

Religious freedom between Islam and fanatic Muslims
By Dr. Ahmed Subhy Mansour
USCIRF Fellow (2009-2010)
The author would like to express its greatest appreciation for the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom (USCIRF) for the opportunity to work on this book over the past year. Without the institutional support of the Commission and the patient guidance of Dr. Dwight Bashir, the Deputy Director for Policy and Research, this work would have never seen the lights. For him and for the Commission, the aither is indefinitely grateful.
Ahmed Subhy Mansour
September 2010